This paper aims to explore the factors of learner's flow and to develop and validate a scale to measure the flow in Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game(MMORPG) for education. First of all, potential factors were drawn through literature review. The potential scale comprises 6 factors(learner's psychological characteristics, learner's skill, importance of game, environment for learner, instructional design, and instructional environment) and 16 subfactors. With total 48 items developed, a survey was carried out among 293 elementary learners who had been participating in a commercial MMORPG for English skills to measure their flow in the MMORPG by utilizing the potential scale. Using the responses collected from 288 respondents, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were performed.
The expository factor analysis showed that items within each sub-factors could be bound into one factor. That is, the variables evaluating learner's flow were divided into six factors(learner's psychological characteristics, learner's skill, importance of game, environment for learner, instructional design, and instructional environment). And these factors were interpreted consisting of 16 sub-ones. Reliability estimates indicated that the evaluation tool had good internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis did confirm the model suggested by the expository factor analysis. Over fit measures(CFI, NFI, NNFI) showed the good suitability of the model. Findings of this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the scale to measure learner's flow in MMORPG.