An attack aircraft such as a fighter needs an accurate location information of a target for the exact air-to-air or air-to-ground attack. In this paper a method is proposed that generates a location information of an air-to-ground target just in use of HMD without the target tracking sensors such as the radar and the FLIR. HMD is an embedded device to induce the seeker header to indicate the direction of a pilot's head. As a simulation result, it is founded that the target location information is able to be generated with a high degree of precision by using of HMD as a passive sensor.
U-healthcare system has an aim to provide reliable and fast medical services for patient regardless of time and space by transmitting to doctors a large quantity of vital signs collected from sensor networks. Existing u-healthcare systems can merely monitoring patients' health status. In this paper, we describe the implementation and validation of a prototype of a u-health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network. This system is easy to derive physiologically meaningful results by analyzing rapidly vital signs. The monitoring system sends only the abnormal data of examinee to the service provider. This technique can reduces the wireless data packet overload between a monitoring part and service provider. The real-time bio-signal monitoring system makes possible to implement u-health services and improving efficiency of medical services.
Green IT, composed term with Green and Information Technology(IT), use IT for energy savings and carbon emission reductions. Green IT went beyond the scope of greening IT, and recently it's concept is expanded as far as counterplan of climate change including greening other industries by IT. 85% of total greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector and 20% of them comes from transport parts, so it is time to research IT for automotive industry. In this paper, we take up the knowledge based fuzzy logic to provide life cycle analysis associated with greenhouse gas emissions for industry produced warranty claims frequently such as automobile industry. We propose a analysis method of warranty claims using expert knowledge about the warranty in car exhaust systems related to greenhouse gas emissions, past test results of malfunction, analysis of past field data, and warranty data. Furthermore, we propose life knowledge-based GWS (Greenery Warranty System). We demonstrate the applicability of IT in eco-friendly automotive industry by implementing knowledge-based fuzzy logic and applying.
In this paper, the novel approach for image contrast enhancement is introduced. The method is based on the unsharp mask and directional information of images. Since the unsharp mask techniques give better visual quality than the conventional sharpening mask, there are much works on image enhancement using unsharp masks. The proposed algorithm decomposes the image to several blocks and extracts directional information using DCT. From the geometric properties of the block, each block is labeled as appropriate type and processed by adaptive unsharp mask. The masking process is skipped at the flat area to reduce the noise artifact, but at the texture and edge area, the adaptive unsharp mask is applied to enhance the image contrast based on the edge direction. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm produces the contrast enhanced images with superior visual quality, suppressing the noise effects and enhancing edge at the same time.
Ontologies are playing an important role in semantic web which is emerging as a next stage of the web revolution because various kinds of metadata are described in ontologies. Correspondingly, many query languages like SPARQL, RDQL etc. have been proposed for querying these ontologies. But users have to know the structures and resource names of ontologies completely to get search results even if they have expertise on complex formal logic and syntax of the query languages. Especially, casual users do not know the resource names and may use different words from resource names when they write their query language. This vocabulary gap problem have to be solved to raise the success rate. In this paper, an approach for translating user's search words to corresponding resource names has been proposed. This approach uses semantic similarity between user created search words and ontology resource names.
his paper proposes a method to accelerate the evolution speed of individuals through hybrid reproduction of monogenesis and gamogenesis. Monogenesis as a reproduction method that bacteria or monad without sexual distinction divide into two individuals has an advantage for local search and gamogenesis as a reproduction method that individuals with sexual distinction mate and breed the offsprings has an advantages for keeping the diversity of individuals. These properties can be properly used for improvement of evolution speed of individuals in genetic algorithms. In this paper, we made relatively good individuals among selected parents to do monogenesis for local search and forced relatively bad individuals among selected parents to do gamogenesis for global search by increasing the diversity of chromosomes. The mutation probability for monogenesis was set to a lower value than that of original genetic algorithm for local search and the mutation probability for gamogenesis was set to a higher value than that of original genetic algorithm for global search. Experimental results with four function optimization problems showed that the performances of three functions were very good, but the performances of fourth function with distributed global optima were not good. This was because distributed global optima prevented individuals from steady evolution.
Many techniques have been proposed to store and query XML data efficiently. One way achieving this goal is using relational database by transforming XML data into relational format. It is important to transform schema to preserve the content, the structure and the constraints of the semantics information of the XML document. Especially, key constraints are an important part of database theory. Therefore, the proposal technique has considered the semantics of XML as expressed by primary keys and foreign keys. And, the proposal technique can preserve not only XML data constraints but also the content and the structure and the semantics of XML data thru transformation process. Transforming information is the content and the structure of the document(the parent-child relationship), the functional dependencies, semantics of the document as captured by XML key and keyref constraints. Because of XML schema transformation ensures that preserving semantic constraints, the advantages of these transformation techniques do not need to use the stored procedure or trigger which these data ensures data integrity in the relational database. In this paper, there is not chosen the ID/IDREF key which supported in DTD, the inheritance relationship, the implicit referential integrity.
With the rapid development of cites, urban facilities have rapidly been increasing, and the task of managing them have also become complicated more and more. In this paper, we propose and design an intelligent context awareness system that effectively operates underground facilities in u-City. The suggested system consists of three major steps. The information acquisition step receives alarm information of sensors from the integrated platform. The analysis and inference step analyzes the alarm data and related information and infers the reason why the alarm happens. The information transmission step sends the final results of context awareness to the platform and other related modules. We produced some design products such as data flow diagram, function diagram, etc. We expect that the proposed context awareness system will be embedded in the integrated platform and used for an active management strategy of urban facilities.
Tactical Data Links are standardized radio communication data links for military armed forces and used to transmit and receive data. Because they are the core elements of achieving information superiority in a NCW environment, various kinds of TDL are used by the Korean armed forces. Operating various types of TDL is very helpful in getting more information; however, at the same time, it is hard to integrate and make them co-operate with other TDLs or C4ISR systems. In this paper, we propose a XML based messaging system to make various types of TDL interoperable in a NCW environment. For the messaging system between TDL and C4ISR systems, we define XML message processing interfaces and suggest binary XML for serialization to save transmission loads over constrained military communication bandwidth. Our experiment results show that the TDL message can be transformed into generalized XML data that is interoperable with other TDLs and binary XML serialization, and it saves parsing and transmission time.
In semantic web information system like ontology that access distributed information from network, efficient query processing requires an advanced caching mechanism to reduce the query response time. P2P network system have become an important infra structure in web environment. In P2P network system, when the query is initiated, reducing the demand of data transformation to source peer is important aspect of efficient query processing. Caching of query and query result takes a particular advantage by adding or removing a query term. Many of the answers may already be cached and can be delivered to the user right away. In web environment, semantic caching method has been proposed which manages the cache as a collection of semantic regions. In this paper, we propose the semantic caching technique in cluster environment of peers. Especially, using schema data filtering technique and schema similarity cache replacement method, we enhanced the query processing efficiency.
The feature extraction of asterias amurensis by using patterns is difficult to extract all the concave and convex features of asterias amurensis nor classify concave and convex. Concave and convex as important structural features of asterias amurensis are the features which should be found and the classification of concave and convex is also necessary for the recognition of asterias amurensis later. Accordingly, this study suggests the technique to extract the features of concave and convex, the main features of asterias amurensis. This technique classifies the concave and convex features by using the multi-directional linear scanning and form the candidate groups of the concave and convex feature points and decide the feature points of the candidate groups and apply convex hull algorithm to the extracted feature points. The suggested technique efficiently extracts the concave and convex features, the main features of asterias amurensis by dividing them. Accordingly, it is expected to contribute to the studies on the recognition of asterias amurensis in the future
The virtual reality (VR) technology has been used as the application of architectural presentation or simulation tool in the field of industry. The high immersion and intuitive visual information are the great merits of design evaluation or environmental simulation when we are using the virtual environments. But the distortion of distance perception in VR is still a big problem when the accuracy of distance presentation is strictly required. For example, distance estimation is especially important when the virtual environments are applied to the presentational tool for evaluation the space design or planning in the field of architecture. If there are some perception error between the built space in real and represented space in virtual, the accurate design evaluation or modification of design is hard to be carried out during the design development stage. In this paper, we have carried out some experiments about distance estimation in the immersive virtual environments to verify the factors and their influence. We made a hypothesis that the lack of the information for the user in VR causes the different distance estimation from the real world because users are usually comfortable with moving fast and long distance in VR environments compared with moving slow and short distance in real space. So, we carried out basic experiment to prove our hypothesis that the lack of information makes subjects estimate the distance of walking in VR shorter compared with the same distance in real. Also, among the factors that probably affect the distance estimation in VR, we have verified the influence of the image resolution. The influence of resolution degradation of image on the distance estimation was verified with the condition of static and dynamic images. The results showed that the resolution has deep relation with the distance estimation. For example, the subject underestimated the distance at the lower resolution condition. We also found the methods of the making the lower resolution image could affect on the visual perception of subjects.
One of the major challenges of minimum energy consumption for wireless sensor networks(WSN) environment. LEACH protocol is hierarchical routing protocol that obtains energy efficiency by using clustering. However, LEACH protocol in each round, because the new cluster configuration, cluster configuration, whenever the energy consumed shorten the life of the network. Therefore in this paper, the cluster is formed in WSN environment in early stage and the problems with energy waste have been solved by selecting C-node. In the initial round of proposed model uses 26 percent more than traditional LEACH energy consumption. However, as the round is ongoing, it has been proved by the network simulation tool that the waste of energy could be diminished up to 35% .
File pollution (i.e., sharing of corrupted files, or contaminating index information with bogus index records) is a de facto problem in many file sharing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems in use today. Since pollution squanders network resources and frustrates users with unprofitable downloads (due to corrupted files) and unproductive download trials (due to bogus index records), the viability of P2P systems (and similar distributed information-sharing applications) is questionable unless properly addressed. Thus, developing effective anti-pollution mechanisms is an immediate problem in this literature. This paper provides useful information and deep insight with future researchers who want to design an effective anti-pollution mechanism throughout an extensive measurement study of user behavior and file pollution in a representative DHT-based P2P system, the Kad network.
This paper proposes an efficient two-stage fault prediction algorithm for fault detection and diagnosis of induction motors. In the first phase, we use a linear predictive coding (LPC) method to extract fault patterns. In the second phase, we use a dynamic time warping (DTW) method to match fault patterns. Experiment results using eight vibration data, which were collected from an induction motor of normal fault states with sampling frequency of 8 kHz and sampling time of 2.2 second, showed that our proposed fault prediction algorithm provides about 45% better accuracy than a conventional fault diagnosis algorithm. In addition, we implemented and tested the proposed fault prediction algorithm on a testbed system including TI's TMS320F2812 DSP that we developed.
In wireless multi-hop network, many applications need multicast communication where the group leader needs to send data to all members of the group. Multicast routing provides a balanced, efficient, and fairness network environment for the group members. However, large load for transmission management to leader node and signal interference between several paths for multi-hop links always took long transmission delay and low throughput efficiency. In this paper, we propose a Zone-based Hierarchical Multicast Routing Protocol (ZHMP). This routing protocol is designed based on zone routing schemes, where proactive routing is applied for intra-zone node level multicasting and reactive routing is used for searching inter-zone paths. By each hierarchical and independent multicast working in separated zones, load of multicast source node will be distributed by several zone-level routings for a better load balance and signal interference between each multi-hop paths will be resisted for a maximum multicast throughput.
The QoS management is an agreement of service user and service provider in B3G networks, and service provider must support proper the network service to service users by the agreement facts. The service provider must provide the QoS method to maintain the agreed service, which manages the detail method of system level from policy level. By the agreement of service policy, the service provider can give the QoS to the service customer with the service agreement. Hence, in this paper we propose a QoS mapping method of heterogeneous networks to provide the customer service through the service agreement based on the SLA of B3G networks.
This paper proposed a smart-phone based user movement state identification algorithm. The movement state of the user is identified by calculating the location and moving speed using the GPS sensor, and detailed movement methods are identified by analyzing the data from the Orientation sensor. In this study, two sensors of the smart-phone were used to implement the user movement status identification algorithm and to perform tests. The reference values of the speed and orientation required for the identification of the movement type were defined based on the experimental data. The results of this study showed that the movement type of a smart-phone user can be identified using the user movement state identification algorithm.
Since insects play important roles in existence of plants and other animals in the natural environment, they are considered as necessary biological resources from the perspectives of those biodiversity conservation and national utilization strategy. For the conservation and utilization of insect species, an observational learning environment is needed for non-experts such as citizens and students to take interest in insects in the natural ecosystem. The insect identification is a main factor for the observational learning. A current time-consuming search method by insect classification is inefficient because it needs much time for the non-experts who lack insect knowledge to identify insect species. To solve this problem, we proposed an smart phone-based insect identification inference system that helps the non-experts identify insect species from observational characteristics in the natural environment. This system is based on the similarity between the observational information by an observer and the biological insect characteristics. For this system, we classified the observational characteristics of insects into 27 elements according to order, family, and species, and proposed similarity indexes to search similar insects. In addition, we developed an insect identification inference prototype system to show this study's viability and performed comparison experimentation between our system and a general insect classification search method. As the results, we showed that our system is more effective in identifying insect species and it can be more efficient in search time.
In this paper, we design an ontology which provides interoperability by integrating typical metadata specifications and defines concepts and semantic relations between concepts that are used to describe metadata for learning objects in university courses. And we organize a hierarchical structured e-Learning system for efficient retrieval of learning objects on many local storages that use different specifications to describe metadata and propose a query processing method based on inferences. The proposed e-Learning system can provide more accurate and satisfactory retrieval service by using the designed ontology because both learning objects that be directly connected to user queries and deduced learning objects that be semantically connected to them are retrieved.
Ant Colony System is a new meta heuristics algorithms to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. It is a population based approach that uses exploitation of positive feedback as well as greedy search. It was first proposed for tackling the well known Traveling Salesman Problem. In this paper, we propose the searching method to consider the overlapping edge of the global best path of the previous and the current. This method is that we first determine the overlapping edge of the global best path of the previous and the current will be configured likely the optimal path. And, to enhance the pheromone for the overlapping edges increases the probability that the optimal path is configured. Finally, the performance of Best and Average-Best of proposed algorithm outperforms ACS-3-opt, ACS-Subpath and ACS-Iter algorithms.
Because antique Korean Peninsula maps have many historical signification, we can estimate historical evidences by analyzing them. However, it is very difficult to compare antique maps with modern maps because the antique maps were made by arranging local regions. To resolve this difficulty, we transform antique maps by rotating, scaling and translating to compare with a reference map. Each antique map is rotated in the difference of principal axis angles of the target and the reference maps, and its width and height are scaled asymmetrically using width and height ratios of bounding boxes. Finally, the two regions are overlaid by adjusting their centroids, and then the antique map is evaluated by two similarity equations. Experimental results show that the similarities of region ratio and different angle are properly computed according to era. Therefore, the proposed method can be widely used to analyze the antique Korean Peninsula maps.
In the online game, a game character to replace game player exists within the same game and it is very difficult to migrate to another on-line games. Also, players have taken a lot of time and effort in the character's growth. In recent years, it has raised many social side effects. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, this paper was implemented web services system based on previous studies for the migration of game character between different-type on-line game severs, and the proposed system verified through the experiment focused on 4 capability numerical value (money, HP:Hit Point, MP:Mana Point, level) between migration element of game character.
In this paper we present light weighted English-to-Korean and Korean-to-English mobile translators on smart phones. For natural translation and higher translation quality, translation engines are hybridized with Translation Memory (TM) and Rule-based translation engine. In order to maximize the usability of the system, we combined an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) engine and Text-to-Speech (TTS) engine as a Front-End and Back-end of the mobile translators. With the BLEU and NIST evaluation metrics, the experimental results show our E-K and K-E mobile translation equality reach 72.4% and 77.7% of Google translators, respectively. This shows the quality of our mobile translators almost reaches the that of server-based machine translation to show its commercial usefulness.
Due to the economic development and the social structure and holiday structure change, we have more time for leisure and entertainment activities. For coping with this trend the waterpark has already become the one of major entertainment facilities for many countries. The purpose of this study is to construct Waterpark service quality evaluation factors and find out the importance and satisfaction degree of these factors. The result of this study are as follows; First, the safety field had considered as most important. Second, the importance of service quality evaluation fields and factors are different according to social characteristics. Third, the safety field is evaluated as the first satisfactory field and the cost/price field is evaluated as the lowest.
In this paper, we proposed a scheme that it safely exchanges encrypted keys without Trust Third Party (TTP) and Pre-distributing keys in multi-hop clustering sensor networks. Existing research assume that it exists a TTP or already it was pre-distributed a encrypted key between nodes. However, existing methods are not sufficient for USN environment without infrastructure. Some existing studies using a random number Diffie-Hellman algorithm to solve the problem. but the method was vulnerable to Replay and Man-in-the-middle attack from the malicious nodes. Therefore, authentication problem between nodes is solved by adding a TESLA. In this paper, we propose a modified Diffie-Hellman algorithm that it is safe, lightweight, and robust pair-wise agreement algorithm by adding One Time Password (OTP) with timestamp. Lastly, authentication, confidentiality, integrity, non-impersonation, backward secrecy, and forward secrecy to verify that it is safe.
Juvenile crime has recently severe problems in quality as well as great increase in quantity. Especially compared to adult crime, juvenile crime has higher recidivism rate, which leads to strong doubt about the limitations of existing treatment. This is because the correctional institutions have a bad influence on the juvenile criminal, that is not the original purpose like correction and edification, but relearning of crime. To prevent the recidivism of juvenile crime needs an active level in terms of the return as sound citizens through correction beyond a simple level of maintaining order. Correction welfare is one of the most important measures to prevent the recidivism of juvenile crime. This study examines the notion, types and trend of juvenile crime, considers the concept and functions of correction welfare, and shows the prevention of recidivism of juvenile crime in perspective of correction welfare.