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pISSN : 1598-849X / eISSN : 2383-9945

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2012, Vol.17, No.12

  • 1.

    Implementation of Patient Monitoring System based on Mobile Healthcare

    김경목 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.1~10 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose an patient monitoring system which is suitable for mobile healthcare system. The mobile healthcare system is using portable device such as smartphone and it consists of small computing device. The mobile healthcare system is carry out same performance with desktop computer. We designed medical message structure based on TinyOS to transmit patient's biometric data on the smartphone of medical team, patient and family over the mobile carrier environment, and ported successfully in HBE-Ubi-ZigbeX using NesC. And We confirmed reliable transmission of biometric data on the smartphone by implementing the Android OS based patient information monitoring application to check the status of patient for medical team, patient and family.
  • 2.

    BlockSim++:A LightweightBlock-orientedHierarchical ModelingandSimulationFrameworkforContinuous Systems

    HAESANG SONG , Seo Jeong-Man | 2012, 17(12) | pp.11~22 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes for practical engineers a lightweight modeling and simulation environment for continuous system models specified in ordinary differential equations, which are time-domain specification of such systems. We propose a block-oriented specification formalism that has two levels: one for atomic behavior and the other the structure of models. Also we provide with a simulation framework, called BlockSim++, which make models specified in the block-oriented formalism be easily translated in object-oriented program that runs with the proposed simulation framework. The proposed formalism and framework has advantage of reuse such that it can be easily integrated into application programs and heterogeneous simulators. We illustrates the usefulness of the proposed framework by a simple hybrid modeling simulation example.
  • 3.

    A Study on college student’s cognition survey about CCTV in education facilities

    Lee,Yong-Hwan , Myoung-Woo Hong | 2012, 17(12) | pp.23~30 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze various categories such as the recognition, expectation and acceptability of CCTV use in educational facilities by doing a survey on how college students think about the CCTV installed in educational facilities. For this research, diverse existing surveys regarding CCTV were examined, and the appropriate elements of survey questions were extracted and developed. Based on this method, we intend to complete a survey study hereafter on the change in perception regarding CCTV inspection. We made four hypotheses before the survey and the results of the survey are as follows: First, the expectations for CCTV’s ability to reduce crime were high. Second, the fears about being a victim of theft or violence crime were decreased. Third,there were a number of respondents who would weigh more on increased safety by installing a CCTV rather than be concerned that CCTV may lead to the violation of students' human rights. Fourth, there showed a difference in recognizing CCTV among three groups. Also, for the questions regarding the places where CCTV is installed, there were many negative opinions on its installation in the student convenient facilities. What we have achieved was not a simple survey which investigates the pros and cons about CCTV use, but a newly suggested way of survey, which enables us to test various hypotheses and figure out the changing perceptions on CCTV effectiveness in educational facilities with more efficiency.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Utilization and Control Method of Hybrid Switching Tap Based Automatic Voltage Regulator on Smart Grid

    박광윤 , 김정률 , Byung-gi Kim | 2012, 17(12) | pp.31~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a microprocessor-based automatic voltage regulator(AVR) to reduce consumers’ electric energy consumption and to help controlling peak demanding power. Hybrid Switching Automatic Voltage Regulator (HS-AVR) consist of a toroidal core, several tap control switches, display and command control parts. The coil forms an autotransformer which has a serial main winding and four parallel auxiliary windings. It controls the output voltage by changing the combination of the coils and the switches. Relays are adopted as the link switches of the coils to minimize the loss. To make connecting and disconnecting time accurate, relays of the circuit have parallel TRIACs. A software phase locked loop(PLL) has been used to synchronize the timings of the switches to the voltage waveform. The software PLL informs the input voltage zero-crossing and positive/negative peak timing. The traditional voltage transformers and AVRs have a disadvantage of having a large mandatory capacity to accommodate maximum inrush current to avoid the switch contact damage. But we propose a suitable AVR for every purpose in smart grid with reduced size and increased efficiency.
  • 5.

    Novel Accuracy Enhancement Method for Absolute Temperature Measurement Using TEC-LESS Control in Uncooled Thermal Imaging

    한준환 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.41~47 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Every object over O °K emits radiant energy based on its own temperature. Uncooled thermal imaging system displays the detected incident radiant energy as an image by signal processing. Recently, the uncooled thermal imaging system is applied to various areas such as medical,industrial, and military applications. Also, several researches are in progress to find new applications of the uncooled thermal imaging system. In this paper, we present effective method for controlling TEC-less detector in the uncooled thermal imaging system and also present the efficient control scheme for maximizing the accuracy of temperature measurement. The proposed scheme is to apply TEC-less and temperature detection algorithm in Uncooled thermal imaging system. In results of tests performed by using the actual chamber, we acquired images of better quality than the former system and temperature measurement accuracy was improved to less than 1 ℃.
  • 6.

    A Hardware Design for Realtime Correction of a Barrel Distortion Using the Nearest Pixels on a Corrected Image

    송남훈 , Joonhwan Yi | 2012, 17(12) | pp.49~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a hardware design for correction of barrel distortion using the nearest coordinates in the corrected image. Because it applies the nearest distance on corrected image rather than adjacent distance on distorted image, the picture quality is improved by the image whole area, solve the staircase phenomenon in the exterior area. But, because of additional arithmetic operation using design of bilinear interpolation, required arithmetic operation is increased. Look up table(LUT) structure is proposed in order to solve this, coordinate rotation digital computer(CORDIC) algorithm is applied. The results of the synthesis using Design compiler, the design of implementing all processes of the interpolation method with the hardware is higher than the previous design about the throughput, In case of the rear camera, the design of using LUT and hardware together can reduce the size than the design of implementing all processes with the hardware
  • 7.

    Analysis of Tropospheric Zenith Path Delay of GPS Code Based Precise Time Comparison Technique

    Donghui Yu , 양성훈 , 도재철 and 1 other persons | 2012, 17(12) | pp.61~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper shows results of the precise time comparison technique based on GPS code transfer in order to determine the UTC(Universal Time Coordinated) and generate TAI(International Atomic Time). CGGTTS(CCTF Group on GNSS Time Transfer Standards) which is generated by GPS timing receivers is used as the international standard format. For geodetic receivers which provide RINEX formats as GPS time transfer results, ROB(Royal Observatory of Belgium) developed a conversion program, r2cggtts, and have distributed the program to timing laboratories participating in TAI link all over the world. Timing laboratories generate the time comparison results of GPS code transfer by the program and send them to BIPM(Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) periodically. In this paper, we introduce the delay features generated while GPS code is transferred and the calibration methods of them. Then, we introduce the tropospheric delay and analyze the results of Saastamoinen model and NATO(North Atlantic Treaty organization)model. Saastamoinen model is the representative tropospheric zenith path delay model and NATO model is applied to the legacy r2cggtts program.
  • 8.

    License Plate Detection with Improved Adaboost Learning based on Newton’s Optimization and MCT

    이영현 , 김대훈 , Hanseok Ko | 2012, 17(12) | pp.71~82 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a license plate detection method with improved Adaboost learning and MCT (Modified Census Transform). The MCT represents the local structure patterns as integer numbered feature values which has robustness to illumination change and memory efficiency. However, since these integer values are discrete, a lookup table is needed to design a weak classifier for Adaboost learning. Some previous research efforts have focused on minimization of exponential criterion for Adaboost optimization. In this paper, a method that uses MCT and improved Adaboost learning based on Newton’s optimization to exponential criterion is proposed for license plate detection. Experimental results on license patch images and field images demonstrate that the proposed method yields higher performance of detection rates with low false positives than the conventional method using the original Adaboost learning.
  • 9.

    Effective Image Segmentation using a Locally Weighted Fuzzy C-Means Clustering

    Nyma Alamgir , Jong Myon Kim | 2012, 17(12) | pp.83~93 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes an image segmentation framework that modifies the objective function of Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) to improve the performance and computational efficiency of the conventional FCM-based image segmentation. The proposed image segmentation framework includes a locally weighted fuzzy c-means (LWFCM) algorithm that takes into account the influence of neighboring pixels on the center pixel by assigning weights to the neighbors. Distance between a center pixel and a neighboring pixels are calculated within a window and these are basis for determining weights to indicate the importance of the memberships as well as to improve the clustering performance. We analyzed the segmentation performance of the proposed method by utilizing four eminent cluster validity functions such as partition coefficient (Vpc), partition entropy (Vpe), Xie-Bdni function (Vxb) and Fukuyama-Sugeno function (Vfs). Experimental results show that the proposed LWFCM outperforms other FCM algorithms (FCM, modified FCM, and spatial FCM, FCM with locally weighted information,fast generation FCM) in the cluster validity functions as well as both compactness and separation.
  • 10.

    Detection of Assault and Violence Using Color Histogram in Elevator

    SeongYoon Shin | 2012, 17(12) | pp.95~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we see the means for the assault, the type of unlawful exercise of power. Also, we see the violence, the physical exercise accompanying with assault. Now, it has caused numerous crimes in elevators. This paper is to present a way to extract the violence and assault that occurred in elevators. Key frame was extract by color histogram method, one of the ways to scene change detection techniques. Extracted key frames are key frames of a scene containing a forensic crime scene video. Also, the key frames of the scene should be submitted to the forensic evidence.
  • 11.

    A Prostate Segmentation of TRUS Image using Support Vectors and Snake-like Contour

    PARK JAE HEUNG , Yeong Geon Seo | 2012, 17(12) | pp.101~109 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In many diagnostic and treatment procedures for prostate disease accurate detection of prostate boundaries in transrectal ultrasound(TRUS) images is required. This is a challenging and difficult task due to weak prostate boundaries, speckle noise and the short range of gray levels. In this paper a method for automatic prostate segmentation inTRUS images using support vectors and snake-like contour is presented. This method involves preprocessing, extracting Gabor feature, training, and prostate segmentation. Gabor filter bank for extracting the texture features has been implemented. A support vector machine(SVM) for training step has been used to get each feature of prostate and nonprostate. The boundary of prostate is extracted by the snake-like contour algorithm. The results showed that this new algorithm extracted the prostate boundary with less than 9.3% relative to boundary provided manually by experts.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Group Routing Algorithm in DHT-based Peer-to-Peer System

    박용민 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.111~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As the P2P System is a distributed system that shares resources of nodes that participate in the system, all the nodes serve as a role of server and client. Currently, although systematic,structured P2P systems such as Chord, Pastry, and Tapestry were suggested based on the distributed hash table, these systems are limited to log for performance efficiency. For this enhanced performance efficiency limited, the article herein suggests group routing algorithm. The suggested algorithm is a node-to-group routing algorithm which divides circular address space into groups and uses a concept of pointer representing each group, which is an algorithm where routing is performed based on pointer. To evaluate algorithm performance, a comparative analysis was conducted on average hops, routing table size, and delayed transmission for chord and routing, a signature algorithm in P2P systems. Therefore, enhanced performance is verified for comparative items from the simulation results.
  • 13.

    Study on Wireless Body Area Network System Design Based on Transmission Rate

    박주희 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.121~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we proposed WBAN system model to management an application that requires low rate data transfer in IEEE 802.15.4. We have to use different wireless sensor network technology to transfer different date rate and emergency message in medical application service. A suitable system model for WBAN and a WBAN MAC protocol in order to solve these existing system problems are proposed. Firstly, the priority queuing was applied to contention access
  • 14.

    RRM Optimization for the Throughput Enhancement of WiFi AP

    Jeong,Kil Hyun | 2012, 17(12) | pp.131~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In these days, with the diffusion of mobile equipments, the number of WiFi Access Point (AP)is increasing, and the growth of WiFi AP causes the throughput degradation due to interferences between APs. This recent phenomenon demands the method able to be utilized with current WiFi network to improve the throughput of Wireless LANs. This paper studied the channel assignment method and several throughput enhancement methods to optimize Radio Resource Management (RRM) for distributed infrastructure WLANs. As a result, it was able to put AP independently, improve older allocation error, and improve execution speed.
  • 15.

    A Study on ZigBee-Based Routing Algorithm

    강형석 , 임송빈 , Oh,Young-Hwan | 2012, 17(12) | pp.137~148 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we proposed the location-aware coordinate routing algorithm for improving the performance of routing algorithm by using ZigBee in Smart Grid environment. A distributed address allocation scheme used an existing algorithm that has wasted in address space. The x, y and z coordinate axes from divided address space of 16 bit to solve this problems. However,coordinate routing does not take account of wireless link condition. If wiress link condition is not considered, when the routing table is updated, the nodes with bad link conditions are updated in the routing table and can be chosen as the next hop. This brings out the retransmissions because of received packet's errors. Also, because of these retransmissions, additional power is cons In this paper, we propose the location-aware coordinate routing algorithm considering wiress link condition, where reliable data transmission is made and the consumed enegy is minimize. and we compared and connected region and transition region of ZigBee location based routing in the aspect of average number of multi hops, subordinate packet delivery ratio, delay time, and energy consumption of proposed algorithm. It turned out that there were improvements in performances of each items.
  • 16.

    A Hybrid Randomizing Function Based on Elias and Peres Method

    배성일 , Kim, Minsu | 2012, 17(12) | pp.149~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Proposed is a hybrid randomizing function using two asymptotically optimal randomizing functions: Elias function and Peres function. Randomizing function is an mathematical abstraction of producing a uniform random bits from a source of randomness with bias. It is known that the output rate of Elias function and Peres function approaches to the information-theoretic upper bound. Especially, for each fixed input length, Elias function is optimal. However, its computation is relatively complicated and depends on input lengths. On the contrary, Peres function is defined by a simple recursion. So its computation is much simpler, uniform over the input lengths, and runs on a small footprint. In view of this tradeoff between computational complexity and output efficiency, we propose a hybrid randomizing function that has strengths of the two randomizing functions and analyze it.
  • 17.

    A study about the influence to the client system when using PKI-based authentication system

    Jeong Hoon Jeon | 2012, 17(12) | pp.159~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The authentication system of the PKI(public key infrastructure) provides the authenticity and security, accessibility, economic feasibility, and convenience to the service provider and users. Therefore the public and private companies in Korea widely use it as the authentication method of the web service. However, the safety client system is threatened by many vulnerable factors which possibly caused when using PKI-based authentication system. Thus,in this article vulnerable factors caused by using the PKI-based authentication system will be analyzed, which is expected to be the useful data afterwards for the construction of the new authentication system as well as performance improvement.
  • 18.

    A Development of the Unified Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology for Security-Critical Web Applications Based on Object-Relational Database - Forcusing on Oracle11g -

    Joo Kyung-Soo , 우정웅 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.169~177 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In the development process of application systems, the most important works are analysis and design. Most of the application systems are implemented on database system. So, database design is important. Also, IT System are confronted with more and more attacks by an increase interconnections between IT systems. Therefore security-related processes belong to a very important process. Security is a complex non-functional requirement that can interaction of many parts in the system. But Security is considered in the final stages of development. Therefore, Their increases the potential for the final product to contain vulnerabilities. Accordingly, Early in development related to security analysis and design process is very important. J2EE gives a solution based on RBAC((Role Based Access Control) for security and object-relational database also has RBAC for security. But there is not a object-oriented analysis and design methodology using RBAC of J2EE and object-relational database for security. In this paper, the unified object-oriented analysis and design methodology is developed for security-critical web application systems based on J2EE and object-relational database. We used UMLsec and RBAC of object-relational database and J2EE for this methodology.
  • 19.

    A Design of RSIDS using Rough Set Theory and Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    Lee, Byung-kwan , Jeong Eun Hee | 2012, 17(12) | pp.179~185 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes a design of RSIDS(RST and SVM based Intrusion Detection System) using RST(Rough Set Theory) and SVM(Support Vector Machine) algorithm. The RSIDS consists of PrePro(PreProcessing) module, RRG(RST based Rule Generation) module, and SAD(SVM based Attack Detection) module. The PrePro module changes the collected information to the data format of RSIDS. The RRG module analyzes attack data, generates the rules of attacks, extracts attack information from the massive data by using these rules, and transfers the extracted attack information to the SAD module. The SAD module detects the attacks by using it, which the SAD module notifies to a manager. Therefore, compared to the existing SVM, the RSIDS improved average ADR(Attack Detection Ratio) from 77.71% to 85.28%, and reduced average FPR(False Positive ratio) from 13.25% to 9.87%. Thus, the RSIDS is estimated to have been improved,compared to the existing SVM.
  • 20.

    The Study of quality measurement plan for software reliability.

    임광현 , 류광선 , Ho Sun Shon and 1 other persons | 2012, 17(12) | pp.187~198 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    International standard for software quality evaluation, ISO/IEC 9126 defines the quality characteristics and sub-characteristics consisting of quality of the software. Also, in this standard, the quality assessment items are presented in metrics based on maturity, fault tolerance,recoverability and compliance which are sub-characteristics of reliability. However, this reliability assessment items which are presented are not applied now due to the mathematical difficulties and the problems caused by collection of data. In order to resolve these problems, this study introduces measures to develop a specific test technique by quality attributes and to measure the quality. In other words, the detailed guidelines are presented to be utilized as a standard by summarizing test activities and techniques by each development life the most commonly used. The SW quality results are derived by assigning weights to software in order of the most important quality characteristics of respective software using checklist that can be easily utilized and applying test technique that can be utilized for detailed evaluation items and checklist. This improves problems that include reliability assessment item of ISO/IEC 9126 as the measures to measure new reliability quality of software
  • 21.

    Design and Implementation of Optimal Path Search Service Using GPS Information in Photo File

    김준영 , Seog-Gyu Kim | 2012, 17(12) | pp.199~207 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we designed and implemented path search system using GPS information in photo. The system extracts EXIF information included in a photo to get path information and performs path search by applying the shortest path algorithm with the use of GPS information out of information, which was extracted in this way. And then it shows the obtained path information on web by utilizing Yahoo Map API. For this, the system is designed using a method of extracting location information in a photo and path sorting through applying the shortest path algorithm. UI(User Interface) was implemented using Yahoo Map API. Based on that, we implemented path search service using photo file that is included GPS information.
  • 22.

    A study on 3D Pottery Modeling based on Web

    박경배 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.209~217 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I proposed new system that a user makes modeling 3D symmetric pottery using mouse and can confirm the result immediately in internet browser. The main advantage of proposed system is that users who have no specialized knowledge about 3D graphic can easily create 3D objects. And a user can use it that has only PC connected network and mouse without additional devices as like expensive haptic and camera device. For developing proposed system, VRML/X3D that is International Standard language for virtual reality and 3D graphics was used. Because it was born based on internet that is different from other 3D graphic languages, it was able to interact and navigate with users. With those features and high completeness of 3D pottery realization using mouse considered, the system may be useful and is superior in performance to other pottery modeling system.
  • 23.

    Implementation of Paper Keyboard Piano with a Kinect

    Jungchul Lee , 김민성 | 2012, 17(12) | pp.219~228 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a paper keyboard piano implementation using the finger movement detection with the 3D image data from a kinect. Keyboard pattern and keyboard depth information are extracted from the color image and depth image to detect the touch event on the paper keyboard and to identify the touched key. Hand region detection error is unavoidable when using the simple comparison method between input depth image and background depth image, and this error is critical in key touch detection. Skin color is used to minimize the error. And finger tips are detected using contour detection with area limit and convex hull. Finally decision of key touch is carried out with the keyboard pattern information at the finger tip position. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect key touch with high accuracy. Paper keyboard piano can be utilized for the easy and convenient interface for the beginner to learn playing piano with the PC-based learning software.
  • 24.

    Design and Implementation of Commodity Information System Using LBS with Augumented Reality Based on Smart Phone

    Sunhee Yoon | 2012, 17(12) | pp.229~239 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In 2011, more than 2000 million smartphone users are in our country. As a result, consumer demand have been developed for a variety of applications, especially in the information service-related applications that combine location-based services and augmented reality in addition to related information for the virtual reality of things are rapidly increased. This paper analysed location-based services and augmented reality technology as related research and designed and implemented the system that provides the same environment as if the user is shopping and purchasing the items in the real world and offers the information characterizing the real situation combines location-based service and augmented reality which provides with an excellent reality in the smart phone environment. The proposed system in this paper is excellent in mobility,scalability and reality as a result of analysis of functions and services compared to web-based systems and has advantages to apply for the suitable system in ubiqutous environment which can be used in anytime and anywhere
  • 25.

    Study on Telemedicine system in Medical Law

    Joung Soon Hyoung , Jong-Ryeol Park | 2012, 17(12) | pp.241~249 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The rapid development of the current information and communication brings big changes and progress in the health service delivery system. And it is becoming the worldwide trend increasingly. As the name of medical information, by more rapid, detail and more quickly to the patients and diagnosis of the disease it provides not only a high level of health care services but also hospitals and related institutions are making increase the efficiency of the work Among them, the Telemedicine, that system has many advantage which can expect the shorten the waiting time and the uniform high level of medical, etc. without visiting medical institutions. Especially, the most advantage is it can increase the accessibility of information about extensive medical, without regard to the time and place. But this is the reality, which compared speed the development of modern science and technology with lack of operational regulations and mindset. Current in our Medical Law, it regulates the Telemedicine, but it has Institutional, facility, and environmental constraints. Because, there is no detailed legal relationship. And it takes that in terms of a special form called by a non-face-to-face contact with medical practice rather than the scene. Therefore, in this paper will find a way out to activate the Telemedicine by presupposes the development potential is infinite and find the legal issues and improvements
  • 26.

    The Medical Information Protection and major Issues

    Young-Ju Jeun | 2012, 17(12) | pp.251~258 | number of Cited : 24
    Abstract PDF
    The protection of medical information by major Issues on medical information to protect the individuals' privacy on medical information. Especially, Issues of medical service information,medical record, insurance, employment, Genetic technology including genetic test and screening,gene therapy and genetic enhancement is developing rapidly. Defensibility of medical information documentation is tested in the courts. medical information can be illicitly accessed from anywhere and transmitted across the quickly and with risk of detection. Once data is distributed on the internet, it may become available to anyone who wishes to purchase it, and it cannot be expung Patient privacy protection of medical information is controlled mostly by patient consent laws that define how and when a patient must consent before a physician may disclose the patient's medical information to anyone else. enterprise that offers consumers commodities or services is checking problem about customer information of management system is checking problem about customer information of management system essentially. Therefore, in this paper will find a way out to Protection of medical information by major Issues on medical information
  • 27.

    A Study about Learning Elements and Teaching Methods of Information Ethics in Primary and Secondary School by Expert Survey

    Choe Hyun-Jong | 2012, 17(12) | pp.259~267 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The objectives of this study are to study and propose the learning elements and it's teaching methods for Information Ethics by expert survey. In recent days, Internet is the new field of our living, but teaching the students in elementary and secondary schools the subject of Information Ethics which purpose is to have positive attitude of utilizing Internet is not properly executed. The first step to teach Information Ethics in schools is to choose the learning elements in Information Ethics. Therefore, this paper is to choose the learning elements and re-arrange them with point of view to elementary and secondary schools. And more, in order to teach the students the learning elements of Information Ethics effectively, we propose the proper teaching methods to the learning elements by teacher's survey. The learning elements and teaching methods in Information Ethics is not the perfect guide to teach students in school, but the output of this study will be the good guide to revise the Information Ethics-related curriculums and product the textbooks about Information Ethics.