In small embedded systems including IoT devices, memory size is very small and it is important to reduce memory amount for execution of application programs. For multi-threaded applications, stack may consume a large amount of memory because each thread has its own stack of sufficiently large size for worst case. This paper presents an implementation of single stack multi-threading, called SSThread (Single Stack Thread), by sharing a stack for all threads to reduce stack memory size. By using SSThread, multi-threaded applications can be programmed based on normal C language environment and there is no requirement of transporting multi-threading operating systems. It consists of several library functions and various C macro definitions. Even though some functional restrictions in comparison to operating systems supporting complete multi-thread functionalities, it is very useful for small embedded systems with tiny memory size and it is simple to setup programming environment for multi-thread applications.
Symmetry is everywhere in the world around us from galaxy to microbes. From ancient times symmetry is considered to be a reflection of the harmony of universe. Symmetry is not only a significant clue for human cognitive process, but also useful information for computer vision such as image understanding system. Application areas include face detection and recognition, indexing of image database, image segmentation and detection, analysis of medical images, and so on. The technique used in this paper extracts edges, and the perpendicular bisector of any two edge points is considered to be a candidate axis of symmetry. The coefficients of candidate axis are accumulated in the coefficient space. Then the axis of symmetry is determined to be the line for which the coefficient histogram has maximum value. In this paper, an improved method is proposed that utilizes the directional information of edges, which is a byproduct of the edge detection process. Experiment on 20 test images shows that the proposed method performs 22.7 times faster than the original method. In another test on 5 images with 4% salt-and-pepper noise, the proposed method detects the symmetry successfully, while the original method fails. This result reveals that the proposed method enhances the speed and accuracy of detection process at the same time.
In this paper, we propose a AH LSU(Advanced Hybrid QoS Routing Link State Update) Algorithm that improves the performance of Hybrid LSU(Hybrid QoS Link State State Update) Algorithm with statistical information of flow holding time in network. AH LSU algorithm has had both advantages of LSU message control in periodic QoS routing LSU algorithm and QoS routing performance in adaptive LSU algorithm. It has the mechanism that calculate LSU message transmission priority using the flow of statistical request bandwidth and available bandwidth and include MLMR(Meaningless LSU Message Removal) mechanism. MLMR mechanism can remove the meaningless LSU message generating repeatedly in short time. We have evaluated the performance of the MLMR mechanism, the proposed algorithm and the existing algorithms on MCI simulation network. We use the performance metric as the QoS routing blocking rate and the mean update rate per link , it thus appears that we have verified the performance of this algorithm.
We consider energy efficient transmit and receive strategy for a delay sensitive data. More specifically, we investigate an energy optimum scheduling characteristics for the 2 user interference channel where each user interferes to each other. First, we determine the optimum transmission rate region each individual user may have for optimum transmission. Next, we consider the optimum transmission region of two users together. Shortest path algorithm can be used for further reduction of search space. Eventually, we can reduce computational complexity. We then examine the performance of the optimum transmission strategy for various system environments.
The interface between servers and clients and system management in the cloud computing environment is different from the existing computing environment. The technology for information protection. Management and user authentication has become an important issue. For providing a more convenient service to users, SSO technology is applied to this cloud computing service. In the SSO service environment, system access using a single key facilitates access to several servers at the same time. This SSO authentication service technology is vulnerable to security of several systems, once the key is exposed.
In this paper, we propose a technology to solve problems, which might be caused by single key authentication in SSO-based cloud computing access. This is a distributed agent authentication technology using a multiple SSO agent to reinforce user authentication using a single key in the SSO service environment. For user authentication reinforcement, phased access is applied and trackable log information is used when there is a security problem in system to provide a safe cloud computing service.
While the difficulty of the music can be classified by a variety of standard, conventional methods are classified by the subjective judgment based on the experience of many musicians or conductors.
Music score is difficult to evaluate as there is no quantitative criterion to determine the degree of difficulty. In this paper, we propose a new classification method for determining the degree of difficulty of the music. In order to determine the degree of difficulty, we convert the score, which is expressed as a traditional music score, into electronic music sheet. Moreover, we calculate information about the elements needed to play sheet music by distance of notes, tempo, and quantifying the ease of interpretation. Calculating a degree of difficulty of the entire music via the numerical data, we suggest the difficulty evaluation of the score, and show the difficulty of music through experiments.
Cellular formation and layout problem has been known as a NP-hard problem. Because of the algorithm that can be solved exact solution within polynomial time has been unknown yet. This paper suggests a systematic method to be obtain of 2-degree partial directed path from the frequency of consecutive forward order. We apply the modified Kruskal algorithm of minimum spanning tree to be obtain the partial directed path. the proposed reverse constructive algorithm can be solved for this problem with time complexity. This algorithm performs same as best known result of heuristic and metaheuristic methods for 4 experimental data.
In this paper, we propose the INDEM(Internet News Data Extraction Middleware) system for the removal of the unnecessary data in internet news. Although data on the internet can be used in various fields such as source of data of IR(Information Retrieval), Data mining and knowledge information service, it contains a lot of unnecessary information. The removal of the unnecessary data is a problem to be solved prior to the study of the knowledge-based information service that is based on the data of the web page. The INDEM system parses html and explores the XPath, and it is to perform the analysis. The user simply utilize INDEM by implementing an abstract class that provides INDEM, and can obtain the analysis information. INDEM System through this process delivers the analysis information including the main contents of news site to the users. In this paper, the INDEM system was adapted in a stand-alone and web service system and it was evaluated on the basis of 16 news site. As a result, performance of the INDEM system is affected in html source data size and complexity of used html grammar than the main news data size.
This paper is about applying efficient data mining method which improves the score calculation and proper building performance of credit ranking score system. The main idea of this data mining technique is accomplishing such objectives by applying Correlation based Feature Selection which could also be used to verify the properness of existing rank scores quickly. This study selected 2047 manufacturing companies on KOSPI market during the period of 2009 to 2013, which have their own credit rank scores given by NICE information service agency. Regarding the relevant financial variables, total 80 variables were collected from KIS-Value and DART (Data Analysis, Retrieval and Transfer System). If correlation based feature selection could select more important variables, then required information and cost would be reduced significantly. Through analysis, this study show that the proposed correlation based feature selection method improves selection and classification process of credit rank system so that the accuracy and credibility would be increased while the cost for building system would be decreased.
Most fault prediction models have class imbalance problems because training data usually contains much more non-fault class modules than fault class ones. This imbalanced distribution makes it difficult for the models to learn the minor class module data. Data imbalance is much higher when severity-based fault prediction is used. This is because high severity fault modules is a smaller subset of the fault modules. In this paper, we propose severity-based models to solve these problems using the three sampling methods, Resample, SpreadSubSample and SMOTE. Empirical results show that Resample method has typical over-fit problems, and SpreadSubSample method cannot enhance the prediction performance of the models. Unlike two methods, SMOTE method shows good performance in terms of AUC and FNR values. Especially J48 decision tree model using SMOTE outperforms other prediction models.
The optimal solution of quadratic assignment problem (QAP) cannot get done in polynomial time.
This problem is called by NP-complete problem. Therefore the meta-heuristic techniques are applied to this problem to get the approximated solution within polynomial time. This paper proposes an algorithm for a random type QAP, in which the instance of two nodes are arbitrary. The proposed algorithm employs what is coined as a max flow-min distance rule by which the maximum flow node is assigned to the minimum distance node. When applied to the random type QAP, the proposed algorithm has been found to obtain optimal solutions superior to those of the genetic algorithm.
In this paper, we study the relationship between vacancy duration and information items of a job posting by using generalized linear models and a decision tree analysis w.r.t. the three factors such as company characteristics , employment conditions, and constraints. The results indicate that the employment conditions rather than company characteristics are more influential to the vacancy duration. These effects are presumed to be based on the complex relations between the decisions of the employers and the job seekers. And in this paper we suggest the need to provide personalized and profiled labor market information tailored for a quick decision to job seekers and employers.
Policy implication is that since employer’s decision affects the vacation duration, employers may had better to provide a comprehensive labour market information including supply and demand of the required skills in order to reduce the time for judgment on the cost-effectiveness.
The aim of this study is to measure the degrees of emotional labor and to empirically analyze how emotional labor affects individual’s stress coping style and psychological burnout. The results were as follows. First, the call center employees were actually experiencing emotional labor and it was shown that the deep acting was higher than the surface acting. Second, the degree of experiencing stress coping style and psychological burnout appeared differently depending on the socio-economic variables of the employee. Third, despite the differences in the direction, there is a correlation between emotional labor, stress coping style, and psychological burnout. Fourth, the characteristics of the employees and emotional labor clearly affected stress coping style and psychological burnout.
Therefore, companies will have to provide various psychological treatments and training programs for call center employees, and a change in social awareness, where people take the service industry workers’ kindness for granted, is required as well.
This study examined how the management of workers for elderly welfare services affects their turnover intention and verified the analysis of mediating effects of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. To this end, the study conducted a survey of 429 workers at elderly care facilities in Gwang-ju and South Jeolla Province. The study shows following results. First, compensation scheme and organizational culture have a significantly positive influence on their organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Second, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction have a significant positive effect on their turnover intention. To conclude, its findings will help to present reference data for the improvement of job satisfaction of workers for elderly welfare services.
The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of hypersensitiveness in accident reports and usefulness on admission of atomic power generation. By the result of study we can look forward to understanding obstacles and promotion factors in constructing atomic power plants.
The results of hypothesis testing can be summarized as follows: First, the hypothesis that hypersensitiveness in accident reports has a plus effect on reliability is accepted. Secondly, the hypothesis that hypersensitiveness in accident reports has a plus effect on anxiety is accepted. Thirdly, the hypothesis that reliability has a plus effect on anxiety is accepted.
Fourthly, the hypothesis that reliability has a minus effect on receptiveness is accepted. Fifthly, the hypothesis that anxiety has a minus effect on receptiveness is accepted. Sixthly, the hypothesis that usefulness has a minus effect on necessity is accepted. Seventhly, the hypothesis that usefulness has a plus effect on receptiveness is rejected. Eighthly, the hypothesis that necessity has a minus effect on receptiveness is accepted.
This study had a purpose to find the correlation between academic achievement and entrance examination score using FCA and framing a concept of university academic achievement and entrance examination score and then, building concept lattice. The subject for this analysis was admission materials of freshmen in computer engineering department at A university located in Chungcheong area in 2010. Also 56 students in total were subjects for the score analysis of their first semester from 2010 to 2014. The major findings of this study were as follows. We organized and extracted many-valued context, concept lattice, associated rules using FCA. And we analyzed the correlation between University academic achievement and entrance examination score using FCA. The conclusions were as follows. We could get meaningful analyzed results using FCA. University academic achievement had lower relativeness with entrance examination score and female students had higher university academic achievement than male students. The improvement points are summarized below. It is necessary to improve the ratio and application method of the university admission factors and to increase the regular admission for a university. And programs for completing College-preparatory programming for male students in low university academic achievement are necessary.