Recent embedded processors employ set-associative L1 instruction cache to improve the performance. The energy consumption in the set-associative L1 instruction cache accounts for considerable portion in the embedded processor. When an instruction is required from the processor, all ways in the set-associative instruction cache are accessed in parallel. In this paper, we propose the technique to reduce the energy consumption in the set-associative L1 instruction cache effectively by accessing only one way. Gshare branch predictor is employed to predict the instruction flow and determine the way to fetch the instruction. When the branch prediction is untaken, next instruction in a sequential order can be fetched from the instruction cache by accessing only one way. According to our simulations with SPEC2006 benchmarks, the proposed technique requires negligible hardware overhead and shows 20% energy reduction on average in 4-way L1 instruction cache.
In this paper, we propose a gas classification method using combined features for an electronic nose system that performs well even when some loss occurs in measuring data samples. We first divide the entire measurement for a data sample into three local sections, which are the stabilization, exposure, and purge; local features are then extracted from each section. Based on the discrimination analysis, measurements of the discriminative information amounts are taken. Subsequently, the local features that have a large amount of discriminative information are chosen to compose the combined features together with the global features that extracted from the entire measurement section of the data sample. The experimental results show that the combined features by the proposed method gives better classification performance for a variety of volatile organic compound data than the other feature types, especially when there is data loss.
This paper is to recognize and play tab chords from guitar musical sheets. The musical chord area of an input image is segmented by changing the image in saturation and applying the Grabcut algorithm. Based on a template matching, our approach detects tab starting sections on a segmented musical area. The virtual block method is introduced to search blanks over chord lines and extract tab fret segments, which doesn’t cause the computation loss to remove tab lines. In the experimental tests, the prototype based classification outperforms Bayesian method and the nearest neighbor rule with the whole set of training data and its performance is similar to that of the support vector machine. The experimental result shows that the prediction rate is about 99.0% and the number of selected prototypes is below 3.0%.
Recognition of grapheme is a very important process in the recognition within 'Hangul(Korean written language)' letters using phoneme recognition. It is because the success or failure in the recognition of phoneme greatly affects the recognition of letters. For this reason, it is reported that separation of phonemes is the biggest difficulty in the phoneme recognition study.
The current study separates and suggests the new phonemes that used the connective elements that are helpful for dividing phonemes, recommends the features for recognition of such suggested phonemes, databases this, and carried out a set of experiments of recognizing phonemes using the suggested features.
The current study used 350 letters in the experiment of phoneme separation and recognition. In this particular kind of letters, there were 1,125 phonemes suggested. In the phoneme separation experiment, the phonemes were divided in the rate of 100%, and the phoneme recognition experiment showed the recognition rate of 98% in recognizing only 14 phonemes into different ones.
This paper introduces a method for video shot group detection needed for efficient management and summary of video. The proposed method detects shots based on low-level visual properties and performs temporal and spatial clustering based on visual similarity of neighboring shots. Shot groups created from temporal clustering are further clustered into small groups with respect to visual similarity. A set of representative shot frames are selected from each cluster of the smaller groups representing a scene. Shots excluded from temporal clustering are also clustered into groups from which representative shot frames are selected. A number of video clips are collected and applied to the method for accuracy of shot group detection. We achieved 91% of accuracy of the method for shot group detection. The number of representative shot frames is reduced to 1/3 of the total shot frames. The experiment also shows the inverse relationship between accuracy and compression rate.
In this study, an image processing algorithm was developed to increase readability of the images of specific parts of a KTX train acquired by using a mobile digital radiographic testing device in a situation where a running train is stopped. The image processing algorithm was realized by using a Visual C++ development tool.
The algorithm developed in this study allows to select an interested region in the acquired images when the interested region is suspected to cause a problem, and applies a thinning process based Sobel operators to the selected region. The experimental results show that the readability of defect parts that are not visible to naked eyes was increased through edge detector. Application of the algorithm developed in this study may help to accurately read non-destructive inspection images.
High-capacity, high quality services should be guaranteed in mobile communication environment.
Excellent channel coding and compensation techniques are required so as to improve data reliability on fading channels. In this paper, we propose a method using double pilots, estimates and compensates for the fading of information symbols. The proposed method using Log-MAP Turbo decoder through the iterative decoder, improves BER performance under the environment of the frequency selective fading channel. Compared to the existing methods, the suggested methods show functional improvement of approximately 3dB in case that the number of iteration decoding is 5 and BER is .
The purpose of the study is to investigate the preference by emoticon types according to the gender of sender, emotion types of message and intimacy with the recipient. Results show that women mostly prefer to use dynamic and imaged emoticon than men. However, the preference of using text messages increases when both men and women express uncomfortable emotion. Especially, when users send family messages, they tend to prefer for text message. And when users send close friends messages, the preference for dynamic and imaged emoticon is high. When users send distant friends messages, the similar tendency is shown regardless of emotion. These results can provide the information to use emoticon in the filed of education and take advantage in digital education and mobile education.
Vehicle and marine navigation which are currently being commercialized provide route guidance service by specifying a fixed position as a destination. In the route guidance service of existing navigation, if the destination has to be changed in the middle, a new destination must be designated again to obtain the navigation service. However, if the destination can't be designated, it is difficult to clearly use it.
In this paper, in order to overcome the difficulties of directions in the existing navigation, a new navigation specifying moving targets as the destination has been developed to get the directions. A proposed system is that a group is made and a group manager is appointed as a destination and then a user can get the route guidance based on location of the group manager. In the service way, relationship between the group manager and user is one-to-many and relationship between the user and group manager is one-to-one. The proposed technology is able to provide services that the user can easily find the moving targets such as the positioning surrogate drivers, tracking routes and location among travelers and finding children.
In 2014, Wuu et al. proposed a group key management scheme based on (2,2) secret sharing.
They asserted that their scheme satisfies security requirements and mutual authentication. But this paper pointed out that their scheme does not satisfy mutual authentication and impersonating attack.
In this paper, we describe the reasons and processes that a malicious group member can impersonate the Group Key Distributor. To fill the gaps, we discuss the problems, and propose an improved protocol.
In this paper we consider the problem of finding the triplet , where ⊆ , is a sequence of nodes in and ╲ → for a given complete graph . In particular, there exist two costs, and for ε , and the cost of triplet is defined as ε ╲ . This problem is motivated by the integrated routing of the vehicle and drone for urban delivery services. Since a well-known NP-complete TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem) is a special case of our problem, we cannot expect to have any polynomial-time algorithm unless P=NP. Furthermore, for practical purposes, we may not rely on time-exhaustive enumeration method such as branch-and-bound and branch-and-cut. This paper suggests the simple heuristic which is motivated by the MST (minimum spanning tree)-based approximation algorithm and neighborhood search heuristic for TSP.
In this paper, we study the domain-independent sensor data structuring method and the derivations about ‘ Filter Criteria’ expansion factors of heterogeneous domain systems. For this purpose, we propose a 5W1H based information search and retrieval method without knowledges about the target domains. And we also suggest a resource management model that can support expanding search of information. By the suggested method, the oneM2M standard able to implement the use-cases like ‘data exchanging between the heterogeneous domains’.
In this research, emergency vehicle dispatching problems faced with in the wake of massive natural disasters are considered. Here, the emergency vehicle dispatching problems can be regarded as a single machine stochastic scheduling problems, where the processing times are independently and identically distributed random variables, are considered. The objective of minimizing the expected number of tardy jobs, with distinct job due dates that are independently and arbitrarily distributed random variables, is dealt with. For these problems, optimal static-list policies can be found by solving corresponding assignment problems. However, for the special cases where due dates are exponentially distributed random variables, using a proposed dynamic programming approach is found to be relatively faster than solving the corresponding assignment problems. This so-called Pivot Dynamic Programming approach exploits necessary optimality conditions derived for ordering the jobs partially.
The epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) protein kinase signaling is an important pathway in cancer development and recently reported that EGFR and its kinase domain molecules are mutated in various of cancers including head and neck cancer. Functional deregulation of EGFR due to mutations in coding exons and copy number amplification is the most common event in cancers, especially among receptor tyrosine kinases(TK). We have analyzed Korean oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) cell lines for mutations in EGFRTK. Exons encoding the hot-spot regions in the TK domain of EGFR (exons 17 to 23) were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequenced directly. EGFR expression was also analyzed in 8 OSCC cell lines using western blotting. Data analysis of the EGFR exons 17 to 23 coding sequences did not show any mutations in the 8 OSCC cell lines that were analyzed. The absence of mutations indicate that protein overexpression might be responsible for activation rather than mutation.
In this paper, we propose the effects of military cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) on the quality of debriefing and feedback device training. The key idea of combination debriefing and feedback device training is to maximize effects of CPR. The participants of the research were non-medic soldiers in ROK army, and had not undergone any professional CPR training before. Each group of soldier was randomized to perform of military CPR by using training method in each group. After 5 minutes of performing CPR, each D, F, DF group showed significant improvement in CPR performance. When comparing each group, the rate of success in CPR performance in DF group was significantly higher than that of F group with the average difference of 11.160(p<.01) points. In summation, the training programs that DF received seemed to be more efficient and effective than that of D and F. The fatigue level was evaluated by comparing the lactate concentration in blood after performing CPR. Through this experiment, we show that the training programs that DF received is more efficient and effective than that of D and F.
In this paper, a research model is proved empirically which includes factors related on the purchase intention of smart car as high innovative product in advance of commercialization. As one of relating to consumer’s expectation benefit factors, individual attribute factor includes product knowledge, individual innovativeness, and sociality. Consumer’s expectation benefit factor includes perceived ease-of-use, usefulness, and enjoyment. As of switching cost variables, there are financial, uncertainty, relational and psychological switching costs factors.
Analysis were performed using data from the 257 respondents as random sampling among potential consumers. Purchase intention were affected by individual innovativeness mediated by perceived enjoyment, and individual sociality by perceived ease-of-use and enjoyment also. Relational switching costs factor was only a significant control variable between purchase intention with consumer’s expectation benefit factor.
This result presents some implications for making the new smart car’s detail concept and marketing strategy related to targeting the consumer as high innovative product and technology firms including smart car makers.
This study is aimed to examine the relationship between calling and job engagement of social workers working at social welfare centers. To this end, the study conducted a self-administered survey of social workers working at social welfare centers in Gwangju Metropolitan City, analysing 154 questionnaires. It was found that the calling of social workers has a significant positive effect on their vitality, dedication and commitment. Based on these, this study discusses its implications and suggests policy implications that can enhance the calling of social workers so as to help them raise their job engagement levels.
This study is an objective research to verify causality between social worker's social capital and OCB in Jeon-nam province including Kwangjoo. Survey was done directly from 255 social workers working in social welfare facilities. Study methodology was the structural equation to verify the influence of social capital on organized citizens' activities and the mediator effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Using Fornell and Locker's two-step approach, this study verified the similarity between direct effectiveness and indirect effectiveness through bootstrap. I hope that the result of this study will be used as objective and academic material for social workers who work hard with sense of duty at field and expect that there will be a intensive follow-up research which can make social workers' social capital and make it stronger.
In recent, android application developments have been done widely that intensify smart phone utilization. In this paper, we propose a curriculum that undergraduate students can improve their mobile programming abilities as well as integrate experiences of application development based on android. And also a series of practices to advance their sense of accomplishment are added by offering an opportunity to carry out a real project to use a variety of sensors embedded in smart phone during the course of study. The project is composed of a series of modules for implementing a trekking App that helpful to people who enjoy spending time in outdoors through their favorite activities such as trekking, cycling, and climbing with their own smart phones. Through practical curriculum operation and project implementation, we show that the proposed curriculum is appropriate to a mobile programming education that combine learning and practice.
This paper is concerned with education courses operating practices for basic computer literacy training. In this study, we propose an example for students to effectively measure and evaluate the achievement of defined ability in the performance measurement and analysis, learning objectives and learning outcomes set in operation throughout the course. Through research and development use case presents the tools for teaching method and effective and objective measurement of the related subjects. And based on the results, we propose the possibility of utilizing NCS-based course operation and education certification. In this study, the measurement process is based on the association with the objective of the development and operation, and measurement tools, measuring tools for measuring learning outcomes associated with the curriculum design methods for the measurement and evaluation of the case of the operation of the course units of learning outcomes and the method proposed.
In this paper, I had studied to focus on the NCS(National Competency Standard) course in the development process of NCS-based curriculum and designed and developed 'Digital Color Correction' course. 'Digital Color Correction' course was come up with in process of development of NCS-based curriculum in a department of university that aims to educate video-broadcasting experts who lead the advanced digital age. The course developed in this paper follows criteria of NCS and is designed to step in course-profile, instruction and evaluation. Also I made an analysis of learning effects after applying to class. And I compared and analyzed NCS-class and non NCS-class. As a result of comparison, NCS-class is better than non NCS-class in student attitude for learning and evaluation method.
This study developed the learning ability-based smart education program. The effectiveness of the developed materials was investigated using the quantitative–qualitative mixed method, and the process and results of the investigation are as follows. The quantitative investigation was conducted using the non-equivalent pretest–posttest design, in which the smart education method was applied to the experimental group, while the conventional education method was applied to the control group to analyze students’ creative problem-solving potential, task concentration, and the variables required for the learning activity. The results showed significantly higher performance in the experimental group over the control group. Regarding data collection in the qualitative investigation, an analysis of the class from the instructor and class consultation logs from the class analyst were collected; the comments on the experience of each class period were collected from students. The results of the analysis of the data suggest that the perception of smart education improved for the instructor, class analyst, and learners as the course progressed
In this paper, we propose the computational thinking education framework which provides three steps of computational thinking process and three kind of activities about computational thinking learning in class. The key idea of this framework is to provide the guidelines of designing activity steps of teaching and learning computational thinking in class using three axles of framework such as problem area, process of learning, and steps of computational thinking process. After designing a framework, we show that sample course of programming education program containing contents of Informatics subject in middle school by implementing our framework. Proposed framework and programming education program in middle school will be the good case study and guide to implement computational thinking concerned education programs in elementary, secondary, and universities.