The present study was conducted to assess gender differences in the relationship between adiposity and systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference (sIAD) in Korean adults. In this paper, we propose a 410 adults (235 men and 175 women) who were over 30 years old and had undergone a health check participated from June to November 2013. The incidences of high sIAD (sIAD ≥10 mmHg) in males and females were 24.6% and 15.3%, respectively. We conducted a logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables such as age, smoking, drinking, exercising, TC, TG, HDL-C, and FPG. Key study results were as follows: First, in men, the odds ratio (OR) of high sIAD of the obesity group was significantly higher than that of the normal weight group [2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19–4.25)], but abdominal obesity was not associated with high sIAD. Second, in women, the OR of high sIAD of the abdominal obesity group was significantly higher than that of the non-abdominal obesity group [2.52 (95% CI, 1.03–6.13)], but obesity status was not associated with high sIAD. In conclusion, Obesity is associated with the incidence of high sIAD in Korean men, and abdominal obesity is associated with the incidence of high sIAD in Korean women.