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pISSN : 1598-849X / eISSN : 2383-9945

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2017, Vol.22, No.9

  • 1.

    A File System for Large-scale NAND Flash Memory Based Storage System

    Sohn Sung Hoon | 2017, 22(9) | pp.1~8 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a file system for flash memory which remedies shortcomings of existing flash memory file systems. Besides supporting large block size, the proposed file system reduces time in initializing file system significantly by adopting logical address comprised of erase block number and bitmap for pages in the block to find a page. The file system is suitable for embedded systems with limited main memory since it has small in-memory data structures. It also provides efficient management of obsolete blocks and free blocks, which contribute to the reduction of file update time. Finally the proposed file system can easily configure the maximum file size and file system size limits, which results in portability to emerging larger flash memories. By conducting performance evaluation studies, we show that the proposed file system can contribute to the performance improvement of embedded systems.
  • 2.

    Constraint Programming Approach for a Course Timetabling Problem

    Chun-Sik Kim | Hwang Junha | 2017, 22(9) | pp.9~16 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The course timetabling problem is a problem assigning a set of subjects to the given classrooms and different timeslots, while satisfying various hard constraints and soft constraints. This problem is defined as a constraint satisfaction optimization problem and is known as an NP-complete problem. Various methods has been proposed such as integer programming, constraint programming and local search methods to solve a variety of course timetabling problems. In this paper, we propose an iterative improvement search method to solve the problem based on constraint programming. First, an initial solution satisfying all the hard constraints is obtained by constraint programming, and then the solution is repeatedly improved using constraint programming again by adding new constraints to improve the quality of the soft constraints. Through experimental results, we confirmed that the proposed method can find far better solutions in a shorter time than the manual method.
  • 3.

    A Term Importance-based Approach to Identifying Core Citations in Computational Linguistics Articles

    In-Su Kang | 2017, 22(9) | pp.17~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Core citation recognition is to identify influential ones among the prior articles that a scholarly article cite. Previous approaches have employed citing-text occurrence information, textual similarities between citing and cited article, etc. This study proposes a term-based approach to core citation recognition, which exploits the importance of individual terms appearing in in-text citation to calculate influence-strength for each cited article. Term importance is computed using various frequency information such as term frequency(tf) in in-text citation, tf in the citing article, inverse sentence frequency in the citing article, inverse document frequency in a collection of articles. Experiments using a previous test set consisting of computational linguistics articles show that the term-based approach performs comparably with the previous approaches. The proposed technique could be easily extended by employing other term units such as n-grams and phrases, or by using new term-importance formulae.
  • 4.

    Softwarization of Cloud-based Real-Time Broadcast Channel System

    Myung-Kyu Kwon | 2017, 22(9) | pp.25~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose the softwareization of broadcasting system. Recently, the topic of industry is the fourth industrial revolution. The fourth industrial revolution is evolving from physical to virtualization. The Industrial Revolution is based on IT technology. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and the Internet of Things, which are famous for Alpha Go, are based on software. Among IT, software is the main driver of industrial terrain change. The systemization of software on the basis of cloud environment is proceeding rapidly. System development through softwarization can reduce time to market lead time, hardware cost reduction and manual operation compared to existing hardware system. By developing and implementing broadcasting system such as IPTV based on cloud, lead time for opening service compared to existing hardware system can be shortened by more than 90% and investment cost can be saved by about 40%. In addition, the area of the system can be reduced by 50%. In addition, efficiency can be improved between infrastructures, shortening of trouble handling and ease of maintenance. Finally, we can improve customer experience through rapid service opening.
  • 5.

    Cluster-Based Mobile Sink Location Management Scheme for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Oheomji | Minjae Kang | Ikjune Yoon and 1other persons | 2017, 22(9) | pp.33~40 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a sink-location management and data-routing scheme to effectively support the mobile sink in solar-powered WSN. Battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have a limited lifetime due to their limited energy, but solar energy-based WSNs can be supplied with energy periodically and can operate forever. On the other hand, introduction of mobile sink in WSNs can solve some energy unbalance problem between sink-neighboring nodes and outer nodes which is one of the major challenges in WSNs. However, there is a problem that additional energy should be consumed to notify each sensor node of the location of the randomly moving mobile sink. In the proposed scheme, one of the nodes that harvests enough energy in each cluster are selected as the cluster head, and the location information of the mobile sink is shared only among the cluster heads, thereby reducing the location management overhead. In addition, the overhead for setting the routing path can be removed by transferring data in the opposite direction to the path where the sink-position information is transferred among the heads. Lastly, the access node is introduced to transmit data to the sink more reliably when the sink moves frequently.
  • 6.

    D2D Power Control in the Cellular System: Iterative Algorithm and Convergence

    Oh Chang Yoon | 2017, 22(9) | pp.41~47 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we consider the case where D2D users and the cellular user share the uplink of the cellular system. We propose an iterative power control algorithm that converges to the optimum power value. Each user iteratively updates its transmit power level according to the interference function. Finally, all D2D users and cellular user that participate in the transmission get the optimum transmit power level. We first investigate the interference structure and define the interference function. Then, we show that the considered interference function belongs to the standard interference function that converges the unique transmit power level. Through numerical examples, the convergence of the proposed power control algorithm is examined in the various transmission scenarios.
  • 7.

    A Secure Switch Migration for SDN with Role-based IBC

    JunHuy Lam | Lee, Sang-Gon | Vincentius Christian Andrianto | 2017, 22(9) | pp.49~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the Openflow’s switch migration occurs after the channel was established in secure manner (optional), the current cryptography protocol cannot prevent the insider attack as the attacker possesses a valid public/private key pair. There are methods such as the certificate revocation list (CRL) or the online certificate status protocol (OCSP) that tries to revoke the compromised certificate. However, these methods require a management system or server that introduce additional overhead for the communication. Furthermore, these methods are not able to mitigate power abuse of an insider. In this paper, we propose a role-based identity-based cryptography (RB-IBC) that integrate the identity of the node along with its role so the nodes within the network can easily mitigate any role abuse of the nodes. Besides that, by combining with IBC, it will eliminate the need of exchanging certificates and hence improve the performance in a secure channel.
  • 8.

    A SES Alarmed Link Encryption Synchronization Method Having Optimized Threshold Value for High-Speed Video Data Encryption

    Kim,Hyeong-Rag | Lee, HoonJae | Ki Hawn Kim and 1other persons | 2017, 22(9) | pp.57~64 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    CCSDS Standard is widely used in the international space telecommunication area. But standard recommendation of CCSDS is not restrictive, so, we can select an appropriate encryption protocol among the layer. For synchronization, encryption sync is attached in the beginning of the encrypted data. In the exceptional environmental condition, although the receiver can not decrypt the normal data, the sender have no conception of that situation. In this paper, we propose a two-stage SES alarmed link encryption synchronization method having optimized threshold value necessary to decide whether the receiver has a correct decryption or not. first, through the experiment of mutual relations between error rate and encryption synchronization detection error, we can predict worst communication environment for the selected encryption synchronization pattern. second, through the experiment for finding what number of consecutive frame synchronization error is an appropriate reference value and analysis of that experiment, we suggest an optimized threshold value for resynchronization request. lastly, through the output images we can predict the probability error that should be guaranteed by channel coder.
  • 9.

    A Secure Authentication Method for Smart Phone based on User’s Behaviour and Habits

    Lee Geum Boon | 2017, 22(9) | pp.65~71 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes a smart phone authentication method based on user's behavior and habit that is an authentication method against shoulder surfing attack and brute force attack. As smart phones evolve not only storage of personal data but also a key means of financial services, the importance of personal information security in smart phones is growing. When user authentication of smart phone, pattern authentication method is simple to use and memorize, but it is prone to leak and vulnerable to attack. Using the features of the smart phone pattern method of the user, the pressure applied when touching the touch pad with the finger, the size of the area touching the finger, and the time of completing the pattern are used as feature vectors and applied to user authentication security. First, a smart phone user models and stores three parameter values as prototypes for each section of the pattern. Then, when a new authentication request is made, the feature vector of the input pattern is obtained and compared with the stored model to decide whether to approve the access to the smart phone. The experimental results confirm that the proposed technique shows a robust authentication security using subjective data of smart phone user based on habits and behaviors.
  • 10.

    A Design and Implementation Mobile Game Based on Kinect Sensor

    Lee, Won Joo | 2017, 22(9) | pp.73~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we design and implement a mobile game based on Kinect sensor. This game is a motion recognition maze game based on Kinect sensor using XNA Game Studio. The game consists of three stages. Each maze has different size and clear time limit. A player can move to the next stage only if the player finds the exit within a limited time. However, if the exit is not found within the time limit, the game ends. In addition, two kinds of mini games are included in the game. The first game is a fruit catch game using motion recognition tracking of the Kinect sensor, and player have to pick up a certain number of randomly falling fruits. If a player acquire a certain number of fruits at this time, the movement speed of the player is increased. However, if a player takes a skeleton that appears randomly, the movement speed will decrease. The second game is a Quiz game using the speech recognition function of the Kinect sensor, and a question from random genres of common sense, nonsense, ancient creature, capital, constellation, etc. are issued. If a player correctly answers more than 7 of 10 questions, the player gets useful items to use in finding the maze. This item is a navigator fairy that helps the player to escape the forest.
  • 11.

    An In-depth Analysis and Performance Improvement of a Container Relocation Algorithm

    Hyung-Bong Lee | Ki-Hyeon Kwon | 2017, 22(9) | pp.81~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The CRP(Container Relocation Problem) algorithms pursuing efficient container relocation of wharf container terminal can not be deterministic because of the large number of layout cases. Therefore, the CRP algorithms should adopt trial and error intuition and experimental heuristic techniques. And because the heuristic can not be best for all individual cases, it is necessary to find metrics which show excellent on average. In this study, we analyze GLAH(Greedy Look-ahead Heuristic) algorithm which is one of the recent researches in detail, and propose a heuristic metrics HOB(sum of the height differences between a badly placed container and the containers prohibited by the badly placed container) to improve the algorithm. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm, GLAH', exerts a stable performance increment of up to 3.8% in our test data, and as the layout size grows, the performance increment gap increases.
  • 12.

    Dynamic Service Composition and Development Using Heterogeneous IoT Systems

    Minwoo Ryu | Jaeseok Yun | 2017, 22(9) | pp.91~97 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    IoT (Internet of Things) systems are based on heterogeneous hardware systems of different types of devices interconnected each other, ranging from miniaturized and low-power wireless sensor node to cloud servers. These IoT systems composed of heterogeneous hardware utilize data sets collected from a particular set of sensors or control designated actuators when needed using open APIs created through abstraction of devices’ resources associated to service applications. However, previously existing IoT services have been usually developed based on vertical platforms, whose sharing and exchange of data is limited within each industry domain, for example, healthcare. Such problem is called ‘data silo’, and considered one of crucial issues to be solved for the success of establishing IoT ecosystems. Also, IoT services may need to dynamically organize their services according to the change of status of connected devices due to their mobility and dynamic network connectivity. We propose a way of dynamically composing IoT services under the concept of WoT (Web of Things) where heterogeneous devices across different industries are fully integrated into the Web. Our approach allows developers to create IoT services or mash them up in an efficient way using Web objects registered into multiple standardized horizontal IoT platforms where their resources are discoverable and accessible. A Web-based service composition tool is developed to evaluate the practical feasibility of our approach under real-world service development.
  • 13.

    Utilizing Integrated Public Big Data in the Database System for Analyzing Vehicle Accidents

    Gun-Woo Lee | Tae-ho Kim | Songi Do and 2other persons | 2017, 22(9) | pp.99~105 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose to design and implement the database management system for analyzing vehicle accidents through utilizing integration of the public big data. And the paper aims to provide valuable information for recognizing seriousness of the vehicle accidents and various circumstances at the accident time, and to utilize the produced information for the insurance company policies as well as government policies. For analysis of the vehicle accidents the system utilizes the integrated big data of National Indicator System, the Meteorological Office, National Statistical Office, Korea Insurance Development Institute, Road Traffic Authority, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport as well as the National Police Agency, which differentiates this system from the previous systems. The system consists of data at the accident time including weather conditions, vehicle models, age, sex, insurance amount etc., by which the database system users are able to obtain the integral information about vehicle accidents. The result shows that the vehicle accidents occur more frequently in the clear weather conditions, in the vehicle to vehicle conditions and in crosswalk & crossway. Also, it shows that the accidents in the cloudy weather leads more seriously to injury and death than in the clear weather. As well, the vehicle accident information produced by the system can be utilized to effectively prevent drivers from dangerous accidents.
  • 14.

    Medication Reminder System for Smart Aging Services Using IoT Platforms and Products

    Nak-Myoung Sung | Jaeseok Yun | 2017, 22(9) | pp.107~113 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose a medication reminder system using IoT platforms and products to help old adults keep track of their medication schedule, one of 10 Korean instrumental activities in daily living (K-IADL). An interworking architecture based on the oneM2M standard platform is designed to allow various IoT products to be connected each other through interworking proxy entities. A prototype system for the medication reminder service is developed, which consists of a pair of off-the-shelf pill bottle and container box embedded with an NFC tag and reader respectively, three types of actuators including a LIFX LED lightbulb, Musaic speaker, Microsoft Band 2, and smartphone applications. The experiment shows that our medication reminder system can make alarms for old adults to take their pills appropriately considering where they are and when they have food inferred from data collected from sensors including ultrasonic sensor and rice cooker, fostering them to keep their medication routine.
  • 15.

    Subjectivity study on the type of wearing brassiere in female college students -focused Q methods-

    Cha Su Joung | 2017, 22(9) | pp.115~123 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude and wearing effect of brassiere wearing in 20's female college students. Particularly, by exploring the necessity of wearing a brassiere, the research was carried out to make it possible to use it effectively in the development of brassiere for women in their early 20s. In early 20s, the type of wearing brassiere in female college students was analyzed as three types: function-importance type, inconvenience-accept type, and wearing inconvenient type. Function-importance type, the brassiere corrects the silhouette of the upper body, has a push-up effect that collects the breast, and it was thought that it would not allow the nipple point to fall. By wearing a brassiere, there is a lift-up effect that reduces the vibration of the breast due to movement and raises the bust. Inconvenience-accept type wears a brassiere so that the breast volume can be improved and the nipple point is not visible. And they strongly agreed that the brassiere would wrap my breasts well and calibrate the upper body silhouette to make my body look pretty. However, they felt that their bust was troubled when they wore it, and they thought that their brassiere would be out of order due to their movements, so they had to wear brassiere for beauty, but they were uncomfortable. The wearing inconvenient type was analyzed as a type that the cup part was lifted, the sweat was not absorbed, and the heat was uncomfortable. It is thought that it is necessary to develop an effective brassiere for the function of raising and collecting breasts based on the body shape of women in their early 20s.
  • 16.

    Analysis of factors affecting career preparation behavior - Based on the recognition of college students -

    Lee Sook Ja | Kweon Seong Ok | 2017, 22(9) | pp.125~132 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing career preparation behavior based on the perception of college students from the perspective of social cognitive career theory and to examine the effect of career barriers and career decision self - efficacy on career preparation behavior And career - decision self - efficacy. The results of the study are as follows. First, career barriers perceived by college students showed a significant positive correlation with career decision self - efficacy and career preparation behavior(-), and career decision efficacy showed a statistically significant correlation with career preparation behavior(+). Second, as a result of linear regression analysis to examine the effect of career barriers on career preparation behavior, lack of self - clarification, lack of job information, and lack of recognition of need were subordinate factors of career barriers. Third, as a result of linear regression analysis to examine the effect of career decision - making self - efficacy on career preparation behavior, goal setting and job information, which are sub - factors of career decision self - efficacy, were analyzed. Fourth, mediating effects of career decision self - efficacy on career barriers and career preparation behavior were analyzed by hierarchical regression analysis. The results of this study confirm that the level of career barrier, which is an important factor in career preparation behavior of college students, should be lowered and career decision self - efficacy should be increased.
  • 17.

    Types of perception on the body shape of middle-aged women

    Cha Su Joung | 2017, 22(9) | pp.133~140 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to provide a basic data of clothing development that can improve the satisfaction of the body shape by examining the subjective evaluation and characteristics of each type. The types of body shape of middle-aged women were analyzed as four types: elasticity loss ladder type, flat rectangular type, thin reverse ladder type, and upper body obesity inverted triangle type. The elasticity loss ladder type was developed with the lower body, and it was analyzed that the legs size such as the thighs and claves were large, the abdomen was protruded, and especially the underbelly appeared. The flat rectangular type was the largest of the four types, and was the skinny type. The width was larger than the thickness of the body, and the difference between the hip circumference and the waist circumference was small, and it was classified into a flat rectangular shape. The thin reverse ladder type was the smallest of the four types, the upper body was developed, the back had weight, and the body was leaning forward. And the lower body and leg were poor and the abdomen was protruding. Finally, the upper body obesity inverted triangular was the highest type of BMI index among 4 types. All of subjects belong to the mild and middle obesity, and the second was the smallest but the most weighted type among 4 types. They had the fat body and big bust, the upper body was developed, and the lower body and legs were analyzed to be poor body shape. Based on the body shape of middle-aged women, it is necessary to develop designs and patterns that can cover the shortcomings of body shape.
  • 18.

    Effect of Health Education Program on the Ego-identity, Social problem-solving ability and Self-leadership of Health college students

    Choi Ye sook | Oh eun young | 2017, 22(9) | pp.141~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose that Health Education Program can be a competency strengthening program based on the training of excellent healthcare professional in the future by confirming that this paper is effective in improving social problem solving ability and self-leadership in health college students. Methods: This study was designed using the nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. Sixty students were assigned either to the experimental group (30 students) or control group (30 students). Data were analyzed with χ2-test and t-test using SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. Results: The experimental group showed significant higher scores for social problem-solving ability (t=2.12, p=.038) and self-leadership (t=2.91, p=.007) compared to the control group 5 weeks after the program finished was supported by significant differences in the scores between the two groups. Conclusion: These findings showed that the Health Education program has a significant effect on improving social problem-solving ability and self-leadership in nursing college students and the program can be used as a tool to promote the social problem-solving ability and self-leadership of Health college students. Further studies are warranted to examine long term effects of health education.
  • 19.

    Study on bubble detection sensor for safe sap and blood injection

    Young Gi Yun | Hoo Young Lee | park koo rack | 2017, 22(9) | pp.149~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The infusion of fluid and blood is necessary in the ward, operating room, recovery room, neonatal room, etc. for nutrition and blood supply to the patient, but air bubbles generated during infusion of fluid and blood circulate along the artery or vein. Serious illnesses occur and there is also a risk of death. In this paper, we propose a medical bubble detection system, a bubble detection system, a bubble detection alarm system, and a communication method in order to develop a safer fluid and blood injection system in the existing system, which is detected by a medical staff monitoring system or an ultrasonic bubble detection sensor In this study, infrared rays are transmitted to a tube through a tube for injecting fluid or blood into a patient, infrared rays transmitted by an infrared ray emitting section are received, and the amount of light is measured in real time. Based on the data, we study how to detect and analyze the presence of bubbles in fluid and blood.
  • 20.

    An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Intention to Use B2B e-Marketplace

    An Youngsin | HaeSool Yang | 2017, 22(9) | pp.155~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the e-marketplace becomes the core of management activities, researches on motivation, transaction type, strategy, satisfaction, risk management, performance evaluation, etc. have been actively studied, but the factors influencing actual utilization have not been fully. Especially, the factors that affect the intention of the users are limited without consideration of internal environment, external environment, e-marketplace characteristics such as operating rules, characteristics of the company to be used. In order to derive the determinants of B2B e-marketplace use, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between internal environment, external environment, e-marketplace characteristics as independent variables, intention of use as dependent variable, participation qualification, The results were as follows. First, the previous study limited the determinants of intention to use to either internal or external, but this study presented an integrated model that considers both factors. Second, the characteristics of companies participating in e– marketplace were identified by using participation qualification and activity scope as control variables.
  • 21.

    The Effects of Psycho-social Variables on Consumers' Fair Trade Practice Behavior

    Huh, Eun-Jeong | 2017, 22(9) | pp.163~170 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find the differences in fair trade practice behavior, according to socio-demographic variables and to analyze the effects of psycho-social variables on fair trade practice behavior. This study includes the psycho-social variables as materialism, altruism, ethical identity, and perceived consumer effectiveness. The results of this study are as follows. First, the mean score of consumers' fair trade practice behavior was 4.12 on a 7-point scale, which means that respondents performed fair trade practice behavior at the middle level. Second, in terms of socio-demographic variables, there was a significant difference only in an age. Third, fair trade practice behavior had positive correlations with each of altruism, ethical identity, and perceived consumer effectiveness. Finally, regression analyses showed that altruism, ethical identity, and perceived consumer effectiveness had positive effects on fair trade practice behavior, whereas materialism had a negative effect on fair trade practice behavior.
  • 22.

    The Relationship between Counselor’s Emotional Labor and Psychological exhaustion : The Moderating Effects of Social Support

    Ahsung Kim | Geunmok Im | Huigon Jung | 2017, 22(9) | pp.171~177 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to suggest the implications of social welfare workers' understanding of emotional labor and prevention of psychological exhaustion. In order to achieve this goal, I analyzed the effects of the levels of surface acting and deep acting, which are components of emotional labor in social welfare workers in social welfare center, on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of sense of personal accomplishment which are components of psychological exhaustion. And I empirically analyzed how emotional labor affects psychological exhaustion, when superior support and fellow support as components of social support play a role as moderating variables. Empirical results show that emotional labor affects psychological exhaustion and social support plays a moderating role. Based on these results, theoretical and policy implications and future research directions are presented.
  • 23.

    The Relationships among Occupational Identity, Occupation Satisfaction Job Commitment of Care Workers in Care Hospitals - Focusing on moderating effects of personal characteristics

    Hwie- Seo, Park | 2017, 22(9) | pp.179~185 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational identity, occupation satisfaction, and self-efficacy of care workers in care hospitals and to draw implications for improving the quality of care services. In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, the occupational identity of care workers in care hospitals as an independent variable, occupation satisfaction as a dependent variable of occupational identity, and self-efficacy as a moderating variable were selected. The causal relationships between occupational identity and occupation satisfaction and the moderating effect of self-efficacy were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the occupational identity of care workers in care hospitals showed significant effects on occupation satisfaction and job commitment. Also, the effects of occupational identity on occupation satisfaction and job commitment differ depending on self–efficacy, which means that moderating effects of self-efficacy are significant. Based on this analytical results, the theoretical and policy implications of this study were suggested, and the directions and limitations of this study were suggested.
  • 24.

    Development of Scale Tools for Measure Programming Task Value and Learning Persistence at Elementary School Students

    Kim Ji-Yun | Lee Taewuk | 2017, 22(9) | pp.187~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we have studied scale tools for measure programming task value and learning persistence at elementary school students. In order to develop complete test tools, we have improved the completeness by revising tests through stepwise verification. The first scales were constructed based on the previous studies. As a result of the content validity test, 5 out of 14 items of the task value test tool and 1 out of 10 items of the learning persistence test were not suitable. The second test tools were constructed by revising and supplementing the first scale, and consisted of 13 items of task value and 8 items of learning persistence. As a result of the contents validity test, all the items included in the test tool proved to be valid. The reliability of the secondary testing tools were also found to be reliable at α = .970 and α = .975, respectively.