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pISSN : 1598-849X / eISSN : 2383-9945

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2019, Vol.24, No.5

  • 1.

    An Efficient Energy Charging Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Mobile Sink Capable of Wireless Power Transmission

    Kyoung nam Park , YOON IKJUNE | 2019, 24(5) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose the algorithms which determine 1) the efficient anchor-node visiting route of mobile sink in terms of energy supply and 2) the efficient energy amount to be charged to each anchor node, by using the information of each anchor node and the mobile sink. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) using mobile sinks can be deployed in more challenging environments such as those that are isolated or dangerous, and can also achieve a balanced energy consumption among sensors which leads to prolong the network lifetime. Most mobile sinks visit only some anchor nodes which store the data collected by the nearby sensor nodes because of their limited energy. The problem of these schemes is that the lifetime of the anchor nodes can be shorten due to the increased energy consumption, which rapidly reduces the overall lifetime of WSN. This study utilizes a mobile sink capable of wireless power transmission to solve this problem, so a mobile sink can gather data from anchor nodes while charging energy to them. Through the performance verification, it is confirmed that the number of blackout nodes and the amount of collected data are greatly improved regardless of the size of the network.
  • 2.

    Ensemble Engine: Framework Design for Visual Novel Game Production

    Choi Jong In , Kang Shin Jin | 2019, 24(5) | pp.11~17 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we propose an ensemble engine, which is a framework for game engine optimized for visual novels genre, focusing on storytelling among various game genres. The game of Visual Nobel genre is based on multi-ending story and features branching of various scenarios according to user's choice. The proposed engine supports various multi-scenarios and multi-endings based on nodes according to the characteristics of these genres. In addition, it provides a convenient and intuitive user interface that not only enhances user immersion but also provides VR function to maximize the sense of presence. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed game engine by designing the framework of a game engine suitable for this feature and actually creating variety stories automatically.
  • 3.

    D2D Tx-Rx Pair Assignment Using Duality Concept

    Oh Chang Yoon | 2019, 24(5) | pp.19~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we consider the D2D Transmitter(Tx) and Receiver(Rx) pair assignment problem in the cellular system. Sharing the resource of the cellular system, D2D users may cause interference to the cellular system, though it is beneficial to improve the D2D user Capacity. Therefore, to protect the cellular users, D2D transmit power should be carefully controlled. Previously, optimal Tx-Rx assignment to minimize the total transmit power of users was investigated. Accordingly, the iterative algorithm to find the optimum Tx-Rx asignment was obtained. In this work, we consider the case where Tx group users becomes Rx group users, and Rx group users become Tx group users. We prove that the Tx-Rx assignment problem has the duality property. We present the numerical examples that show the duality between U-link and D-link.
  • 4.

    A Discovery System of Malicious Javascript URLs hidden in Web Source Code Files

    Hweerang Park , Sang-Il Cho , JungKyu Park and 1 other persons | 2019, 24(5) | pp.27~33 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One of serious security threats is a botnet-based attack. A botnet in general consists of numerous bots, which are computing devices with networking function, such as personal computers, smartphones, or tiny IoT sensor devices compromised by malicious codes or attackers. Such botnets can launch various serious cyber-attacks like DDoS attacks, propagating mal-wares, and spreading spam e-mails over the network. To establish a botnet, attackers usually inject malicious URLs into web source codes stealthily by using data hiding methods like Javascript obfuscation techniques to avoid being discovered by traditional security systems such as Firewall, IPS(Intrusion Prevention System) or IDS(Intrusion Detection System). Meanwhile, it is non-trivial work in practice for software developers to manually find such malicious URLs which are hidden in numerous web source codes stored in web servers. In this paper, we propose a security defense system to discover such suspicious, malicious URLs hidden in web source codes, and present experiment results that show its discovery performance. In particular, based on our experiment results, our proposed system discovered 100% of URLs hidden by Javascript encoding obfuscation within sample web source files.
  • 5.

    Design and Implementation of a Boundary Matching System Supporting Partial Denoising for Large Image Databases

    Bum-Soo Kim , Kim,Jin-Uk | 2019, 24(5) | pp.35~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we design and implement a partial denoising boundary matching system using indexing techniques. Converting boundary images to time-series makes it feasible to perform a fast search using indexes even on a very large image database. Thus, using this converting method we develop a client-server system based on the previous partial denoising research in the GUI(graphical user interface) environment. The client first converts a query image given by a user to a time-series and sends denoising parameters and the tolerance with this time-series to the server. The server identifies similar images from the index by evaluating a range query, which is constructed using inputs given from the client and sends the resulting images to the client. Experimental results show that our system provides many intuitive and accurate matching results.
  • 6.

    A Study on Advanced Location Awareness Component using Smart Phone GPS in BIS

    Hwajeong Lee , Jingwang Koh , Lim Gyu Geun and 1 other persons | 2019, 24(5) | pp.41~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A BIS(Bus Information System) collects, processes and analyzes information such as real-time location and operation status during bus operation. And It is a system that provides valid information to citizens, drivers, traffic centers and bus companies. Transport information system sent by an each bus is collected through GPS(Global Positioning System), DSRC(Dedicated Short Range Communications), Beacon and passed to transport information center. BIS data by collected is handled and analyzed. Next, it is transmitted to citizen, drivers and bus companies in real time. The result of 5 times simulation satisfied the test criteria(error range ±10m) with an average error range of 3.306m, and the reliability is increased. In this paper, we propose a improved location transfer component that can provide users to quicker and more accurate location information than existing BIS using GPS of smart phone. It can be seen that reliability is improved by securing improved bus position data.
  • 7.

    Development of Edge Cloud Platform for IoT based Smart Factory Implementation

    Hyung-Sun Kim , LEE, Hong Chul | 2019, 24(5) | pp.49~58 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we propose an edge cloud platform architecture for implementing smart factory. The edge cloud platform is one of edge computing architecture which is mainly focusing on the efficient computing between IoT devices and central cloud. So far, edge computing has put emphasis on reducing latency, bandwidth and computing cost in areas like smart homes and self-driving cars. On the other hand, in this paper, we suggest not only common functional architecture of edge system but also light weight cloud based architecture to apply to the specialized requirements of smart factory. Cloud based edge architecture has many advantages in terms of scalability and reliability of resources and operation of various independent edge functions compare to typical edge system architecture. To make sure the availability of edge cloud platform in smart factory, we also analyze requirements of smart factory edge. We redefine requirements from a 4M1E(man, machine, material, method, element) perspective which are essentially needed to be digitalized and intelligent for physical operation of smart factory. Based on these requirements, we suggest layered(IoT Gateway, Edge Cloud, Central Cloud) application and data architecture. we also propose edge cloud platform architecture using lightweight container virtualization technology. Finally, we validate its implementation effects with case study. we apply proposed edge cloud architecture to the real manufacturing process and compare to existing equipment engineering system. As a result, we prove that the response performance of the proposed approach was improved by 84 to 92% better than existing method.
  • 8.

    Intelligent User Pattern Recognition based on Vision, Audio and Activity for Abnormal Event Detections of Single Households

    JungJuHo , Jun-Ho Ahn | 2019, 24(5) | pp.59~66 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    According to the KT telecommunication statistics, people stayed inside their houses on an average of 11.9 hours a day. As well as, according to NSC statistics in the united states, people regardless of age are injured for a variety of reasons in their houses. For purposes of this research, we have investigated an abnormal event detection algorithm to classify infrequently occurring behaviors as accidents, health emergencies, etc. in their daily lives. We propose a fusion method that combines three classification algorithms with vision pattern, audio pattern, and activity pattern to detect unusual user events. The vision pattern algorithm identifies people and objects based on video data collected through home CCTV. The audio and activity pattern algorithms classify user audio and activity behaviors using the data collected from built-in sensors on their smartphones in their houses. We evaluated the proposed individual pattern algorithm and fusion method based on multiple scenarios.
  • 9.

    Localization of Mobile Users with the Improved Kalman Filter Algorithm using Smart Traffic Lights in Self-driving Environments

    JungJuHo , Jung-Eun Song , Jun-Ho Ahn | 2019, 24(5) | pp.67~72 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The self-driving cars identify appropriate navigation paths and obstacles to arrive at their destinations without human control. The autonomous cars are capable of sensing driving environments to improve driver and pedestrian safety by sharing with neighbor traffic infrastructure. In this paper, we have focused on pedestrian protection and have designed an improved localization algorithm to track mobile users on roads by interacting with smart traffic lights in vehicle environments. We developed smart traffic lights with the RSSI sensor and built the proposed method by improving the Kalman filter algorithm to localize mobile users accurately. We successfully evaluated the proposed algorithm to improve the mobile user localization with deployed five smart traffic lights.
  • 10.

    A Study on the PSP-Platform for the Atomicity of Distributed Ledger

    Eun-Hee Lee , Yongik Yoon | 2019, 24(5) | pp.73~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In Korea, a budget of tens of trillion won is put into the national R & D project every year. Thanks to these efforts, Korea's ICT industry is gaining global attention. However, there are still a lot of problems that are lacking in terms of the cycle of managing national ICT R&D projects. In particular, the issue of sharing is very insufficient throughout the cycle of the national ICT R&D. In this paper, In this paper, We propose a platfom that can be shared throughout the cycle of managing blockchain-based national ICT R&D projects. This platform we call the Perfect Sharing Project Platform (PSPP). We describe that PSPP can achieve excellent research results through information sharing of project process[1-2]. To support the perfect sharing, this platform uses a new notion of consensus algorithm, called POA (Proof of Atomicity). This platform is suitable for sharing information.
  • 11.

    Analysis of the whole body shape of old-old aged males -focused on 70-85 aged males-

    Cha Su Joung | 2019, 24(5) | pp.81~91 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, 3D measurement data of 70 to 85 years old men were analyzed to investigate the body shape characteristics. and the type of the whole body of older men. Through this study, we aimed to provide basic data necessary for making good clothes for elderly men. We analyzed the body shape of elderly males using Korea 's 2015 elderly anthropometric data by SPSS Ver. 24.0. The body shape of older males was classified into four types: ‘thin & long inverted triangle with thick legs', 'thick & short inverted triangle with bird legs', 'thick & long triangle with thick legs', 'thick & short triangle with thick legs'. As the age increases, the shoulders are sagging, the progressive reduction of the spine leads to a decrease in height, and the backbone refraction causes a decrease in the anterior center length and an increase in the back length. In addition, as the age increases, the chest circumference decreases and the abdomen and waist circumference increase. Considering these physical changes, it is necessary to set the length of the garment to 2-3cm shorter in the case of the aged layer. Waist and abdomen area are increased, it is considered that it will be necessary to add more margin of 2cm than general silver clothing when setting the margin amount. When setting the length of the upper body, it is considered that the front center length should be reduced and the back length should be increased to keep the bottom level. In this study, only the elderly males aged 70-85 years were included in the analysis of the whole body type. It is significant that the studies so far have been extended to those older than 70 years. Future research will need to be applied to the development of silver clothing through comparison of older men 's body shape in their 60s and 70s.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Adjustment Method of Bicycle Shoe Cleat for Bicycle Fitting System

    Son Gyeong Hwan | 2019, 24(5) | pp.93~102 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The nation's fraternity and elite players who have built up a global bicycle infrastructure often find it to be a problem with the bicycle's speed and speed reduction, pain in knees and hip joints, or even with the bike itself, or with the bike's own physical defects or a riding posture. However, we found that most cases of cleat adjustment errors were likely to be true. Accurate adjustment of the cleats is the most important of the entire fitting process and can be the basis for improving the ability of the bicycle rider and preventing injury. Therefore, the study was intended to give a prior study of bicycle fitting, which can improve bicycle efficiency and prevent injury when riding bicycle, and specific ways of adjusting bicycle shoe cleats, and the following results were obtained. First, the cleat characteristics of Shimano, LOOK and Speedplay, which are currently used in public, and the characteristics during the cleat adjustment process, were derived. In addition, the structure and characteristics of dedicated shoes using cleats and the method of using pedalling by the structure of shoes after adjusting the cleats were derived. Second, the position of the shoe and its relationship with torque in pedalling was discussed, and the method of adjusting front and back of cleats was derived. Third, leg length, ASIS, Q-Angle and Q-factor etc. were analyzed and the method of setting and adjusting cleat left and right values were derived. Fourth, the relationship between walking angle and cleat rotation was analyzed, the method was derived, and the torque size and angle behind the cleat adjustment were compared and analyzed using the spinner to indicate the torque and the effective mean torque angle after the cleat adjustment.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Internal Marketing Perceived by Nurses on Self-Efficacy and Hospital Image

    Seung-Hee Shin , JUNG JI HEE , Jae-Ik Shin | 2019, 24(5) | pp.103~111 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate how internal marketing affects self-efficacy and hospital image in university hospital nurses. In addition, it was to identify which factors of internal marketing is the most important factor perceived by the nurses. The sample consisted of 228 nurses working in one university hospital located in Changwon city of Gyeongnam province. The measurements included internal communication (5 items), empowerment (5 items), reward (3 items), education and training (5 items), working environment (3 items), leadership (5 items), self-efficacy (5 items), and hospital image (8 items) based on a review of related previous studies. Survey data were analyzed employing SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 20.0. The nurses rated internal communication (0.887) of the internal marketing sub-factors the most important, while they evaluated working environment (0.802) the lowest. The internal marketing perceived by nurses has a positive effect on self-efficacy (0.476) and hospital image (0.674). Nurses' self-efficacy also had a positive effect on hospital image (0.226). The findings reveal that the managers should build a positive climate of internal marketing activities in order to enhance nurses’ self-efficacy and hospital image.
  • 14.

    Factors Affecting Cultural Competence of Nursing Students

    Park, Mi-sook | 2019, 24(5) | pp.113~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to identify the level of cultural empathy, self-esteem, and cultural competence and factors affecting cultural competence of nursing students. Participants were 157 nursing students who were 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in one university located at the Chungbuk provinces. Data collected using questionnaires which consisted of general characteristics, cultural empathy, self-esteem, and cultural competence. The mean score for cultural empathy was 3.63±.34(scores ranged from 1 to 5), The mean score for self-esteem was 2.91±.42(scores ranged from 1 to 4). The mean score for cultural competence was 3.31±.43(scores ranged from 1 to 5). There were significant differences between cultural competence and age(t=-2.242, p=.027), grade(F=3.473, p=.033), and fluency of foreign language(F=5.053, p=.007). There were significant correlation between cultural competence and cultural empathy(r=.49, p<.001), and self-esteem(r=.33, p<.001)), and self-esteem and cultural empathy(r=.33, p<.001). Cultural empathy and self-esteem explained 29.4% of cultural competence and major predictor variable for cultural competence was cultural empathy. In this paper, we propose various multicultural education programs in curriculum and extra curriculum that can enhance cultural empathy and self-esteem to improve cultural competence of nursing students. Especially, continuous education of cultural knowledge among cultural competence will be done.
  • 15.

    Influencing factors on Moral Distress in Long-term Care Hospital and Facility Nurses

    Kim HyunSook , Ryu Soo Jung , Kyung-Choon Lim | 2019, 24(5) | pp.121~130 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explore the level of the moral distress for nurses working in long-term care hospitals or nursing homes, and identify factors that influence the moral distress. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires including the Korean version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised (KMDS-R), Jefferson Empathy Scale for Health professionals (K—JSE-HP), Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire (K-MSQ), and the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey (HECS). A total of 194 nurses from 11 long-term care hospitals or 27 nursing homes completed the structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 25. As results, the mean score for moral distress was 73.81±51.29 in this study. The moral distress of nurses working at nursing homes was higher than that of nurses working in long-term care hospitals. Among the sub-factors of moral distress, the ‘futile care’ was the highest score and the ‘limit to claim the ethical issue’ was the lowest. The main factor affecting moral distress among nurses in this study was the ethical climate of organization. In this paper, we propose that in order to effectively reduce the moral distress of nurses working in a long-term care hospital or a nursing home, it is more impactful to address structural issues related to the caregiver workplace than to adjust individual factors.
  • 16.

    Risk Perception and Safety Knowledge of Scuba Divers

    CHO,BYUNGJUN , Ko jang sik , Gyoung-Yong Kim and 1 other persons | 2019, 24(5) | pp.131~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was aimed to identify a study on risk perception and safety knowledge and awareness of scuba diver. In order to achieve this purpose, a total of 310 customers over the age of 20 were selected as study participants form diving pools and dive resort in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Gyeongsang area using the convenience sampling method. However, only data from 295 customers were used after screening the data for reliability. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics, inter-item consistency reliability, t-test, ANOVA, post hoc test, correlation analysis, pearson chi-square test were conducted on the data using the SPSS 21.0 version statistical package program. The followings are the results: First, risk perception differs significantly according to age, education level, occupation and participation period. Second, participation period and safety knowledge have positive correlation.
  • 17.

    A Study on the Effect of SNS Characteristics of Restaurant Franchise on the Customer Decision and Redelivery Intention

    Jo Gye Beom | 2019, 24(5) | pp.139~147 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study is conducted to analyze how Social Media characteristics of restaurant franchise affect customer decision making and redelivery intention and find out how to do Social Media marketing which is getting important. Through this study, we will understand the direction of Social Media management. In this study, we had 220 users to respond questionnaires who looked up about restaurant franchise through Social Media. In the previous research, we classified the Social Media characteristics about the restaurant franchise into the fields of liveliness, agreement, reliability, communication, accuracy, and entertainment. In order to verify the hypothesis, we conducted single regression analysis and multiple regression analysis and verified the relationship between variables. First, we found that Social Media characteristics of restaurant franchise has a positive relationship with favorability. Second, Social Media characteristics of restaurant franchise has a positive relationship with satisfaction. Third, favorability has a positive effect on satisfaction. Fourth, favorability has a positive effect on the intention of re-inquiry and redeliver. Fifth, satisfaction has a positive effect on the revisit and intention to redirect. As a result of the study, we found that restaurant franchise will gain trust of customers if they take into account the characteristics of Social Media of restaurant franchise and conduct customized marketing according to the head office of restaurant franchise and perform continuous feedback and management in order to improve customer's favorability and loyalty.
  • 18.

    Design Of Intrusion Detection System Using Background Machine Learning

    Hyung-Hoon Kim , Jeong-Ran Cho | 2019, 24(5) | pp.149~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The existing subtract image based intrusion detection system for CCTV digital images has a problem that it can not distinguish intruders from moving backgrounds that exist in the natural environment. In this paper, we tried to solve the problems of existing system by designing real - time intrusion detection system for CCTV digital image by combining subtract image based intrusion detection method and background learning artificial neural network technology. Our proposed system consists of three steps: subtract image based intrusion detection, background artificial neural network learning stage, and background artificial neural network evaluation stage. The final intrusion detection result is a combination of result of the subtract image based intrusion detection and the final intrusion detection result of the background artificial neural network. The step of subtract image based intrusion detection is a step of determining the occurrence of intrusion by obtaining a difference image between the background cumulative average image and the current frame image. In the background artificial neural network learning, the background is learned in a situation in which no intrusion occurs, and it is learned by dividing into a detection window unit set by the user. In the background artificial neural network evaluation, the learned background artificial neural network is used to produce background recognition or intrusion detection in the detection window unit. The proposed background learning intrusion detection system is able to detect intrusion more precisely than existing subtract image based intrusion detection system and adaptively execute machine learning on the background so that it can be operated as highly practical intrusion detection system.
  • 19.

    The Longitudinal Study on Structural Relationship between Parental Attitude and Adolescent’s Self-Esteem - Application of Latent Growth Model -

    Hwie- Seo, Park | 2019, 24(5) | pp.157~161 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to suggest some theoretical and policy implications through investigating the relationships between parental attitude and adolescent’s self_esteem. This study analyzed some data including parental attitude and self_esteem from KCYPS. Parental attitude was supposed not to change as time goes by. The analytical results are the followings. First, the change rate and intercept of adolescent’s self-esteem were significant, which means the change pattern of self-esteem depends on adolescent. Second, positive parental attitudes influence on the change pattern of adolescent’s self-esteem significantly. Third, negative parental attitude influence on the change pattern of adolescent’s self-esteem significantly. This study suggests some policy implications basing on these analytical results.
  • 20.

    The Effects of discrimination abuser experiences and discrimination victim experiences on consciousness of Human Rights`s at community children centers : Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem

    Bang Sung A | 2019, 24(5) | pp.163~170 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of discrimination abuser experiences and discrimination victim experiences on the human rights consciousness of children in community children, In order to understand the role of self-esteem as a mediating role between these two variables, And to find practical and policy implications. For this purpose, we selected 662 elementary school sixth graders who participated in the second panel of the community children's center, the third year (2016), as the sample and used the structural equation model validation method. As a result of this study: First, the experience of discrimination abuser against children in the community children 's center has negative effects on self - esteem. Second, the self-esteem of children in the community children's center showed a statistically significant effect on human rights consciousness. Third, the experiences of child discrimination abuse and discrimination of local children 's centers showed significant influence on children' s consciousness of human rights through self - esteem. In conclusion, we proposed practical use measures to promote positive emotional development and human rights consciousness of children in community children's centers.
  • 21.

    A Study on the Realities and Preventive Countermeasures of Child Abuse Committed by Biological Parents by information analysis

    RYU CHAE HYOUNG , Yoon Hyun-seok | 2019, 24(5) | pp.171~177 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we analyze the current phenomenon of child abuse crimes based on the information gathered by the National Child Protection Agency. The purpose of this paper is to diagnose the seriousness of child abuse by biological parents based on the analyzed information and propose measures against it. Comprehensive and integrated measures are needed for child abuse committed by biological parents due to abuse concealment, continuity of damage, and inactive national intervention by considering punishment on attackers through national intervention, fundamental in-depth psychological counseling, therapeutic care, promoting recovery of victims, and ultimately continuous and regular management and monitoring as a long-terms measure. To do so, developing customized and individual educational programs and make them obligations can be first presented to identify child abuse in advance and build up preventive systems based on the principle of family preservation. In addition, problems should be addressed at a fundamental level by performing various and active therapeutic treatments such as psychological treatment, mental treatment, or drug treatment gradually and through phases for biological parents who commit child abuse and contributing to recovering the relationship. Furthermore, proper protection and treatment service should be provided to children victimized by abuse by extending professional children care facilities and adopting the professional family commission system as measures by separating family.
  • 22.

    A Study on the Relationships between Cyber Money Quality and Usage Intention: Focus on the Moderating Effect of Usage Frequency and Amount of Cyber Money

    Jong-soo Yoon | 2019, 24(5) | pp.179~186 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    While there have been a lots of studies on the use of cyber money, few researches proposed the results on relationships among quality factors, usage intention, and usage characteristics of cyber money in online business environment. Therefore, this study investigates the relationships between cyber money quality and usage intention of cyber money, and examines whether the usage characteristics(frequency, amount) of cyber money has moderating effect on the relationship between cyber money quality and usage intention of cyber money. Firstly, multiple regression analysis tells significant causal relationship between functional and emotional factors of cyber money quality and usage intention of cyber money. Secondly, dummy regression analysis shows usage characteristics of cyber money has the moderating effect on the relationship between cyber money quality and usage intention of cyber money. This paper concludes with some implications for both theory development and cyber money practice.
  • 23.

    A Case Study on Instruction using CS Unplugged v4.1 for Lower Grade Elementary School Students

    Kim Ji-Yun , Kim Eunji , Lee Taewuk | 2019, 24(5) | pp.187~193 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we conducted a case study for lower grade elementary school students by modifying and applying lesson plan of CS Unplugged v4.1. Software education was introduced in the 2015 revised national curriculum in Korea, but the starting age is later than the other countries. Also most projects and researches are concentrated in higher grade elementary school students. It is necessary to lower the entry age of software education in order to nurture human resources leading the fourth industrial revolution era. In this study, we modified the lesson plan of CS Unplugged v4.1 to be suitable for lower grade elementary school students in Korea. The participants were 18 students in the first grade of elementary school, pre&post-test on understanding of computer science principles were conducted for examining the effectiveness. As a result, the average was significantly higher in the post-test than in the pre-test, with t=-2.222, p=0.040(p < .05).