The effect of body composition such as lean mass and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) is complex and still controversial. In this study, we investigated the relationship between body composition and bone mineral density using nation-wide data from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2,139 men and 2,193 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older. Subjects with history of medication for osteoporosis or with diseases or malignancy affecting bone metabolism were excluded. Data of anthropometric measurements and demographic characteristics were collected by trained examiner. Fasting blood sample was obtained for blood chemistry analysis. BMD of the lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck, and body composition such as total lean mass (TLM), total fat mass (TFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant positive correlations between body composition indices such as lean mass and fat mass with BMD. In multiple regression analysis, TLM was positively associated with BMD after adjusting age, body mass index, monthly house income, education level, physical activity, daily calcium intake and vitamin D concentration in both men and postmenopausal women. BMD at lumbar spine and femur in lowest quartile of TLM was significantly lower than other quartiles after adjusting those confounding factors in both gender. TrFM was negatively associated with total femur BMD in male and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. In conclusion, TLM is very important factor in maintaining BMD in subjects aged 50 years or older in men and postmenopausal women.