As the coronavirus disease(COVID-19) pandemic is declared and the number of confirmed cases and deaths increases in countries around the world, the world is gripped with fear. Therefore, in this study, psychological factors of infection prevention behaviors of firefighters and maritime police officers were analyzed based on the Health Belief Model. Although there was no significant difference in the COVID-19 prevention behaviors between the two groups, there was a significant positive correlation between the perceived disease infection possibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits in the general characteristics and the COVID-19 prevention behaviors. There was no significant difference with perceived obstacles. This study is of great significance in that it is the first analysis of firefighters and maritime police officers as a health belief model, and can be used as basic data for the implementation of new infectious disease prevention actions.