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2013, Vol.13, No.4

  • 1.

    Professionalism and job satisfaction in dental hygienists

    Lee, Seong-Sook | 2013, 13(4) | pp.535~542 | number of Cited : 28
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the professionalism and job satisfaction of clinical dental hygienists. Methods : The subjects were 310 dental hygienists in private and group practiced dental clinics. A self-reported questionnaire was conducted from December, 2012 to February, 2013. Data were analyzed using SPSS WIN 12.0. Results : Dental hygienists revealed the highest score in a sense of calling (3.41) and the lowest score in professionalism (2.85). They showed the highest score in the relationship with dentists (3.56) and the lowest score in pay (2.83). Highly educated and aged dental hygienists wanted to get more clinical career as professionalist. So there was a very significant positive correlation between professionalism and job satisfaction. Conclusions : Dental hygienists showed job satisfaction. Therefore it is important to develop the linking system of professionalsim and human resources development program.
  • 2.

    Some dental hygienist by career expectations regarding clinical work done in the field of business studies

    AHN SE YOUN | 오보경 | 황선희 and 4other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.543~552 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study is to investigate job performance expectations according to duration of work and to specify the clinical practice of dental hygienists by career expectations. Methods : The subjects were 310 dental hygienists in Seoul and Incheon. They completed the self-reported questionnaires and 304 data were analyzed except incomplete 6 answers. Results : The tasks performed by dental hygienists were as follows ; SS crown restoration in pediatric dentistry accounted for 25.1%, orthodontics (42.1 %), plaque removal (71.4 %), temporary fillings (60.5%), and impression taking of abutments and bite registration (58.9%). In order to be a skillful dental hygienists, it took two to three years of clinical filed work. Conclusions : On the job training (OJT) is the most important in dental hygiene curricula. So it is necessary to develop the OJT performance skill.
  • 3.

    Dental fear factor analysis in dental clinic patients

    Lim Soon Hwan | LEE CHUN SUN | Han Ji Hyoung and 2other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.553~560 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to analyze the dental fear of dental patients during treatment. Methods : Statistical package PASW 18.0 WIN(USA) was used to analyzed the frequency and percentage of the general characteristics. T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results : Females tended to have more fear than male. The first visit to dental clinic was the most important fear factor. Most of the subjects did not receive regular dental checkup because of fear since entering elementary schools. Conclusions : In order to reduce dental fear, comfortable environments may be necessary for treatment.
  • 4.

    Recognition about national health insurance of dental scaling in industry accident injury patients

    Lee, Hea Shoon | kyung Hee Lee | 2013, 13(4) | pp.561~568 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the recognition and needs on the national health insurance coverage of scaling in industry accident injury patients. National health insurance coverage of dental scaling will start in September, 2013. Methods : Subjects were 649 industrial injury patients and they completed self-reported questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0 for percentage, chi-square test, t-test,ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results : Recognition on national health insurance coverage of dental scaling was not fully known to industrial injury patients (24.5%). Highly educated and high income workers seemed to recognize national health insurance coverage of dental scaling (p<.001). Recognition for national health insurance coverage of dental scaling revealed a significance (r=.576, p<.001). Most of the industrial injury workers thought that 50,000 to 100,000 Korean Won of dental scaling fee is reasonable. The coverage of dental scaling should be more than twice over 20 years old. Conclusions : It is necessary to encourage the patients to take regular dental scaling checkup and make them know the health insurance coverage of scaling. The preventive oral health care may improve oral health care and quality of life.
  • 5.

    Study of oral health knowledge, management and attitude change after health education program designed for marriage immigrant women

    최미숙 | Kim, Han Gon | 최규일 | 2013, 13(4) | pp.569~579 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : TThe purpose of this study was to provide the oral health education program for marriage imimigrant women. This study focused on the pre and post education effects including knowledge and attitude of oral health. Methods : Subjects were 51 marriage immigrant women who participated in the 4 phases of oral health program for two weeks from March 26 to June 30, 2012. Results : Oral health education program had a significant influence on the level of oral health perception. The oral health education program enhanced the knowledge level of marriage immigrant women. Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) also showed a significant difference and suggested that the oral health education program increased the level of knowledge related to oral care. Conclusions : It is necessary to investigate motivation factors and influential factors changing the oral health behaviors, knowledge and attitude related to oral health. Further study will be necessary to analyze the characteristics by countries, social class and age.
  • 6.

    Comparison of oral health status by metabolic syndrome risk factors in workers

    Inyoung Ku | seonjeongmoon | 이명선 and 1other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.581~588 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study si to investigate correlation between metabolic syndrome risk factors and oral health status in workers and to propose the integrated and effective management measures. Methods : Subjects were 4,600 workers in industrial company. Data by medical checkup and oral examination were collected from July 13, 2010 to September 12, 2010. Self-reported questionnaire included general characteristics, job description, smoking, drinking, and metabolic syndrome risk factor indicators. Gingivitis, dental calculus and missing tooth tended to have more metabolic syndrome risk factors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square test, correlation analysis, logistic regression using SPSS version 18.0. Results : Dental caries revealed 1.146 times higher than the control group. Risk group showed the following results; gingivitis was 1.317 times higher in risk group and 1.612 times in metabolic syndrome. Dental calculus was 1.532 times higher in risk group and 1.557 times in metabolic syndrome. Mssing teeth were 1.976 higher in metabolic syndrome. Conclusions : Metabolic syndrome risk factors had close correlation to poor raol health status. It is necessary to establish the effective plan for the oral health in workers.
  • 7.

    The influence of stress on oral mucosal disease, dry mouth and stress symptoms in adults

    MINHEE HONG | 2013, 13(4) | pp.589~596 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the stress of adults on their oral mucosal diseases, dry mouth and physical, mental stress symptoms. Structured equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the hypotheses of the study. Methods : The subjects were 500 adultsfrom July 1 to December 31, 2012. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS 18.0 K for window, SPSS Inc USA) and IBM SPSS Amos 18.0(SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) set at the level of significance as 0.05. Results : The level of stress had a direct influence on oral mucosal diseases, and oral mucosal diseases affected stress symptoms directly. The level of stress had a significant impact on stress symptoms, and that exercised an indirect influence on stress symptoms through the medium of oral mucosal diseases and dry mouth. The level of stress affected dry mouth in a direct effects,and dry mouth had a direct impact on stress symptoms. Conclusions : The stress of adults had direct and indirect impacts on their oral health and systemic diseases. The oral health of adults should be promoted to let them stay healthy, and how to help them to get rid of their stress should be considered to improve their quality of life.
  • 8.

    Factors that influence the oral health status between Korean adults living in Korea and the US

    Kim, Yeon-hwa | 2013, 13(4) | pp.597~604 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of the study is to compare and investigate oral health status between Korean adults living in Korea and the US. Methods : Subjects were 1,785 persons including 399 Korean adults living in Virginia, US and those from the second year 2011 of the 5th National Health and Nutrition Survey. Darta were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for frequency analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc Tukey. Results : 1. In general characteristics, adult living in Korea revealed higher DT and DMFT than those in the US. 2. In oral health status, adult living in Korea revealed higher DT and DMFT than those in the US. 3. The variables affecting oral health status in Korean adults in the US were age, private health insurance and number of tooth brushing. 4. The variables affecting oral health status in adults in Korea included gender, age, private health insurance, smoking,drinking, use of secondary oral hygienic products and number of tooth brushing. Conclusions : It is necessary to emphasize the importance of oral health care and to establish the oral health education in dental care agencies.
  • 9.

    Awareness and satisfaction on tooth whitening

    KyeongHee Lee | 박초희 | Soo-Kyung Kim | 2013, 13(4) | pp.605~613 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to establish guideline for tooth whitening by investigating the awareness towards tooth whitening. Methods : The subjects were recruited in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from June to August, 2011. A total of self-reported 395 questionnaire data were analyzed except for 5 incomplete answers. Results : 1. Smoking and coffee had no significant influence on the intention to whiten the tooth according to gender(p<0.001), age(p<0.001) and marital status(p<0.001). 2. Seventy persons (64.8%) tried to whiten tooth for color change. Half of the respondents (50.0%) bleached teeth by themselves. Of 295 persons, 66 persons (61.1%) were satisfied with self-whitening of teeth. Conclusions : Majority of the respondents wanted to whiten their teeth and they tried whiten by themselves because the whitening procedure was easy to do. It is necessary to establish the guideline for whitening teeth for safety.
  • 10.

    Correlation between dental caries experience, oral health promotion behaviors, and knowledge of oral health in children and adolescent

    SHIN - SEONHAENG | 2013, 13(4) | pp.615~622 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study is to estimate the dental caries experience and the factors influencing the dental caries in children and adolescents and to provide the data for effective management of oral health in children and adolescents. Methods : Subjects were 446 students randomly recruited in primary, middle, high school students located in Seoul from April 1 to May 31 2011. The data were collected by a questionnaire survey and direct oral examination. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS WIN 14.0 program. Results : DMF in male accounted for 88.8% and that in female accounted for 89.1%. The oral promotion behaviors in female was significantly higher than those in male (p<0.001). Aged (p<0.05) and well-educated parents(p<0.001) tended to have better oral promotion behaviors. The higher oral health knowledge, the better oral health promotion behaviors. Better oral health promotion behaviors tended to have lower DMFT and DT index (p<0.01). In regression analysis,age, oral health promotion behavior in children and adolescents were related to the dental caries experience (p<0.001). Poor oral health promotion behaviors increased the dental caries experience. Conclusions : The active oral health care can prevent dental caries in children and adolescents. The concern for oral health care is important to maintain healthy dental hygiene.
  • 11.

    Influencing factors of oral health behavior in elementary school students by health belief model

    SOMIHYUN | Choi Hye-Jung | 2013, 13(4) | pp.623~629 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study is to investigate the health belief model affecting the oral health behavior in elementary school students by applying health belief model. Methods : Subjects were 216 elementary school students including 6th grade 103 boys and 113 girls in Gyeonggi-do from February 1 to February 28, 2013. They completed self-reported questionnaires after receiving informed consents. Results : Oral health belief model showed cues to action(20.39±3.11), benefits(19.63±3.37),self-efficacy(16.62±2.60), severity(14.53±3.94), susceptibility(14.31±4.62), and barrier(11.74±3.85). Oral health belief revealed the lower the level of barrier(p=0.004) and the higher cues to action,Benefits and self-efficacy were the best oral health behavior(p=0.000). The most influencing factors of oral health belief were self-efficacy(0.267) and Cues to action(0.239). Conclusions : Children's oral health belief is associated with oral health behavior. children's self efficacy and cues to action toward oral care influenced on oral behavior. It is important to enhance the recognition toward self efficacy and cues to action by following recommended behavior and effective health educational program.
  • 12.

    Effect of administration by school dental clinic program

    Kang Hyun Joo | 2013, 13(4) | pp.631~637 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of the study is to propose the fundamental data for further developments of the school dental clinic program through evaluating comprehensive improvements of the indices and the oral health status. Methods : This studied was carried out from December 2010 to September 2012. Subjects were 239 elementary school 4th, 5th, 6th grade students having no school dental clinic and 195elementary school 4th, 5th, 6th grade students having school dental clinic in Busan. They completed self-reported questionnaires after accepting informed consent. The questionnaire included knowledges, attitudes and practices for oral health recognition and supports of the school dental clinic program. Results : Permanent tooth caries prevention rate revealed 59.0%, 53.3%, and 62.0%. in 4th,5th, and 6th respectively. Rate of Care Group with fissure sealant permanent teeth showed 80.3%,88.0%, and 88.9% respectively. Index of Care Group with fissure sealant permanent teeth revealed 2.68, 2.90, and 3.97, respectively. DMFT index of Care Group was 1.11, 1.35, and 1.51, respectively. Active D rate of Care Group resulted in 16.7%, 24.1%, and 16.7%, respectively. Dental health education group showed high awareness level of fluoride and sealant effect for caries prevention. Tooth brushing of three times per day was more effective when using rolling tooth brushing. On the other hand, oral health recognition and oral status in the control group was low. Conclusions : Oral health recognition was closely related to good oral care. Expansion of oral health care business is important to prevent dental caries. Systematic approach for oral health education programs and human resources development is very important to improve oral health care.
  • 13.

    Influences of oral health behaviors according to oral health education experiences in middle school students

    Mi-Sook Cho | Park Min Kyung | Jang Kyeung Ae | 2013, 13(4) | pp.639~644 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate the influencing factors of oral health behaviors according to oral health education experiences in middle school students. Methods : The subjects were 301 middle school students who lived in Gimhae and Jinhae. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results : The group with oral health education experience had higher scores in oral health knowledge(p<.01) than the group without oral health education. The group with oral health education experience has higher scores in oral health behavior (p<.01) than the group without oral health education. The group with oral health education experience has higher scores in self-efficiency (p<.01) than the group without oral health education. The experience of oral health education shows positive correlation with oral health knowledge(r=0.184), oral health behavior(r=0.199) and self-efficiency(r=0.199). There existed a positive correlation between oral health knowledge and self-efficiency(r=0.351). Conclusions : It is necessary to provide oral health promotion program in middle school students. The importance of oral health care is closely related to oral health knowledge.
  • 14.

    Dental clinic fear in high school students

    Kim, Seol Hee | 2013, 13(4) | pp.645~650 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate dental clinic fear and anxiety in high school students. Methods : The subjects were 311 high school students aged 19 years. They completed self-reported questionnaire including general characteristics, dental clinic experiences, dentist or dental hygienist confidence, and dental fear. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Results : Poor oral health status showed negative attitude towards dental clinic visit. Girl students tended to have more fear than boy students. Muscle tension was the most common experience and was closely related to anesthetic needles and drills. Dental anxiety was caused by lack of confidence to dentists and dental hygienists. Students were more afraid of dentists than dental hygienists. Higher score of dental anxiety seemed to be associated with infrequent visit to dental clinic. Conclusions : Frequent regular dental checkup may reduce dental fear and anxiety. Dental clinic staff should try to minimize dental anxiety in performing treatment.
  • 15.

    Relationship between the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders in some male high school students and computer utilization

    박의정 | 윤영주 | 2013, 13(4) | pp.651~657 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of the study is to verify the correlation between teenagers’ use of internet and temporomandibular joint disorders(TMJD) because TMJD patients gradually increase in high school students. Methods : Subjects were 221 male high school students attending liberal arts and commercial schools from 9 to 21 of April, 2012. Students completed self-reported questionnaire. Results : TMJD symptoms included crackling joint (32.1%), headache (18.6%), malocclusion (8.1%), and jaw fatigue and muscular aching (7.2%). Students having at least one symptom accounted for 49.8%. Students having at least one poor habit accounted for 83.7% and 34.0%of the students used internet for 3 hours.. Score of students experiencing shoulders and chest pain was 5.13±1.10 (p<0.05). Score of TMD afflicting area revealed 4.67±2.73 (p<0.05) in mastication pain (4.13±2.73 (p<0.05)) due to long hours of internet use. Score of jaw fatigue related to muscular pain was 4.31±1.96 (p<0.01). Duration of computer use was related to perceived TMJD symptoms (r=.153). Long duration of computer use was related to poor oral cavity habits (r=.157). Conclusions : Male high school students can perceive slight TMD which needs self management and regular check-ups and try to prevent TMD by utilizing measurement tools on TMD. Also,this study helps to prevent from worsening TMD by shortening hours of computer utilization.
  • 16.

    Research on some of dental hygiene students’ stress over the national examination

    PARK IL SOON | 김혜진 | 2013, 13(4) | pp.659~668 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to analyze the causes of stress driven by the national examination and to find out correlation between stress factors and students’ general characteristics. Methods : Data were collected from self-reported questionnaires by dental hygiene students in D university in February, 2012. Results : Those having good high school GPAs (p<.05) and high preliminary test scores (p<.01)towards dental hygienist (p<.05). National license examination was the most stressful factor for 54.2% of the students. Much more stressful pressure goes to students of non-scheduled admission (p<.01), students who graduated from vocational high schools(p<.01), students with good high school GPAs (p<.05), and having high preliminary test scores(p<.05). Most of the students tended to bear the burden on national written examination with an average of 4.17. The most difficult subject was oral biology introduction (average 4.52). Oral biology introduction was more stressful to students of early admission, students graduating from vocational high schools (p<.05), students with good high school GPAs (p<.05), and students who had relatively low preliminary test scores (p<.001). Conclusions : It is crucial to reduce stress factors and to develop related programs.
  • 17.

    Influencing factors for the empowerment of the dental hygiene students

    Sun-A Lim | Hye-Jeong Youn | 2013, 13(4) | pp.669~676 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine correlation between clinical practice and self-esteem in empowerment of dental hygiene students. Methods : Subjects were 399 dental hygiene students in Gwangju and Jeollanamdo. They completed self-reported questionnaire from November 5 to 20, 2012, after infromed consent was accepted. Results : Higher scores in empowerment was found in students who were satisfied with curricula (p<0.05) and major(p<0.001), having higher average grades (p<0.001), and who felt the better atmosphere of the clinical practice (p<0.05) and got more marks in empowerment. The empowerment of the students had a significant positive correlation to their satisfaction with clinical practice(p<0.001)and self-esteem(p<0.001). Satisfaction with clinical practice had a significant positive correlation to self-esteem(p<0.01). Conclusions : Satisfaction with major and higher self-esteem led to empowerment, sustained research efforts should be directed into the development and application of programs that could bolster these factors.
  • 18.

    Employment preparation and job preference of dental hygiene majoring students

    Hwang Ji Young | Song-Yi Yang | Ga-Yeon Son and 2other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.677~684 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate dental hygiene majoring students on employment preparation and job preference. Methods : Subjects were 471 dental hygiene majoring students in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do,Gangwon-do, Daejeon, Chungcheong-do, Busan, and Jeju-do. Except 34 incomplete answers, 437copies were analyzed. Results : Female accounted for 98.9%. Grade point average(GPA) ranged from 3.5 to 4.0 (38.8%). Most of the students lived in Gyeonggi (20.4%). Out of 364 students, 58.5% had hospital coordinator certificates and 36.3% had computer related certificatse. Those who studied in Gyeongnam wanted to work in Gyeongnam (90.6%), and those who studied in Seoul wanted to work in Seoul (79.7%). These results revealed the same tendencies in Gangwon(56.8%), Gyeonggi(47.6%) and Jeju(39.3%). Except for Chungbuk and Gyeongnam, most students preferred Seoul as a preferable working location (p<0.000). The reason for the preferable working locations included easy commutation (31.0%), higher income (28.5%), and brand value of hospital (22.5%). Most students chose job for easy commutation (44.8%, p<0.000) and welfare benefits (29.6%). Preference for income ranged from 15,000,000~20,000,000 Korean Won including Daejeon (75.0%), Gyeongnam (59.4%),Chungbuk (58.4%), and Jeju (56.7%). Conclusions : It is necessary to implement the various curricula development including future planning and mastery of foreign language education focused on globalization.
  • 19.

    Comparison of subjective health condition and subjective oral health condition of the elderly in Gumi

    김한나 | Inyoung Ku | Kim Eun Hee and 3other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.685~692 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : Rapid aging is a big social issue and aging influences on the quality of life in elderly people. Oral health in elderly people related to the general health condition and it is necessary to improve the quality of life in the elderly people. The aim of the study is to investigate the influencing factors of oral health in the elderly people. Methods : Self-reported questionnaire included general characteristics, subjective health and oral condition and denture use. Subjects were 177 elderly people in Gumi, Korea. SAS (Ver.9.2)Program was used for the collected data to perform frequency analysis, cross tabulation, t-test and ANOVA. Results : Higher subjective oral health score were found in younger age, highly educated,high income, and married elderly people. Elderly people who were older and had low education and low income tended to use denture Conclusions : It is necessary to develop oral health care management and prevention program for the elderly people.
  • 20.

    Factors influencing the number of remaining natural teeth in elderly people visiting dental care services

    Hyun-Ju Lim | 이은경 | 2013, 13(4) | pp.693~700 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of remaining natural teeth in elderly people visiting dental care services and the factors affecting dental visit. This study will contribute the development of oral health promotion programs for the elderly people. Methods : Subjects were 172 elderly people recruited from 217 senior citizens visiting public oral health care services in 16 districts in Busan. They completed self-Corresponding Author reported questionnaires. Results : Elderly people had less remaining natural teeth (p<0.001). The remaining natural teeth (15.07±8.75) of the health insurance beneficiary were majority than those of the medicaid (8.78±8.45)(p<0.001). The respondents with better oral health condition had more remaining natural teeth (r=0.317, p<0.001), and those who were more worried about oral health had less remaining natural teeth (r=-0.599, p<0.001). Aging accelerates loss of natural teeth (p<0.001) of 3.203. Approximately 2.188 remaining teeth will be preserved by oral health care improvement (p=0.009). Conclusions : Frequent dental clinic visit will prevent natural teeth loss in the elderly people. Toothbrushing is the most efficient method of oral health care in the elderly people. Awareness towards oral health care is the motivation to preserve natural teeth in the elderly people.
  • 21.

    pH and buffering capacity in some commercial fermented milks

    고석주 | Seong-Soog Jeong | Choi Choong Ho and 1other persons | 2013, 13(4) | pp.701~711 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH and buffering capacity in some commercial fermented milks in Korea. Methods : The study was carried ouf from June to August, 2012. In 35 liquid type, 79condense-stirred type and 71 condense-drink type fermented milks, available on the market, pH and buffering capacity were measured. Titration(with NaOH) was used to determine the buffering effect of each fermented milk. They were titrated with 1 M sodium hydroxide, added in 0.1milliliters increments, until the pH reached about 5.5 and 7.0. Results : The average pH of tested fermented milks was 4.08±0.27. The average pH values of fermented milks were 3.64±0.22 in liquid type, 4.14±0.12 in condense-stirred type, and 4.22±0.17condense-drink type. The average buffering capacity (pH 5.5) of tested fermented milk was 2.40±0.54. The average buffering capacity (pH 5.5) of liquid type fermented milk was 2.37±0.33,condense-stirred type fermented milk was 2.77±0.46 and condense-drink type fermented milk was 2.01±0.42. The average buffering capacity (pH 7.0) of tested fermented milks was 4.00±0.87. The average buffering capacity (pH 7.0) of liquid type fermented milk was 3.11±0.36,condense-stirred type fermented milk was 4.78±0.55 and condense-drink type fermented milk was 3.58±0.59. Conclusions : The average pH of tested fermented milks in this study was lower than pH 4.5. The type of fermented milks was an important factor for selection of fermented milk which is related with enamel erosion.