Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between diabetes mellitus and community periodontal index inKorean adults.
Methods: The study populations were recruited by the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Studysubjects were 10,411 who were examined oral examination, blood test, and aged over 19 years. Using multiple logistic regressionanalyses, the variables were adjusted for gender, age, household income, family history of diabetes, body mess index, smoking habit,and frequency of tooth brushing. Periodontal tissue examination of the subjects was performed and scored by Communityperiodontal index(CPI). Using probe, six teeth were examined for hemorrhage, plaque, and pocket depth and classified into CPI0,CPI1, CPI2, CPI3 and CPI4. Healthy periodontal groups(CPI0-2) and periodontal disease groups(CPI3-4) were divided by theperiodontal disease status. The definition of diabetes mellitus(DM) was decided by the diagnosis by the doctors and fasting bloodsugar level. Those who were diagnosed as DM were included in DM group. The DM variables included normal blood sugar level,increased fasting blood sugar level, and DM blood sugar level. The DM variables were compared to periodontal disease blood sugarlevel and analyzed.
Results: The periodontitis prevalence rate was 23.2%. Those who had diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.5% of the subjects. Thosewho had impaired fasting glucose accounted for 17.7% and 7.9% of subjects were diabetes mellitus by blood test. In the confirmeddiabetes group by doctor, the periodontitis prevalence rate was significantly higher than the non-diabetic group. Diabetic group byblood test had the highest prevalence rate of periodontitis than those who had impaired fasting glucose group or normal group. Afteradjusting for gender, age, household income, family history of diabetes, body mass index, smoking habit, and frequency of toothbrushing, the risk of periodontitis in diagnosed diabetes mellitus was 1.57 times(95% CI; 1.27-1.94) higher than the normal group. Inimpaired fasting glucose group and diabetes mellitus group by blood test, the risk of periodontitis was 1.11 times(95% CI; 0.95-1.30)and 1.45 times(95% CI; 1.45-2.12) higher, respectively.
Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis in Korean adults. These results suggestthat diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for periodontitis.