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2016, Vol.16, No.1

  • 1.

    Oral care status and periodontal disease of middle aged diabetic patients

    KIMMYEONGSEON | Keon-Yeop Kim | 문보애 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to identify the oral care status and periodontal disease of middle aged daibetic patients in Korea. Methods: The primitive data were taken from 238 diabetic people in the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES) in 2010 - 2012. The variables included general profiles(gender, age, occupied area, education, and smoking), oral care status(brushing time, brushing time, use of oral hygienic supplies, availability of oral hygienic supplies, oral examination, and recognition of oral health state), and diabetes management(morbidity period, treatment, education, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels). Results: Most of the subjects took gargling more than twice a day and it accounted for 73.5%. Oral hygienic supply users accounted for 24.8%, and most of them used floss brush. Oral examination was done in 19.3% of the respondents and 55.0% thought that their oral health status were very poor. The prevalence rate of the periodontal diseases was 46.6%. Female tended to have a higher rate of periodontal disease than the male. Oral hygienic supply users had lower rate of periodntal disease than those who did not use. Those who had poor subjective oral health status had higher prevalence rate of periodontal disease than those who did not. Conclusions: Periodontal disease is closely related to good oral care of middle aged diabetic patients. It is necessary to develop the program for the prevention of the periodontal disease for the diabetic patients.
  • 2.

    Comparison of oral health related characteristics between a long-term patients and general population

    전주현 | 권지애 | 남정민 and 3other persons | 2016, 16(1) | pp.11~18 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare the oral health related characteristics between a long-term patients and general population. Methods: A direct interview questionnaire was completed by 160 patients and 165 general people from January 16 to April 31, 2014. The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics of the subjects, subjective health status, oral health behaviors, and needs of oral health. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The long-term patients reported that most of them were denture wearers(38.1%), and had oral disease symptoms(62.5%) and xerostomia(65.6%). Most of the long-term patients were ex-smoker(31.3%) and did not receive regular dental check-up(92.5%). They did not know tooth brushing method(31.3%) and brushed their teeth less than twice a day(47.5%). Those who used tooth brush for more than 6 months accounted for 47.5%. Most of them did not use auxiliary oral hygiene devices(85.6%). The patients answered that oral health is not important(6.9%), oral health education is not necessary(7.5%), and oral cleaning(26.3%) should be included in oral health education. Conclusions: The self-reported oral health status of the long-term patients much more serious than the general population. It is necessary to educate the continuing oral health management program for the long-term patients.
  • 3.

    Relationship between the number of remaining teeth and depression in Korean adults

    Min-Jeong Cho | 마재경 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.19~25 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the number of remaining teeth and depression in Korean adults. Methods: The subjects were the respondents of the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES). The questionnaire consisted of the general characteristics of the subjects, number of remaining teeth, and prevalence of depression. relationship of the prevalence of depression and the number of remaining teeth. The data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression using SPSS, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: There was a significant difference in number of remaining teeth and odds ratio(OR) was 1.940(95% confidence interval: 1.062-3.544). Statistically significant difference was not observed after adjusting for age and gender and OR was 1.515(95% confidence interval: 0.823-2.787). And Statistically significant difference was not observed after adjusting for age, gender and other variables. The OR was 1.399(95% confidence interval: 0.757-2.586). Conclusions: Depression in the adults was related to the number of remaining teeth. But there was no significant difference in the number of remaining teeth after adjusted for age, gender, and other factors.
  • 4.

    Morbidity of dental caries and periodontal disease based on oral healthcare of adults in Busan

    김혜진 | 차지아 | 유수빈 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.27~35 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to find out dental caries and periodontal disease based on oral healthcare of adults in Busan. This study will provide the preventive oral healthcare for the periodontal diseases and dental caries. Methods: The study subjects were 369 people from the regular dental health checkup in the general hospital in Busan. After receiving informed consent, a self-reported questionnaire was completed from October 1, 2014 to January 31, 2015. The questionnaire consisted of dental caries and periodontal diseases by direct examination and toothbrushing method. Data were analyzed by 2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and Pearson’s correlation. Results: In the morbidity of dental caries and periodontal diseases, the dental caries was most common in those having restored teeth(236 subjects, 64%), while periodontal diseases were found in mild cases of gingival inflammation in 285 subjects(77.2%), and mild cases of dental calculus in 274 subjects(73.4%). Most of the respondents replied that they did not have systemic disease or oral health related symptoms. According to toothbrushing pattern, dental caries experiences were most common in those having less frequent toothbrushing less than 3 minutes and no tongue brushing. The outbreak of dental caries was more common in 5 times than 3 to 4 times a day. Conclusions: The education of the right toothbrushing method and use of dental floss is the most important prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease in the adults.
  • 5.

    Contents analysis of the community dental hygiene practice outcome evaluation

    LEEGAYEONG | Han Yang-Keum | 김영경 and 5other persons | 2016, 16(1) | pp.37~43 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the contents analysis of the community dental hygiene practice in the dental hygiene students and suggest the outcome based evaluation index of community dental hygiene practice. This study will provide the basic data for the community nursing and social welfare practice. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 82 dental hygiene professors and 254 dental hygienists in community health centers after receiving informed consent based on institutional review board from 5th Dec 2014 to 30th Jul 2015. A total of 49 professors and 134 dental hygienists gave the complete answers. The study instrument was adapted from the literature review. The questionnaire consisted of evaluation, purpose of evaluation, and evaluation format. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 program. The contents analysis was carried out through input, process, output, and outcome. Results: The practice outcome evaluation was conducted in 62.9% of the dental hygiene departments and 32.9% of the community health centers. Most of the dental hygiene professors chose “To know what students learned(27.3%)” and “To ensure student’s role and behavior in practice(27.3%).” as the purpose of evaluation. The public dental hygienists chose “To score the practice grade(42.1%).” The evaluation method was done anonymously. Conclusions: The outcome based evaluation in community dental hygiene practice was the best method to evaluate the practice education for the competency of the dental hygiene students.
  • 6.

    Study of the cumulative dental caries rate of pit and fissure sealant in community public health program: 3 years follow-up

    Lee, Kyeong-Soo | 전매숙 | Kim, Chang-suk | 2016, 16(1) | pp.45~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the cumulative dental caries rate of pit and fissure sealant in community public health program from 2005 to 2008 follow-up. Methods: The subjects were 4,768 students of 34 elementary schools in Gimcheon. The survey included direct oral examination and cumulative retention rate of pit and fissure sealant from 2005 to 2008. Data were analyzed using PASW statistical package version 18.0 and the level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The cumulative retention rate of sealant was 18%, 25%, and 33% after 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years, respectively. In addition, the cumulative retention rate of lower teeth was higher than that of upper teeth. Cumulative dental caries rate increased in sealed group and no sealed group. The cumulative dental caries rate decreased owing to tooth brushing frequency in sealed group and no sealed group. Conclusions: Regular and timely tooth brushing can maintain good oral health condition after tooth sealing. The school based oral health education can prevent loss of sealant and secondary caries.
  • 7.

    Relationship between emotional labor and burnout among dental hygienists

    정은경 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.53~59 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purposes of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout among dental hygienists. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 247 dental hygienists from September 4 to October 9, 2014. The questionnaire consisted of emotional labor, job burnout, and job stress. Emotional labor included frequency of emotional expression, compliance with emotional regulation, emotional diversity, and emotional dissonance by the instrument pf Morris and Feldman. Job burnout was adopted from Maslach burnout inventory(MBI). Job stress was adpoted from instrument of Chang. Except 13 incomplete answers, 234 data were analyzed by AMOS 18.0 and SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The emotional labor has a significant positive relation to the job burnout. There was a statistical significance between emotional labor and job stress. Job stress had a positive relation to job burnout. Job stress had a mediating effect between emotional labor and job burnout. Emotional labor had a direct effect on the job burnout. Job stress also had a mediating effect on job burnout. Conclusions: It is necessary to improve working environment that can enhance emotional balance and to develop job stress management program.
  • 8.

    Knowledge of the dental health insurance standard in the dental hygienists: based on the elderly denture

    Ryu, Hae Gyum | 2016, 16(1) | pp.61~67 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the knowledge of the dental health insurance standard of elderly denture in the dental hygienists. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 183 dental hygienists in Busan and Gyeongnam. The questionnaire consisted of general profiles of the subjects(11 items) and 10 items of the dental health insurance standard of the elderly denture including subject of spplication, application method, calculation of range, and temporary denture. Each question was measure by Likert 5 points scale. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.936 in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 program. Results: The knowledge of the dental health insurance standard on the elderly denture in the dental hygienists was high in cognition of the renewed standard change(p<0.001), individual career(p<0.05), and recognition of the current standard(p<0.05). Conclusions: It is continuously necessary to inform the dental hygienists of the knowledge of dental health insurance standard. The web-based program for the dental health insurance education should be provided continuously for the dental hygienists.
  • 9.

    Effect of mentoring function on job satisfaction, organization commitment, and turnover intention in the newly employed dental hygienists

    최규일 | Yun-Hyun-Kyung | Choi mi sook | 2016, 16(1) | pp.69~75 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of mentoring function on job satisfaction, organization commitment, and turnover intention in the newly employed dental hygienists. Methods: Two hundred and fourteen dental hygienists in Daegu and Gyeongbuk completed a self-reported questionnaire from January to May 2013. The instrument for the questionnaire consisted of mentoring function, mentoring personality, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, ANOVA, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Results: The longer duration of the mentoring for the newly employees strengthened job satisfaction and organization commitment. The mentoring function had a positive effect on job satisfaction and organization commitment, and decreased turnover intention. The higher quality of personality overcome the turnover intention. Conclusions: The mentoring is very important to enhance the job satisfaction and organization commitment in the newly employees. Loner duration of work( =.268, p=0.008) explained higher job satisfaction. Higher quality of personality(=0.279, p<0.001) also had higher job satisfaction. The explanation power of the model was 36.5% and the revised model explanation was 35.6%. The effective mentoring is closely related to job satisfaction and organization commitment and it can reduce turnover intention.
  • 10.

    Effect of fluoride application after dental prophylaxis by the type of dental floss

    조민정 | 김경희 | Ha,Myung-Ok and 1other persons | 2016, 16(1) | pp.77~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fluoride application after dental prophylaxis by the type of dental floss. Methods: Artificial caries lesion was made on the surface of cow's permanent teeth having sound enamel surface and vickers hardness number(VHN) was measured. Specimens were classified into APF gel group and artificial saliva group. Each group was divided into waxed floss group and unwaxed flossed group. All specimens were immersed into the artificial saliva for one minute and dental flossing was applied to waxed or unwaxed floss. After washing and drying, APF gel groups were applied with fluoride for four minutes and artificial saliva groups were immersed into the artificial saliva for four minutes. After treatment, specimens were measured by VHN and surface conditions of enamel were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Results: VHN of waxed flossing and fluoride application group increased to 6.78±2.75. VHN of unwaxed flossing and fluoride application group increased to 7.36±2.51. There was no significant difference between waxed and unwaxed groups(p>0.05). VHN of waxed flossing and artificial saliva group increased to 1.07±2.84. VHN of waxed flossing and artificial saliva group increased to 1.05±3.13. There was no significant difference between waxed and unwaxed groups(p>0.05). There was significant increase in VHN between waxed/unwaxed flossing and fluoride application. However, waxed/unwaxed flossing with artificial saliva showed no significant VHN increase. SEM demonstrated no residue on the enamel surface in the waxed flossing groups. Conclusions: No difference was found in the remineralization of enamel by waxed flossing or unwaxed flossing.
  • 11.

    Comparison of effectiveness on knowledge improvement before and after the oral health education: focusing on foreign students

    Young-soo LEE | 이화정 | Nam.y.o | 2016, 16(1) | pp.85~92 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate comparison of the effectiveness on knowledge improvement before and after the oral health education focusing on foreign students. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was filled out by 40 foreign students in Sun Moon University from June 2 to September 30, 2014. The experimental group had an online oral health education and the control group had an off line education. The questionnaire consisted of oral health(10 items), toothbrushing(10 items), dental caries(10 items), periodontal disease(5 items), tooth sensitivity(5 items), oral cancer(6 items), and smoking(5 items). The data were analyzed by SPSS Win 18.0 program. Results: Knowledge scores of online education increased to average 1.257 points, and that of offline education was average of 2.56 points. There were statistically significant results for toothbrushing, dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth sensitivity, oral cancer and TMD except for smoking in offline education group. Conclusions: This study suggests that the offline oral health education is more effective than online oral health education.
  • 12.

    Related factors of oral health-related quality of life of migrant women in multicultural families

    Kim Hye-Jin | Ji-Young Nam | 2016, 16(1) | pp.93~101 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study aims to analyze the factors influencing on the oral health-related quality of life of migrant women in multicultural families. Methods: An interview survey was conducted through the general characteristics, oral health behaviors, and OHIPs(oral Health Impact Profiles) of 200 migrant women in multicultural families registered in multicultural family support center in Pohang. The survey was carried out from March 2 to 29, 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 program. by frequency analysis, chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Oral health promotion behavior showed statistically significant differences(p<0.01) in the number of tooth brushing and in those using oral health care supplementary device by each country. The oral health-related quality of life was significantly influenced by economic compensation, pregnancy, and the economic status of the native country(p<0.05). Conclusion: The nationwide oral health policy should be established for migrant women in multicultural family.
  • 13.

    The effect of oral exercise on oral health and oral health related quality of life in the elderly people

    Lee Hee Kyeng | Eun-Kyong Kim | 김민선 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.103~109 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of oral exercise on oral health and oral health related quality of life in the elderly people. Methods: The subjects were83 elderly people including 42 elderly people of intervention group and 41 elderly people of control group. A dentist and a dental hygienist carried out the direct oral examination. The self-reported questionnaire was completed and the oral examination consisted of decayed tooth, missing tooth, filling tooth, functioning tooth, plaque index, salivary flow rate, and range of motion in mouth opening. OHIP-14 was used to assess the oral health related quality of life. For three months, oral exercise was done twice per week in the experimental group. Results: Before oral exercise, there was no significant difference between the intervention group and control group. After 3 months, there was a significant improvement in plaque reduction and range of motion in mouth opening between two groups (p<0.001, p<0.001). Oral health related quality of life was observed in the intervention group (p<0.001). Conclusions: The oral exercise using toothbrushing remarkably improved the oral health related quality of life in the elderly people.
  • 14.

    Association between self-esteem and temporomandibular disorder in the high school students

    Mi-Sook Cho | Kim, Chang-suk | Cheon Sae Hee | 2016, 16(1) | pp.111~120 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-esteem and temporomandibular disorder among high school students. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 584 high school students in Gyeongnam. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic profile, anxiety, self-esteem, oral parafunctional habits, and temporomanibular disorder. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 program. Results: In univariate analysis, there were significant differences between self-esteem and temporomandibular disorder(p<0.05). The self-esteem was negatively correlated with parafunctional habits(r=-0.253, p<0.001) and temporomandibular disorder(r=-0.221, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, self-esteem was significantly associated with temporomandibular disorder(β= -0.119, p=0.025) after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and anxiety. Conclusions: The self-esteem negatively influenced on temporomandibular disorder in the high school students.
  • 15.

    Influence of social network service(SNS) information on intention to dental office use

    박선영 | Cho, Young Sik | 2016, 16(1) | pp.121~127 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of social network service(SNS) information on intention to dental office use. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 410 users of social network service between twenty and thirty years old in Seoul and Gyeonggido after receiving informed consent from July 1 to August 3, 2015. The questionnaire consisted of general profiles of the subjects(6 items), use of dental office(3 items), use of SNS(3 items), use of dental SNS(4 items), use of general SNS(6 items), application of dental SNS(6 items), and intention to dental office use(2 items). Except 8 incomplete answers, 402 data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The first choice of dental office was recommendation by the acquaintances. There were close correlations between the use of SNS information and the use of general SNS information according to sex(p=0.016) and the frequency of SNS(p=0.012). The use of SNS for dental information showed a meaningful correlation with sex(p=0.003). The intention to use was influenced by sex(p=0.016) and the use of SNS for dental information(p<0.001). Conclusions: The important factor of visit intention to dental service was recommendation by the acquaintances through SNS. The appropriate advertisement of visit intention is very important to improve dental health care.
  • 16.

    Association between oral health status and body mass index in older adults

    Yunhwan Lee | 조윤영 | 김진희 | 2016, 16(1) | pp.129~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between oral health status and body mass index (BMI) in adults over 65 years old. Methods: The study subjects were 4,550 adults over 65 years old from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES Ⅴ) in 2010-2012. Mastication-related oral health status included the number of remaining teeth, and mean number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth(DMFT). Body mass index(BMI, kg/m2) was categorized as underweight(<18.5), normal weight (18.5-22.9), overweight(23.0-24.9), and obese(≥25.0). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of BMI categories with the number of remaining teeth and DMFT. Results: The mean number of DMFT was highest(13.0±0.7) in the underweight group and lowest(8.8±0.3) in the obese group. Those having less favorable masticatory ability, and fewer number of remaining teeth and no prosthesis, tended to be underweight. Those having a higher number of remaining teeth and prosthetic teeth tended to be overweight or obese. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, compared with those having 20 or more remaining teeth, including prosthetic teeth, those having less than 20 remaining teeth and no prosthesis had 4.48 times higher odds ratio of being underweight. DMFT was positively associated with underweight, while negatively associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusions: The masticatory ability and dental caries prevention maintained the healthy body weight in adults of old age.
  • 17.

    Opinion of dental hygienists toward school dental clinic operation

    Sun-Mi Lee | Won Young Soon | kim chang-hee and 3other persons | 2016, 16(1) | pp.137~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the opinion of dental hygienists toward school dental clinic operation. Methods: The study was carried out by telephone or e-mail to the dental hygienists in 415 elementary school dental clinics from September 1 to 30, 2014. The questionnaires were collected from 208 school dental clinics. Except incomplete answers, 148 data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of general characteristics of the subjects(7 items), operation of school dental clinic(5 items), obstacle to school dental clinic(10 items), and effective operation of school dental clinic(5 items). Results: The school dental clinic operation accounted for 68.7% and 90.6% of the respondents answered that it was very effective for the oral health improvement. The dental hygienists answered that the clinic operation was very effective in oral disease prevention(37.1%), oral health knowledge and behavior(32.8%), oral health behavior habit(29.3%), and oral health improvement(0.9%). The change of the current operation into full time employee accounted for 79.7% and only 16.1% agreed to current operation of clinic visit by the community health center. The results showed that need for dentist was 3.69 by Likert 5 point scale. Conclusions: The oral health policy must be established to develop and implement the oral health programs for the school clinics.
  • 18.

    Fluoride concentration in the finger nails of dental hygiene and nonhealth-relate some female students

    박의정 | oh na rae | Yoon Sung Uk | 2016, 16(1) | pp.147~153 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between fluorine concentration within finger nails and the level of dentifrice in dental hygiene students and non-health majoring students. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by seventy female college students living in Daegu and Gyeongbuk that are not supplied with fluoridation from May to June, 2014. Informed consent was approved by institutional review board (IRB). The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics of the subjects (11 items) and oral health behavior including number of toothbrushing, duration of toothbrushing, number of mouth rinsing, and amount of dentifrice. A dentist and a dental hygienist examined directly the subjects by the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO). The oral examination included decayed tooth, healthy tooth, and filled tooth. The nail samples were obtained from seventy female students. Results: Comparing the dental hygiene students and non-health majoring students, 62.5% of dental hygiene students used approximately 1300mg of dentifrice and 55.2% of non-health majoring students used 1800mg or more of dentifrice. The non-health majoring students used more dentifrice (p<0.01). The fluorine concentration within nails was 1.9905㎕/g in dental hygiene students and 3.2149㎕/g in non-health majoring students. The fluorine concentration within nails in the dental hygiene students was significantly lower(p<0.01). Conclusions: The accumulation of fluoride in human body is not fully caused by dentifrice. However, The accumulation may occur due to toothbrushing so that it is necessary to educate the students about the right use of the dentifrice.