Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health status and behavior in Korean diabetic adults.
Methods: The study subjects were 11,840 adults who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(2010-2012). Diabetic status was defined by doctors and fasting blood sugar(FBS) level. Oral health status was assessed by decayed-missing-filled teeth(DMFT), community periodontal index(CPI), periodontal disease, denture needs, limitation of oral function, and chewing difficulty. The oral health behavior was evaluated by oral examination within a year, brushing times a day, and use of auxiliary oral product. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses.
Results: The prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus diagnosed by doctor and FBS was 8.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The prevalence rate of periodontitis was 25.4%. The proportions of DMFT ≥20, CPI ≥3, periodontal disease, denture needs, oral function limitation and chewing difficulty in the confirmed diabetic group by doctor were significantly higher than those of the non-diabetic group(p<0.05).
In multiple logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio(aOR) for periodontal disease(aOR=1.73, 95% CI=1.41-2.12), presence of denture needs(aOR=1.40, 95% CI=1.06-1.84), limited oral function(aOR=1.43, 95% CI=1.15-1.78) and chewing difficulty(aOR=1.41 95% CI=1.13-1.77) in diabetic subjects were significantly higher than those of the non-diabetic subjects. There were similar associations between diabetes defined with FBS and oral health. In oral health behavior, diabetic subjects had significantly lower odds ratios for oral examination(aOR=0.76, 95% CI=0.60-0.98), brushing time ≥2 times(aOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.57-0.93), and auxiliary oral products(aOR=0.74, 95% CI=0.59-0.94).
Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between oral health status and behavior in Korean diabetic adults. Further study is needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms between diabetes mellitus and oral health status.