Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of self-leadership on organizational effectiveness and job performance in the dental hygienist. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 281 dental hygienists in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggido from March 1 to 31, 2016. The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics of the subjects, self-leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis using the SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The average of self-leadership was 3.62, self-reward had highest score of 3.84, followed by rehearsal 3.73, self-expectation 3.72, self-goal setting 3.51, constructive thinking 3.48, and self-criticism 3.45. The average of organizational commitment was 3.11, and that of job satisfaction was 3.11 and the average of job performance was 3.70. Among the sub-factors of self-leadership, self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thinking showed a positive correlation with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. All sub-factors except for self-criticism showed a positive correlation with job performance. Among the sub-factors of self-leadership, self-expectation (β =0.350), constructive thinking (β =0.124), self-reward (β =0.106), rehearsal (β =0.102) showed a significant effect together with job satisfaction (β =0.187) on job performance. Also, age, education level, clinical career, the average monthly salary showed a significant effect on job performance. Conclusions: The self-leadership and job satisfaction of in the dental hygienist had influence on job performance. To improve the job performance of dental hygienists, it is necessary to apply self-leadership development program focusing on the strengthening of self-expectation and constructive thinking.