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2018, Vol.18, No.4

  • 1.

    Anti-inflammatory effect of new calcium hydroxide paste containing siliconsubstituted hydroxyapatite in lipopolysaccharidestimulated macrophages

    노지연 | Ki-Rim Kim | 2018, 18(4) | pp.423~432 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide, a root canal temporary sealer, has long been used and it has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. To investigate the properties of a newly developed calcium hydroxide paste comprising silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of the new calcium hydroxide paste in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which causes infection of the root canal. Methods: The test materials, including Calcipex II as control group and the newly developed TRC paste, were extracted from cell culture media and then diluted for experiment. In LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, the cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production of test materials were measured by MTT assay and Griess reagents, respectively. Also, the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assessed by western blotting. Results: The IC50 values of Calcipex II and TRC paste were 17.6 ㎎/㎖ and 13.5 ㎎/㎖, respectively. The level of NO, increased by LPS, was dose-dependently inhibited more by TRC paste than Calcipex II treatment. In addition, iNOS expression was decreased by 71% and 92% at concentrations of 2 ㎎/㎖ and 20 ㎎/㎖ of TRC paste, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the Si-HA calcium hydroxide paste has a slightly improved anti-inflammatory property and further studies are needed before clinical recommendations are proposed.
  • 2.

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms in dental unit water

    이승희 | 박지혜 | Sakong Joon | 2018, 18(4) | pp.433~440 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of microorganisms by quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms before and after flushing of dental unit water. Methods: This study was conducted on the supply of high-speed handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, and air-water syringes, which sterilized from 10 dental unit chairs at a dental clinic in South Gyeongsang Province. The number of bacterial communities was calculated by collection before and after flushing (2, 4, and 6 minutes). Results: The mean number of bacteria in the handpiece water before flushing was 27,208 CFU/㎖; 2 minutes after flushing, 2,180 CFU/㎖; 4 minutes after flushing, 900 CFU/㎖; and 6 minutes after flushing, 412 CFU/㎖. Conclusions: To minimize the risk of cross-infection and intra-clinic infection in dental clinics, education and water quality monitoring may be needed.
  • 3.

    A study on the necessity recognition of dental health center establishment in the school

    jung eun seo | 김은지 | 김지연 and 2other persons | 2018, 18(4) | pp.441~453 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the development of basic data for establishing and expanding the dental health centers in the future by examining the awareness of the dental health center establishment and the level of dental health knowledge in the school. Methods: A survey was conducted from April 2017 with 336 students over 10 years old in South Korea to investigate the awareness of the dental health center establishment in the school and their dental health knowledge level. The results were summarized as follows. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed using the SPSS WIN 21.0 statistical program. Results: It was necessary to establish the dental health centers in the school with their establishment rate of 82.8%, and the reason for the establishment of the dental health center was the possibility of regular checkup with the highest at 43.6%. In the school, 62.8% answered no experience of dental health education with the highest rate. Dental health education in the school was answered to be necessary with 91.0% the most prevalent one. Factors affecting the recognition of the expected effect of establishing the dental health center in the school, it is expected that if the establishment of the oral health center is needed and the oral health education is needed in the school, And the perception of the effect is increased. Conclusions: 91% of the respondents considered that dental health education was necessary and 83% answered they needed dental hygiene. However, only 37.2% of the students experienced dental health education in the school. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the dental health center establishment, and to develop the foundation of life dental health care through regular dental examination and proper brushing education.
  • 4.

    In-depth interview with the center managers for home visit dental hygiene services in the long-term care insurance

    kimhanna | GI YON KIM | HieJin Noh and 1other persons | 2018, 18(4) | pp.455~462 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study was carried out to identify plans to activate home visit oral care services by dental hygienists in Long-term care insurance. Methods: In-depth interviews were carried out with 21 Long-term Home Care Center Managers as target. A total of 21 (27%) Home Care Centers were selected through convenience sampling among 78 Home Care Centers that are located in Won-ju city. The Managers were presented with questions and answered in 20-30 minutes in accordance with the interview instructions. The interview results were analyzed through content analysis, and their experiences and perceptions were classified into two themes and categorized again into four components. Results: The Home Care Center Managers suggested that dental hygienists should activate home-visit oral hygiene services. It is necessary to improve the management process and awareness of the elderly. Conclusions: To activate oral hygiene services, it is necessary to improve the service guideline and enhance the efficiency of the service process. This should be acceptable both to the elderly who need the services and the dental hygienists who provide them.
  • 5.

    Factors affecting perception of dental hygienists

    KyeongHee Lee | 2018, 18(4) | pp.463~476 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perception of dental hygienists and look for ways to inform the dental hygienist correctly by investigating factors influencing the perception of dentalhygienists. Methods: The final analysis population for this study was composed of 302 adults aged 20 years or older who were living in Seoul or Gyeonggido. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted using the SPSS WIN 22.0 statistical program. Results: When factors influencing perceptions of dental hygienists were investigated, educational background beyond high school (p<0.05), educational background beyond college (p<0.001), occupation (student, p<0.05), title (dental hygienist, p<0.01), and whether dental hygienists offered comfort during treatment (yes, p<0.001) were found to exert statistically significant influence. In other words, participants with educational background beyond high school and college, student, participants who call the title dental hygienists, and participants who felt comforted by dental hygienists during treatment had better perceptions of dental hygienists. Conclusions: Based upon the results as mentioned above, It will be needed more training to enhance the skills of a dental hygienist patient response. Also participants who felt comforted by dental hygienists during treatment had better perceptions of dental hygienists. This indicates a need to devise ways to better foster the ability of dental hygienists.
  • 6.

    A study on career competency, task and job satisfaction of dental hygienists - Focusing on public officials, public institution workers, and researchers

    정소현 | 남상희 | 박지현 and 4other persons | 2018, 18(4) | pp.477~488 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate career competency, tasks, and job satisfaction of public servants, public institutions, and researchers. Methods: The survey was conducted about career competency, job satisfaction, and satisfaction on work life. Next, they interviewed on the characteristics of each job by two or three dimensions. The following conclusions were obtained from July to August 2017. Results: Career competencies were GPA with 3.87, 818 points of TOEIC score, and ITQ certification. Public servants required the information on literacy skills for employment and job performance, while civil servants need more than one year of clinical experience in the dental hospital. The non-commissioned officer needed a written test and fitness training. The health insurance review and assessment center required more than one year of experience from general hospital or medical institutions. Researchers required a research career, language skill, and professors required research and teaching experiences with clinical experience more than three years. The main job tasks were as follows; for public servants, they were official document processing and community projects. For the civilian workers and military/noncommissioned officers, they were medical assistant and administrative works. The employees of the health insurance review and assessment service are examining the medical expenses and the medical examination, the researchers are experimenting, researching and writing articles, and the teaching staff are ecturing and conducting individual research. Conclusions: The results of job satisfaction survey showed that occupational satisfaction was the highest in civil servants, researchers, and teaching professions. Job security was the highest in health workers and health inspectors' evaluation centers, and time vacancy was the highest in civilian workers and military/noncommissioned officers. If you want to work in such an institution, you should prepare elements that match your basic literacy and job specific characteristics. And we should try to increase the satisfaction of work even after work.
  • 7.

    Mediating effects of burnout and moderating effects of organizational support on the relationship between emotional dissonance and job satisfaction in dental hygienists

    김초롱 | 최준선 | 2018, 18(4) | pp.489~499 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of burnout and to identify the moderating effects of individual factors and organizational factors on the relationship between emotional dissonance and job satisfaction. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 270 dental hygienists working full-time at dental care facilities. The data on the socio-demographic characteristics, emotional dissonance, burnout, job satisfaction, and individual and organizational factors were collected. The individual (self-efficacy and ego resilience) and organizational (social support, organizational support and wage satisfaction) factors were considered as the moderating variable. For statistical analyses, t-test, one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression were used. Results: Burnout was found to be a significant mediator on the relationship between emotional dissonance and job satisfaction(p<0.001). The variables moderating the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout were identified as social support, organizational support and wage satisfaction (p <0.05), while the variables moderating the relationship between burnout and job satisfaction were wage satisfaction and ego resilience (p<0.05). Conclusions: To prevent the decrease in job satisfaction due to emotional dissonance, the management of dental care facilities should have a better understanding of burnout in dental hygienists, which requires individual and organizational efforts to be moderated. In addition, as organizational support has been identified as the factor mitigating the negative effects of emotional dissonance, it is highly necessary to adopt the preceptor system, improve communication systems and expand welfare policies of organizations.
  • 8.

    A study on perception of workplace bullying in the dental hygienists

    김나연 | 조영식 | 2018, 18(4) | pp.501~513 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of workplace bullying in the dental hygienists to use them as basic data for improving the organizational relationship of the dental hygienists. Methods: The subjects were 302 dental hygienists that had been working at the dental clinics and dental hospitals. These data were analyzed by SPSS Version 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Factor analysis was used for exploratory and confirmatory data. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to find out mean differences for verbal violence, improper business, and improper work environment according to characteristics of subjects. Results: Upon the study results, there were statistically significant differences between the verbal violence and working patterns according to the mean differences of the subfactors on subject’s characteristics. Also, there were statistically significant differences between the improper work environment and all of subject’s characteristics. However, there was no statistically significant differences in the improper business. The factor analysis showed that the Workplace Bullying of the dental hygienists was composed of three elements, namely 'verbal violence', 'improper business,' and ‘improper work environment.’ The validity of the model examined by a confirmatory factor analysis satisfied most of the relevant requirements. The Cronbach's aplha shows a good reliability. Conclusions: In conclusion, it was proven that dental hygienist's Workplace Bullying measurement tool had high validity and reliability. Furthermore, this study can be used to improve dental hygienists' organizational relationship. Therefore, by identifying the recognition of the dental hygienists, this study can contribute to affect a positive influence in the dental hospitals.
  • 9.

    Effects of Ethical Climate on Job Satisfaction of Clinical Dental Hygienists

    천석연 | Hwang Chang Ju | 2018, 18(4) | pp.515~524 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the ethical climate affects the job satisfaction of the clinical dental hygienists. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was filled out by 207 dental hygienists. The data were analyzed by t-test or one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson’s correlation analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 program. Results: The factors affecting the job satisfaction of the general and ethical climate were the work experiences, the completion of vocational ethics education, the self interest type, the friendship type, the rule and the procedure type. When working experience and vocational ethics education are completed, self interest type and friend type have improved job satisfaction as the score increases, while job satisfaction is lowered as the rule and procedure type are increased. Conclusions: Since healthy ethical climate correlates with job satisfaction, it is necessary to establish an ethical climate in order to improve the job satisfaction of clinical dental hygienists. Efficient and stable management of ethical climate within dental clinics can be achieved when mutual interests are emphasized and respected rather than obedience is empathized to hospital regulations, procedures and policies.
  • 10.

    Changes of airway after orthognathic surgery for patients with skeletal class III malocclusion

    Lee Seunghun | 김정재 | 2018, 18(4) | pp.525~533 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This retrospective study evaluated the changes in the airway width after the orthognathic surgery associated with the skeletal Class III malocclusion. Methods: The lateral cephalograms of 30 adult patients were taken before and immediately after the operation, and after the orthodontic treatment. The angles and distances of them were measured and compared. Results: Before the surgery, the mean value of mandibular (S-B) setback was 9.66 mm, and moved by 1.56 mm anteriorly after the orthodontic treatment. The ANB increased by 5.42 degrees, since then it decreased by 0.68 degree. The hyoid bone (S-APH) moved by 5.05 mm posteriorly, but then moved by 2.26 mm anteriorly. The soft tissue width of laryngeal pharynx (apw2-ppw2) was narrowed by 1.04 mm, and decreased by additional 0.83 mm after the orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: As the mandible was moved back, the location of hyoid bone and laryngeal pharynx were moved backward
  • 11.

    Assessment of dental health related quality of life and satisfaction level in patients with orthodontic treatments using Oral Impact on Daily Performances (OIDP)

    Soo-Kyung Kim | 기은정 | 김성준 and 3other persons | 2018, 18(4) | pp.535~546 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study is to assess the correlation of the changes in dental health-related quality of life before, during, and after orthodontic treatments in the patients. Methods: The self-administered survey was conducted in the patients who completed orthodontic treatments living in Seoul and metropolitan areas using Oral Impact on Daily Performances (OIDP) to identify the relevant factors. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics of variables, independent t-test, one way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Results: From observations of OIDP before, during, and after orthodontic treatment, discomfort associated with three factors including physical, psychological and social ones showed the statistically significant increases during orthodontic treatment than before the treatment; whereas, it was dramatically dropped afterward. Multiple regression analysis to find the influential factors of satisfaction level on orthodontic treatment by setting before, during, and after OIDP as independent variables and satisfaction on orthodontic treatment as a dependent variable revealed that OIDP before orthodontic treatment and after orthodontic treatment significantly affected satisfaction on orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: The above analysis on the change in patients’ dental health-related quality of life showed that the quality of life improved after the orthodontic treatment. Accordingly, patients’ quality of life and satisfaction level on orthodontic treatment are expected to improve if they strive to maintain healthy dental health through orthodontic treatment.
  • 12.

    Knowledge, attitudes, and educational needs on dementia among dental hygienists and dental hygiene professors

    KyeongHee Lee | jung eun seo | 2018, 18(4) | pp.547~560 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the development of standard curriculum on oral health intervention on dementia patients for dental hygienists and dental hygiene professors by identifying the extent of knowledge, attitudes and educational needs on dementia among dental hygienists and dental hygiene professors. Methods: We performed survey to dental hygienists and dental hygiene professors for about 2 months from April to May, 2018. Among them, 325 copies were used for final analysis. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to identify general characteristics of respondents and their dementia-related characteristics, and means and standard deviations were calculated to find out the extent of knowledge, attitudes, and educational needs on dementia among subjects. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the effects on the educational needs on dementia. Results: The analysis on the factors that affect the dementia education needs of the subjects showed that the dementia education necessity (p<0.001) and the dementia attitude (p<0.001) had statistically significant effects on the educational needs on dementia. Conclusions: As a result, dental hygienists who are responsible for oral health intervention of dementia patients need to have proper knowledge about dementia and positive attitude toward dementia patients, so professional education is needed to improve knowledge and positive attitude. This will provide a basis for the dental hygienists to be equipped with the relevant expertise in the intervention in the oral health of dementia patients in the future.
  • 13.

    The perception and practice of privacy protection in some dental hygiene students

    Lee Seunghun | 2018, 18(4) | pp.561~570 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study explored the perception and practice of privacy protection of some dental hygiene students. Methods: On the basis of survey data from 126 respondents, the correlation between the perception and the practice was analyzed. Also the multiple regression analysis was performed on the variables that affect the practice. Cronbach's α of the questionnaire was more than 0.6. The items were scored on 5 points scale or true-false type. Results: The perception of privacy protection was 3.23 points, the law is 0.88 points, and the practice is 3.47 points. The educated students were more perceive than those who did not(p<0.05). The higher the perception, the higher the practice(r=0.230, p<0.01). The practice was influenced by the perception(p<0.05). Conclusions: Dental hygiene students should be educated to perceive and protect the personal and medical information of a patient. Also, an educational institutions need a efforts to protect personal information.
  • 14.

    Knowledge, attitudes, and the educational needs on dementia for the students of dental hygiene department

    jung eun seo | KyeongHee Lee | 2018, 18(4) | pp.571~584 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to contribute to develope dental health intervention standard curriculum for dementia patients by identifying the extent of knowledge, attitudes and educational needs toward dementia in the dental hygiene department students. Methods: The study was conducted in the students of the dental hygiene department in colleges and universities, nationwide (from the first year students to the 3rd or 4th year students) for approximately 2 months from March to April, 2018. Among them, 545 students were selected as the subjects for the final analysis. Results: 91.0% of the subjects were not currently receiving education on dementia. The research on the factors to impact the dementia education needs of the subjects showed that the dementia education necessity (p<0.001) and the dementia attitude (p<0.001) had statistically significant effects on the educational needs on dementia. Conclusions: It is considered that the standard education curriculum for the dental health intervention for dementia patients in the department of dental hygiene should be developed and disseminated. This will provide a basis for the dental hygienists to be equipped with the relevant expertise in the intervention in the dental health of dementia patients in the future.
  • 15.

    The influences of dental health behaviors on the subjective dental health status and knowledge in some middle school students

    YEO AN NA | Lee, Su Young | 2018, 18(4) | pp.585~595 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purposes of this study were to comprehend the subjective dental health status and the level of dental health knowledge in some middle school students and to analyze the correlation with dental health behaviors. Methods: A survey was conducted in some middle school students and the final 637 survey data were analysed. As the statistical analysis methods, the subjective dental health status, dental health knowledge and dental health behaviors according to the general characteristics were analyzed by independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Scheffe. The correlations among the subjective dental health status, dental health knowledge and dental health behavior were found by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results: Through correlation analysis of the subjective dental health status, dental health knowledge and dental health behavior, all showed a significant correlation. As a result of the factor analysis affecting dental behaviors, subjective dental health status was the highest (β= 0.304, p<0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the improvement of subjective dental health status and dental health knowledge related to dental behaviors health in the middle school students should be considered. In addition, dental health education should focus on improving subjective dental health status through motivation rather than knowledge transfer training. Moreover, development programs appropriate for the middle school students whose behavioral changes are hard to obtain are needed.
  • 16.

    The relationship between oral health symptoms and Internet use among Korean adolescents - Based on Korea Youth Heath Behavior Online Survey in 2015

    KyeongHee Lee | 2018, 18(4) | pp.597~605 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between oral health symptoms and Internet usage of Korean adolescents for the purpose of identifying problems associated with Internet usage of adolescents and of preparing measures that can raise awareness on the importance of their oral health management. Methods: The data used in this study is from the 2015 Youth Health Behavior Online Survey (YHBOS). Data from all survey participants (n=68,043) were used in the final analysis, using SPSS Ver. 22.0. General linear models were constructed to analyze the relationship between oral health symptoms and Internet usage of adolescents. Results: In the relationship between Internet usage and oral disease symptoms, those who brush less than once a day during weekdays and weekend tended to use Internet at the highest levels: 72.5%, 78.3% (p<0.001). The following variables were found to be related with spending longer time at Internet: male students (p<0.001), students in lower grades (p<0.001), students with lower performance (p<0.001), and those from families of lower economic level (p<0.001). Moreover, those who brush their teeth less than once a day and those who experienced oral disease symptoms, such as pain during chewing, throbbing and shooting pain, and bad breath in the past year spent longer time at Internet. Conclusions: The above findings show that Internet usage and demographic characteristics of the adolescents are associated with their oral health management. Therefore, guidance and interventions are needed for adolescents with problematic Internet use, while continued education is also needed to raise awareness about the importance of oral health management during adolescence.