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pISSN : 2287-1705 / eISSN : 2288-2294

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2019, Vol.19, No.4

  • 1.

    Effect of xylitol on dental caries prevention : a literature review

    LEE, YOUNGEUN | Ji-Hye Kim | Min-Jeong Cho and 2other persons | 2019, 19(4) | pp.449~465 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Xylitol is a sweetening agent used to prevent dental caries. It is formulated and consumed in various forms, and its use is recommended in particular for oral health. However, dental specialists are not familiar with xylitol or well-acquainted with the appropriate method to use it. Furthermore, the caries-prevention effect of xylitol has been controversial. Thus, in this study, we aimed to analyze previously published studies on the dental caries prevention effect of xylitol to verify its true effects and establish an appropriate method to use it. We analyzed 94 clinical research manuscripts obtained from domestic and international online databases and found that although 11 manuscripts reported no significant dental caries prevention effect of xylitol, most manuscripts reported dental caries prevention with xylitol. Compared to the manuscripts that reported dental caries prevention with xylitol, those are assessed lower amounts of xylitol or shorted consumption periods, and had dosage form that could not retain xylitol sufficiently long in the mouth, similar to milk. Thus, consumption of 5–11 g of xylitol in the form of gums, candies, or tablets over a long time period could effectively reduce the risk of dental caries. It has the advantage of ease of consumption, regardless of the gender, age, or disability of the person.
  • 2.

    Mechanical properties and antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans of composite resins containing phytoncide

    Myung-Jin Lee | 김단비 | 김지은 and 4other persons | 2019, 19(4) | pp.467~477 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties and antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans of composite resins containing phytoncide. Methods: Phytoncide was mixed with commercial composite resins at 0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, and 5.0 weight percentage (wt%). Mechanical properties related to composite resins such as surface hardness, depth of cure, and flexural strength were measured. Antibacterial effects of composite resins were analyzed by using Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test ( p<0.05 ). Results: Composite resins that contain low wt% of phytoncide demonstrated no significant difference in surface hardness, depth of cure, and flexural strength ( p >0.05). However, composite resins that contain high wt% of phytoncide had significantly decreased mechanical properties ( p <0.05). In terms of antibacterial effects, composite resins containing phytoncide inhibited the growth of S. mutans . Conclusions: Our findings suggest that novel composite resins containing phytoncide have effective antibacterial properties while maintaining the originally important mechanical features of composite resins.
  • 3.

    Heuristics evaluation and development of the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) -kids application for caries management of preschoolers

    kang Yu Min | Lee, Su Young | 2019, 19(4) | pp.479~492 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study aimed to develop the CAMBRA -kids application for the systematic management of dental caries among preschoolers, activate the dental caries management system, and contribute to the dental caries management of preschoolers. Methods: The collected data were analyzed using R studio 1.2.1335 for Windows (RStudio Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2018). Algorithm evaluation, heuristic evaluation and usability evaluation were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Both expert evaluations of the application’s algorithms were calculated as 100%, for proficiency and efficiency. The application worked well with the designed algorithms, the risk group level of participants was categorized appropriately, and the risk management method was guided properly according to the risk group level. Of the five problems presented in the heuristic evaluation, 'the lack of security' and 'the lack of information on oral health care' received 'high severity' scores. The usability evaluation of the application produces an overall score of 3.27. In the subscales (participation, functionality, aesthetics, and information) of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), the 'participation' domain received the lowest score of 2.56 and the 'functional' domain received the highest score of 3.70. Conclusions: The CAMBRA-kids application is expected to be applied and used in the field of preschoolers’ oral health care management, and to contribute to the prevention of dental caries of preschoolers by activating the dental caries management system using the application.
  • 4.

    Analysis of oral health-related smartphone applications

    Jung Jae Yeon | Kim, Soo-Hwa | 2019, 19(4) | pp.493~502 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the current status of oral health applications developed for smartphones because they can be used as a new educational medium to manage and improve oral health. Methods: This study examined 60 basic oral health applications provided by Google Play Store and Apple App Store as of May 2019 and examined delivery contents, delivery methods, application types, and other information. Results: Apple included 65.4% of oral apps in the game category whereas Android included 64.3% in the education category ( p >0.05). All Apple's apps and 71.4% of Android apps were developed overseas ( p <0.01). The delivery contents were 61.5% for Brushing + tooth decay in Apple, and 78.6% for others (oral care products and gum diseases) in Android ( p >0.05). For the delivery method, game + video was 65.4% in Apple, and game and other methods (text, image, augmented reality) was 42.9% in Android ( p >0.05). In the case of application type, play type was the most common with 88.5% in Apple, and 46.4% play type and 39.3% other type (text, appreciation, problem-solving types) in Android ( p <0.01). In addition, play type was high in both education (53.8%) and game (90.0%) categories ( p >0.05). The average review score was 4.30 in the education category, 4.34 in the case of brushing and care (delivery contents), 4.37 in the case of using game + video (delivery methods), and 4.57 in the case of Play + other types (application type) ( p >0.05). Conclusions: The use of healthcare apps is expected to increase owing to improved lifestyles, an increase in the elderly population, cost-effectiveness, and convenience that is not affected by time and place. Effective use of oral health apps will require the participation of dental professionals in the development process to identify the exact status, expand subjects, and provide appropriate information.
  • 5.

    Effects of smart-learning based education on dental hygiene students' study achievements and learning satisfaction

    KyeongHee Lee | Yoon Young Choi | 2019, 19(4) | pp.503~513 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the effects of smart-learning on the education of dental hygiene students. Methods: This study was conducted on 135 students in the dental hygiene department from a single university, with a pre-test implemented in order to verify the homogeneity of the experimental (smart-learning exposed) and control groups. Following each group’s lecture, we measured the study achievements of the students via a post-test, and their learning satisfaction through a questionnaire. An independent t-test was conducted to examine the homogeneity of the two groups and to compare both study achievements and learning satisfaction. Furthermore, a paired t-test was performed in order to compare the study achievements before and after lectures. Results: The average learning satisfaction level of the experimental group was 4.65±0.43, which was higher than that of the control group (4.46±0.54) ( p <0.05). After comparing the study achievements of the groups, there was no statistically significant difference between them, both before and after lectures. Paired comparisons conducted on the overall study achievements showed that they significantly increased following lectures when compared to what they were beforehand, in both the smartlearning and control groups ( p <0.001). Conclusions: Smart-learning can be expected to result in positive effects for dental hygiene education, and further structural studies on the various types of smart-learning are needed.
  • 6.

    Effects of the amount and duration of smoking on gingival symptoms: analysis of data from the 2016 Korea youth's risk behavior web-based study

    lee mi ra | 박경화 | 2019, 19(4) | pp.515~524 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the amount and duration of smoking on gingival symptoms in adolescents. Methods: We used the web-based survey data of youth health behaviors from 2016 conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The subjects of the study were 67,983 middle and high school students. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS Ver 20.0 program, and complex sample multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze gingival symptoms according to short- or long-term smoking habits. Results: In subjects with short-term smoking habits, there was no significant difference in gingival symptoms according to the smoking amount. However, after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and oral health behaviors in subjects with longterm smoking habits, a heavy smoking amount (≥0.52 PY) had a 1.25 times higher effect than a light smoking amount (<0.52 PY) on gingival symptoms. Long-term heavy smoking (≥0.52 PY) and low daily tooth-brushing frequency in high school students were factors affecting gingival symptoms. Conclusions: When conducting a project on the oral health of adolescents, it is argued that specific investigations and measures should be set up regarding health behavior factors, such as the amount and duration of smoking among adolescents.
  • 7.

    Influencing factors of and satisfaction with clinical practice between college and university dental hygiene students

    Min Hee-Hong | 2019, 19(4) | pp.525~533 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This research aimed to identify the influential factors that affect the satisfaction of dental hygiene students' clinical training between college and university and contribute to improvement in clinical practice quality. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 210 dental clinical hygienists from June 10 to August 30, 2018. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. An independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe’s post-hoc test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were employed, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: Regarding the influential factors of satisfaction with clinical practice among dental hygiene students, in the case of college students, dental hygienist practice instructor dummy, self-efficacy, satisfaction of school life, interpersonal relation was the increasing order. In the case of university students, dental hygienist practice instructors, subjective health, satisfaction with school life, and interpersonal relations was the increasing order. Conclusions: The most influential factor of dental hygiene students’ clinical practice satisfaction between college and university was the ability to form interpersonal relationships. Therefore, to increase the satisfaction of dental hygiene students with clinical practice between college and university, external sources and efforts to emphasize internal sources are required.
  • 8.

    A study on the association between blood levels of heavy metals and periodontitis, using the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Jung Yun Sook | Eun-Kyong Kim | 2019, 19(4) | pp.535~543 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: Internal exposure to certain heavy metals is thought to be associated with periodontitis. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between blood levels of heavy metals and periodontitis among the Korean population. Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. A total of 1,968 adults aged 19 years or above were included. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between blood lead levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury, and periodontitis. Confounders such as sex, age, brushing frequency, smoking, etc. were adjusted. Results: Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a significant relationship with periodontitis in a crude model of logistic regression analysis. However, participants with the highest blood levels of cadmium showed higher risk of periodontitis, than those with lower blood levels of cadmium (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.11-2.70) after adjusting for the confounders. Conclusions: High blood levels of cadmium may be associated with periodontitis among the Korean population.
  • 9.

    Comparison of the general health status and oral health status between inexperienced and experienced groups of recent dental preventive treatment: The Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2017

    Yu-Rin Kim | 2019, 19(4) | pp.545~554 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the general health status and oral health status based on periodical dental preventive experience, and to find methods for regular dental prophylaxis, using the data obtained from the 7th National Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: This study was performed using data collected from the 7th National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 9,015 participants were selected for the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0, with data obtained from a complex sampling design, and a significance level of 0.05 was set. General characteristics of the participants, oral health status, and recent preventive dental treatment were examined for a complex sampling frequency analysis, and the differences in distribution were analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The group that recently under went dental prophylaxis, when compared to the group that had not under gone dental prophylaxis recently, reported several ‘no obstacles’ for all items of the EQ-5D ( p <0.05). Moreover, the group that recently underwent dental prophylaxis used all the oral care products ( p <0.05). Conclusions: It is necessary to actively expand institutional supervision so that regular dental preventive measures can be undertaken to promote oral health that affects general health.
  • 10.

    The effects of mental health status and subjective oral health status on periodontal disease for the elderly

    Ye Hwang Kim | Lee Jung Hwa | 2019, 19(4) | pp.555~564 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate how mental health status affects oral health in the elderly. Methods: The subjects of the study provided the data for the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Four-hundred and twenty-one subjects were selected for the study. All data were analyzed by complex sampling frequency, chi-square test, and composite multiple regression analysis using SPSS 21.0 version. In addition, a significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: The general factors affecting cases of periodontal disease were general characteristics, mental health status, oral health status, elderly males, household income, education level, daily brushing frequency, speaking, and stress. The effect of periodontal disease was 1.64 times higher in the male group than in the female group ( p <0.001). In the household income level, the ‘low’ group had 1.91 times more periodontal disease, while the ‘mid low’ group had 1.64 times more periodontal disease than the ‘high’ group ( p <0.05). Periodontal disease was found to be lower in the group that recognized subjective oral health status as ‘good’ ( p <0.05). The study subjects had low levels of periodontal disease when there was no speaking difficulty ( p <0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, in order to improve oral health of the elderly, it is necessary to understand the mental health condition of the elderly and prepare proper oral health education programs accordingly. Institutional devices for various oral health projects should be prepared, as well.
  • 11.

    A study on the relationship between socioeconomic level and oral health: analysis of data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Song, Ae-Hee | Hye-Jeong Youn | 2019, 19(4) | pp.565~575 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: In this study, both subjective and objective levels of oral health were used to identify the relationship between oral health inequalities. Methods: Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data from 2013 to 2015 were combined to create an analysis plan. Oral health questions categorized as subjective oral health conditions and oral health-related diseases used dental tissue disease status as data measured by the Community Periodical Index(CPI) and decayed, missing, filled teeth(DMFT) experience. Other data on oral health behaviors such as toothache experience, the frequency of toothbrush use, chewing problems, oral examination status, and unmet dental care needs were classified and analyzed according to the socioeconomic level. Data were analyzed using frequency and cross analyses, and the statistical significance level was set at 0.05. Results: It was found that higher the economic and educational level, better was the subjective oral health, lower the CPI, lower the experience of toothache, higher the frequency of toothbrush use, lower the number of people having chewing problems, and higher the frequency of oral checkups. Conclusions: Oral health inequality exists among social classes. It is suggested that continuous research and efforts be carried out to promote oral health while considering socioeconomic and educational levels. Further, active government efforts will be needed to address polarization by social class.
  • 12.

    Effects of general and oral health on quality of life in the elderly living alone and with family

    Jung Eun Ju | 2019, 19(4) | pp.577~589 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of general and oral health on quality of life in the elderly living alone and with family. Methods: We analyzed data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Distribution of the elderly living alone and with family based on the general characteristics and general and oral health was analyzed using complex-sample chi-square tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting quality of life by calculating the 95% confidence intervals. Results: In the elderly living alone, the quality of life significantly correlated with restriction of activity, perceived general and oral health status, perceived stress, and speech difficulties. Further, in the elderly living with family, lower quality of life significantly correlated with restriction of activity, perceived health status, walking days per week, life time smoking history, Community Periodontal Index, and chewing and speech difficulties. Conclusions: The elderly are concerned with self-maintenance of general and oral health. Therefore, systematic policies related to health services need to be developed and operated at the national level. It is especially necessary to take social interest in the elderly living alone and a more continuous and professional approach in their health care.
  • 13.

    Influencing factors of empowerment in the clinical dental hygienists

    Kyoung-Hye Min | Min Hee-Hong | 2019, 19(4) | pp.591~599 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing empowerment among clinical dental hygienists. Through this study, we suggested to increase the empowerment and find concrete ways to increase the motivation and performance of individuals and organizations. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was filled out by 202 dental hygienists of clinic from November 8 to December 10, 2018. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Independent t -test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe’s post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation coefficients were reviewed, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted. Results: Dental hygienists scored 3.33 points on empowerment. The variables that influenced clinical empowerment were job satisfaction, career, monthly income, and preventive treatment. These factors explained 32.3% of the variance in dental clinic hygienists. Conclusions: To enhance the performance of individuals and organizations through increased empowerment, dental hygienists need support to perform more diverse roles, such as providing preventive measures and oral health education, to enhance their professional self-concept and autonomy.
  • 14.

    A qualitative study on the present conditions and problems of oral health care in senile dementia patients

    jung eun seo | Yoon Young Choi | KyeongHee Lee | 2019, 19(4) | pp.601~614 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the present conditions and problems of oral health care in senior citizens with dementia using a qualitative research method, through focused group interviews. Methods: Data was collected for approximately one month from May 2019. The subjects were divided into two groups: care workers and family caregivers. Fifteen participants were included in the study. Results: In-depth interviews with the care workers revealed the following three categories: characteristics of senile dementia patients, oral health care in senile dementia patients, and oral health care education. In-depth interviews with the family caregivers revealed the following four categories: characteristics of senile dementia patients, oral health care in senile dementia patients, oral health care education, and burden of care. The central themes common to both the care workers and family caregivers were the challenges owing to the characteristics of senile dementia patients, poor health condition of the senile dementia patients, difficulty in oral health care of the senile dementia patients, the desire to receive oral health care education and related information, and to access the information more easily. Additional central themes specific to the care workers were, the applicability of the intervention programs, variability between the facilities, and the problems of oral health care education. An additional central theme specific to the family caregivers was the burden of care. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide oral health care education and information to care workers and family caregivers of senile dementia patients, and to manage and support the dental health professionals ready to care for senile dementia patients. In addition, support to the family caregivers should not be limited only to the financial aspects, but also consider the psychological and emotional difficulties.
  • 15.

    A qualitative study on experiences of job satisfaction and meaning of work among clinical dental hygienists

    박지현 | Lim Soon Ryun | 2019, 19(4) | pp.615~624 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives: This study explored job satisfaction experience and meaning of work in dental hygienists. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 clinical dental hygienists who had been working in dental clinics for more than 10 years. The analysis method used was developed by Giorgi, including all four steps. Results: The results of the interview were categorized into five central meanings: recognition and trust (including patient’s trust, trust in the boss, recognition in the hospital, and intimacy), growth (growth of the hospital, growth in jobs, and problem-solving skills), professional pride (self-esteem, extension of work and changes of awareness, and being able to help others), reward (financial compensation and psychological rewards), and meaning of life given by work (the process of maturing, self-representation, and vitality of life). Conclusions: Based on this study, we need to develop tools to measure dental hygienists’ level of job satisfaction as well as follow-up research on ways to improve it.