Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the infection control system and actual conditions according to the type of dental medical institution. Methods: From April 1st to May 10th, 2020, dental institutions were recruited through stratified random sampling. Each item constituting the infection control system by dental institution type was analyzed using the chi-square test and fisher’s exact test. Results: The infection control system and operation level of each dental institution type was 89.0 points for university-general hospitals, 75.6 points for dental hospitals, and 34.4 points for dental clinics. The environment management levels were 76.1, 72.5, 73.0, and 74.0 points for university-general hospitals, similar to 77.2, 75.1, 71.0, and 73.8 points for dental hospitals, while dental clinics had 61.1, 40.0, 37.0, and 45.6 points. Prevention and management of staff infection exposure, wearing personal protective equipment, and hand hygiene levels were 90.7, 75.5, 88.5 points for university-general hospitals, 79.8, 79.5, 80.4 points for dental hospitals, and 50.2, 88.0, 61.5 points for dental clinics, respectively. Conclusions: Efforts are required to bring about improvement in the areas of insufficient infection control in order to raise the overall infection control levels, especially the management of dental clinics is urgently needed.