The purpose of this paper examines the following: (i) certain differences exist regarding degrees of grammaticalization between Korean and Japanese, and (ii) what factors cause the differences. The arguments of this paper are as followed: a. The degrees of grammaticalization of Korean are lower than the degrees of Japanese concerning 6 grammatical categories: negative sensitive items, aspectual markers, sentence-final forms, compound verbs, compound postpositions, and auxiliary verbs. b. The phenomena could be caused by the following three factors. The first factor is morphological and syntactic differences between Korean and Japanese. The second one is the discrepancy of the linguistic history as it appeared in the early Korean and Japanese literatures. The third factor is differences of language performance and socio-cultural cognition.
This paper analyses the present situation of Japanese-Brazilian second generation’s Japanese language proficiency and maintenanceand discusses the factors related to language maintenance based on a survey on language attitude. The data was collected in tworural communities, one in the surroundings of urban centers and the other in the interior of São Paulo State. The results of thecomparative analysis of the data in each of the communities can be summarized as showed below.
Japanese language maintenance is observed among Japanese-Brazilian 2nd generation speakers. The proficiency level varieswhether the speakers live in rural areas in the interior or in rural areas in the surroundings of urban centers. In other words, thesocial environment is a factor as important as profession and educational level.
Another major factor which contributes to the 2nd generation speakers’ high proficiency is the use of Japanese in the familiarenvironment during their childhood. The experience of attending school also has some effect on the language proficiency. however itdoes not seem to be a major factor. The results of the survey showed that 2nd generation speakers who have a high languageproficiency use Japanese in their daily life with their family members and within their social community.