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2014, Vol., No.42

  • 1.

    A comparative study on the behavior of request between Japanese and Korean

    Kang, Suk-Woo | 2014, (42) | pp.3~19 | number of Cited : 5
    This paper concerns the differences between Korean and Japanese in linguistic behavior of apology and linguistic expressions used when borrowing money. Those differences result from the uniqueness of their own culture and mindset, which influences their communication styles. Findings of the paper can be summarized as follows;(1) When Koreans borrow a small amount of money, they do not consider seriously whether or not it is really appropriate to borrow the money. In contrast, Japanese tend to borrow money after they consider whether it is appropriate to do so; in particular, they consider the urgency and the necessity of doing so. Such a difference can result in confusion or miscommunication when speakers from the two cultures communicate each other. (2) When Japanese people apologize, it is not important how close the person they apologize to is. Consequently, similar expressions of apology can be used regardless of the degree of intimacy between them. In contrast, the degree of intimacy between the two people can decide the kind of linguistic expressions of apology in Korean. When Japanese people borrow a small amount of money, they promise to pay it back in a more serious way than Korean people do; they talk about it a lot and seriously. Meanwhile, Koreans, when they borrow a large amount of money, promise to pay it back more seriously than Japanese people do.
  • 2.

    An experiment phonetic contrast study of Korean and Japanese tone: Through Gangneung dialect and Kagoshima dialect

    Ko Hye Jung | 2014, (42) | pp.21~37 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the feature of tone on Gangneung dialect and Kagoshima dialect from the experimental phonetic viewpoint, as well as in terms of the generation (young and middle-aged), sex and dialect. Results of the research are as follows. (1) The feature of Gangneung dialect is that the phonological distinction between tone and duration ‘shakes’ in the middle-aged generation unlike that in the old generation. I found a certain tendency that in accent phrase unit the auslaut has a falling type, in other words, the second syllable from the auslaut is high. (2) The feature of Kagoshima dialect is that the phonological tone distinction, ‘auslaut rising accent type’ and ‘auslaut falling accent type’ (Hayada's accent-type theory), in the middle-aged generation shakes a bit. From the phonetic point of view, the auslaut falling accent type is mainly found, or plat accent is found. The comparison of the findings of the two dialects suggests that the similar pattern of the auslaut falling accent type, one of the feature of tone in Kagoshima dialect, is found in Gangneung dialect.
  • 3.

    A study on the expression of female figures in Japanese translation of “Oraedoen Jeongwon”: Focusing on female sentence-final words

    KWAK EUN SIM | 2014, (42) | pp.39~56 | number of Cited : 2
    In order to see how the figure of the woman is expressed in the process of translating Korean into Japanese, this paper reviewed female sentence-final words used in Target Text (TT) of the novel of the Hwang Seog-young as Source Text (ST). Firstly, this paper investigated the rate of the use of female sentence-final words in TT. The result is that the frequency rate of -wa, which almost disappeared from a real conversation, is very high and -noyo, which disappeared from women in their twenties, shows the highest frequency rate. This proves that there is a distance between the text of written language and a real conversation not only in a scenario but also in a translation. Secondly, this paper compared the TT and ST focusing on female sentence-final words ‘-noyo, wa, no, yo, ne’, which showed a high usage rate. Most frequently used sentence-final words are the haeyo style and the hae style in ST, nevertheless, in TT, the translatortranslates them in a variety of female sentence-final words in accordance with the context. Finally, this paper explored the effects of female sentence-final words on the character. The comparison between TT and ST revealed that the use of female sentence-final words was found to affect the femininity and familiarity.
  • 4.

    A study on the syntactic features of 'nanari' and 'nameri' in Genzi's story

    Kim, Pyunggang | 2014, (42) | pp.57~74 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is a study of syntax of 'nanari' and 'nameri' in Genzi′s story. These phrases 'nanari' and 'nameri' consist of the declarative auxiliary verb 'nari' and the suppositional auxiliary verb 'nari' and 'meri', respectively. The paper clarifies the syntactic features of 'nanari' and 'nameri' by comparing them with the declarative modality in Nita (2009). 'Nanari' is in general used as a predicate. There is no evidence that it was used in the past form. Further, it was not used as a predicate in a noun-modifying clause and its use as a predicate within a subordinate clause was also restricted. It can be used with 'omohu'. It can also be used with the appropriateness modality and explanation modality. When used with the explanation modality, 'nanari' is located behind the explanation modality. In summary 'nanari' is similar to Nita′s "Guess". 'Nameri' is also in general used as a predicate. However, there is evidence that 'nanari' was used as the past form. It was also used in modifying-noun clauses although there were some limits. It can be used as a predicate in a variety of subordinate clauses. Further, itcan be used with 'omohu'. It can be used with the appropriateness modality and the explanation modality. When used with the explanation modality, 'nanari' is located behind the explanation modality. In summary 'nanari' is similar to Nita′s "Judgment from probability". There is are distinct differences between 'nanari' and "Guess", as well as between 'nameri' and "Judgment from probability", respectively. "Guess" and “Judgment from probability" may be used with a conditional phrase, whereas 'nanari' and 'nameri' may be not. It is possible to use "Judgment from probability" in combination with "Guess", but it is impossible in the case of 'nanari' and 'nameri', i.e they cannot be combined with each other. 'Nanari' is possible to use with aural information. In criticisms or comments of the story narrator, only 'nameri' is used and 'nanari' is not.
  • 5.

    A study of vocabulary expressions and semantic characteristics of contemporary Japanese high school students: Focusing on vocabulary and meaning of creative tanka

    백정희 | Takao Ito | 2014, (42) | pp.75~93 | number of Cited : 6
    In this paper, creative tanka of the contemporary Japanese high school students were examined in terms of ‘vocabulary’ and ‘subject’ not only in order to analyze the diversity and tendency of their vocabulary expressions but also in order to perceive aspects of their daily concerns or the everyday lives from their viewpoints. As a result of this study, in terms of the vocabulary expression, it has been concluded that the contemporary Japanese high schoolstudents tend to incorporate various implications into a singular word and to employ delicate metaphors and slangs which are commonly used among teenagers. The expressions are abundant and various. In terms of the their daily concerns, it has been found that the contemporary Japanese high school students tend to converse about not only the subjects of family relationships, study, love, and problems of youth, but also the subjects of social affairs and the issue of life and death. With their own acute sense, they tend to describe their own realties experienced in their own world which cannot be perceived by general statistics or from the viewpoint of grown-ups.
  • 6.

    A study of shite-miseru with the meaning of evaluation

    SUNG Jihyun | 2014, (42) | pp.95~109 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper presents the syntactic, lexical, morphological and contextual factors that make shite-miseru convey the meaning of evaluation. Specifically, we have showed that shite-miseru conveys the meaning of evaluation in the following cases: (i) when it does not accompany the postpositional particle ni and the subject is the third person [syntactic factor]; (ii) when the verb preceding shite-miseru implies the evaluation of achievement as in “show the ability” or leads to achievement as in “meet the expectations” rather than simple actions such as “sit” or “sleep” [lexical factor]; (iii) when the phrase takes the form of shite-miseta, which indicates that the action has been already realized [morphological factor]; and (iv) when efforts or difficulties in the course of achieving an outcome is presented in the sentence [contextual factor]. Taking that shite-miseru takes a third-person subject into account, we have analyzed a variety of examples where shite-miseru has the meaning of evaluation in newspaper articles, which are typically written in the third person point of view. The results showed thatsuch a usage of shite-miseru appears most often in sports- or culture-related articles, which typically describe new records,exhibitions or works. These achievements usually require considerable efforts and endurance of a person; we think this is why shite-miseru with the meaning of evaluation is frequently used in these types of articles.
  • 7.

    A study for improving classroom activities in Japanese as liberal arts: Search for teaching strategies in multicultural Japanese class

    SHIN EUNJIN | 2014, (42) | pp.111~127 | number of Cited : 4
    This research aims to explore teaching strategies in Japanese education as liberal arts. The research has analysed the performance of Chinese students of university in Korea, who joined "Japanese Basic 1" this semester as international students. Main findings are as follows. Chinese students who have good motivation and high goal have gained high scores. Chinese students who has autonomy appealed their aggressive attitude in every classroom activities. They did not hesitate to talk with other classmates.It is clear that satisfaction and achievement in Japanese class has no relation with nationality of students. 'Korean language' appeared to be a difficult problem to Chinese students when they study Japanese. However, there are in fact individual differences and it will be necessary to support Korean language of Chinese students before studying the Japanese. Some issues of the 'relationship building-up’ were also observed. It seems that Korean students reluctantly accepted the multiculturalism as part of Japanese language class. Chinese students are standing in center of multicultural studies in Korea. However, ‘the learning problem of Korean students who have to study with Chinese students’ is becoming greater than 'the problem with Chinese students in Korea'. Classroom activities in Japanese language education should be designed and managed on consideration of these points from now on.
  • 8.

    A study on the repetition of headings in editorial articles:The effectiveness of the heading repetition for determining the text type

    Yuka Aizawa | 2014, (42) | pp.129~144 | number of Cited : 0
    This study is to analyze the influence of the iteration of headings in editorial articles in the Japanese language. It was intended to verify the effectiveness of the repetition of headings to determine the type of sentence structure. The study revealed that 'quasi-headline' was used in the main text at the rate of about 77%. This means that 23% of cases did not repeat the heading. As such, it cannot be said that there is always a repetition of the heading in the main text. In the case in which the heading was repeated, it was expressed in one or two sentences. Furthermore, the case in which the heading was used in the exactly same form as its original was very few. Parts of the heading were often omitted or replaced with other phrases, or some vocabularies were added to supplement the content of the heading in most cases. These results suggest that the effectiveness of the heading repetition can only partly be admitted as a means of determining the type of sentence structure given that the heading repetition does not occur in some cases. Following on this study, I will continue investigating the relationship between main texts and the headings, and analyze the function of headings ofeditorial articles for deeper understanding of these issues.
  • 9.

    A study of Japanese Native Speakers’ perception on the ‘customer-reception’ behavior of Korean Native Speakers: Focus on situations of the ‘customer-reception’ using the Japanese language in Korea

    오오이케 신 | 2014, (42) | pp.145~164 | number of Cited : 0
    This research aimed at exploring the tendency of perception by Japanese native speakers, who felt unpleasant about the customer-reception behavior of Korean native speakers by using the Japanese language. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, this research conducted a survey, and asked the perception of 88 Japanese tourists who visited Korea. Those tourists could not speak the Korean language. The main findings of the research are as follows. Firstly, over 80% of respondents appeared to have goodwill on the whole with regard to the use of the Japanese language by Korean native speakers while they receive customers. In contrast, over 40% of respondents had unpleasant experience about the customer-reception behavior. Secondly, the study further investigated the detailed response of 38 respondents who answered that they had unpleasant experience about the customer-reception behavior, and found that they appeared to have a higher tendency to feel more unpleasant about the non-verbal language behavior than language behavior, and the kinds of unpleasant non-verbal behavior appeared to be diverse. The unpleasant non-verbal language behaviors are divided into the following two kinds: First is 'active reception behavior' which actively receives customers while they (customers) do not want the reception, and second is 'passive reception behavior' which passively receives customers when they (customers) want the reception. The 'passive reception behavior' is further divided into two subcategories: one is 'direct influence' which causes the unpleasant feeling of customers by deteriorating goods and service receipt; and the other is 'indirect influence' which causes the unpleasant feeling of customers by the customer-reception behavior, though goods and service receipt is not deteriorated. On the basis of these divisions, the study derived the result that the respondents showed a high tendency to have unpleasant experiences about 'passive customer-reception behavior', particularly about 'indirect influence'. Also, female respondents appeared to show a higher response rate than male respondents against the unpleasant experience, the customer-reception behavior, and the various customer-reception situations on the whole across this research.
  • 10.

    A study of the language standardization in Tsuruoka-shi, Yamagata Province: From the analysis based on the random-sampling method over sixty years

    米田正人 | 2014, (42) | pp.165~178 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper outlines results of the surveys on the changes in the Tsuruoka dialect in the post-war years. The National Institute forJapanese Language and Linguistics and The Institute of Statistical Mathematics conducted four surveys on linguistic changes inTsuruoka in 1950, 1971, 1991 and 2011. This paper makes the following points. (1) The fourth survey, conducted in 2011 after a 20-year interval, made it possible to investigate linguistic changes over a period of sixty years. (2) Standardization of segmental phonemes and word accents is progressing rapidly in Tsuruoka city.
  • 11.

    A study of dakeda in written Japanese

    Yoshida, Reiko | 2014, (42) | pp.179~192 | number of Cited : 0
    This study investigates the use of dake ‘just, only’, which is the "post-clitic" of the predicate, as can be seen in such a Japanese sentence as watashi wa shigoto o suru dakeda, meaning ‘All I do is just work’, ‘I only work’, and elucidates various types of context the word dake ‘just, only’ is used. Dake expresses ‘limitation’. In other words, it is a word that expresses ‘self-affirmation’ and ‘denial of others’. However, dake which limits a sentence often conveys the ‘denial of others’ more strongly over the ‘self-affirmation’. In that situation, the ‘denial of others’ is explicitly indicated in the context and dakeda ‘it is just that’ is used with such a premise. As such, the self-affirmation dakeda serves as the background to let the ‘denial of others’ to stand out, thereby performs the explanatory function that authenticates the denial ofself and others. Moreover, other examples were observed, in which both self-affirmation and the denial of others had the same weight, as well as those in which the focus was placed on self-affirmation. We were able to confirm that all of these three types of situations share the similarity that the premise was clearly given in the context, and that dakeda did not exist as an independent clause, but did exist only when there was the cause that served as the premise.
  • 12.

    Interface between culture and language:On directive expressions in Korean and Japanese

    Lee duck Young | 2014, (42) | pp.193~206 | number of Cited : 1
    Directives constitute a very basic way in which tasks and activities of everyday life get organised (Goodwin and Cekaite, 2013), and have strict connection with the pragmatic dimensions of face and politeness (Mauri and Sanso, 2011). Directives are ‘face threatening act’, in Brown and Levinson’s (1987) terms, and have the ability to impose the speaker’s will upon the hearer. The use of directives thus sensitively reflects the way of interacting with other members of the society. A language often adopts various linguistic strategies (grammatical markers and constructions) to perform these acts in different ways from those in other languages. The aim of the current study is to explore the use of directive strategies in modern Korean and Japanese from the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural point of view, and shed light on some aspects of the interrelationship between language and culture. By taking a closer look at special characteristics in the use of directives in Korean and Japanese, the study has confirmed the basic, but very important schema that languages adopt different linguistic strategies under the influence of the different rules and norms in establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships in different cultures. To be more specific, the study has revealed that in adopting directives strategies, the Korean culture tends to rely more on the ‘hierarchical interpersonal relationship’ whereas the Japanese culture tends to rely more on ‘consideration for others’ as well as the hierarchical relationship.
  • 13.

    The use of hedges in Korean and Japanese conversations between university students

    Lee Eun Mi | 2014, (42) | pp.207~223 | number of Cited : 8
    In this study, the use of hedges in conversations between friends of university students in Japan and Korea was investigated in terms of the gender difference. The results are summarized as follows. Overall, more kinds of hedges were used in conversations between Japanese university students than between Korean university students. Both ‘the ratio of utterances in which hedges used’ and ‘the average number of hedges per utterance’ were also higher in conversations between Japanese university students. For Korean university students, while the use ratio of hedges in utterance was higher in conversations between female university students than that between male university students, the number of hedges used in conversations was similar in both genders. For Japanese students, the use ratio of hedges in utterance was higher in conversations between male university students than that between female university students while the number of hedges used in conversations was higher in conversations between female university students. These results imply that hedges are used as a politeness strategy for smooth communication more diversely and frequently in Japanese compared with Korean. In addition, although there are some hedge expressions that are traditionally used irrespective of gender in both languages, there are also differences between two genders in the use of hedges and the preference of hedge expressions.
  • 14.

    Discourse strategies observed in the Korean-Japanese request discourse:On the drama data ‘Minamisineyo

    Yim, Hyun-Soo | 2014, (42) | pp.225~241 | number of Cited : 2
    Only the request discourse in the drama 'Minamisneyo' was used for the investigation in this research. The request discourse was analyzed on the basis of the polite theory proposed by Brown and Revinson, the principles of discourse operation proposed by Grice and the politeness theory proposed by Rich. Findings of this study suggest that the request action can violate the other person's scope,and the feeling of the others should be carefully considered on the linguistic actions by using clear and logical expressions.On the same request scenes of Korean and Japanese drama, the imperative expressions were the most widely used, and the indirect speech coupled with the polite expressions was used for relaxing that. In a request including the demand expressions, the declarative sentences were mainly used in the Korean drama, while the interrogative sentences were mainly used in the Japanese drama. Also,Japanese spoke the conclusion first, while the Korean talked stories regarding the past experiences, which was significantly different on the request contents and those volumes. In addition, Koreans usually awaked surroundings by speaking the postposition and the name of the other, which was a distinct characteristic compared to the Japanese drama.