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2015, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    Determinants of the use of the "te morau" statement

    kimeunmo | 2015, (44) | pp.3~21 | number of Cited : 1
    The "te morau" statement has been broadly classified into two types, i.e. causative type "te morau" and "morau" passive. However, there has been one more type of the "te morau" statement which can not be classified as either of these types. Kim-eunmo (2011) classified usages of the “te morau” construction into eight subsets according to who gains benefits by the use of the construction: They are rating noun, request, instruction, authorization, faire, obligation, recommend and destination. Then, in classifying verbs into seven types I revealed that their usage is related to the nature of the verb. In, among the usage is limited by the nature of the verb, its more within one carrying out our implemented as usage, what kind of factors are involved. In this paper, we investigated the factors by which various usages of the "te morau" statement are determined. Furthermore, the reason why the factors are involved is also discussed. Findings are summarized as follows. ① occurring in the main clause "te morau" the succession clause representing the outreach, succession clause representative of a request, by the co-caused reason clause, usage is determined. In the case of verb class that can be carried out along the request act of "te morau" statement, succession clause represents the approach, causes and reasons clause represents the reason for the lobbying, become usage of such request act of a request. ② co-occurrence of adverbs, number of participants, change of case display, by the migration of events meaning due to the nature of the benefit actors, usage is determined. ③ "te mora" occurring in the subordinate clause, due to the influence of the main clause, usage is determined. If you are represented is why the main clause was the requesting act, it becomes usage of such request act of a request. On the other hand, the main clause is non will expressions "te morau", it is simple zyuei when it comes to emotional expression. ④ succession clause, equivalent clause in the cause and reason clause, form different but the succession clause, similar roles and causes and reasons clause of ①. ⑤ "te morau" there is no factor of up to ④ from ① to the statement, just by the context, some by clogging Pragmatics factors, even if the usage is determined. Above, usage of "te morau" statement, it became clear that it is intended to come determined by various factors such as the relationship between the nature and verb complex sentence.
  • 2.

    Japanese Language Seen in the Three Textbooks by Juei Yuba :Focusing on the Japanese in “Kan’i Shokei Nichigo Dokugaku”

    Saito, Akemi | 2015, (44) | pp.23~42 | number of Cited : 4
    This study explores the characteristics of the Japanese language in the “conversation” aspects of the three textbooks that were written by Juei Yuba - “Jicchi Oyo Chosengo Dokugakusho ”, “Kan’i Shokei Nichigo Dokugaku ”,and“Pocket Chosengo Dokugaku”. The three textbooks were published at approximately the same time by the same author. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of the Japanese language in each textbook by comparing the examples of conversation in these three textbooks. Results of this examination showed that “Jicchi Oyo Chosengo Dokugakusho” and “Pocket Chosengo Dokugaku” used both modern and old Japanese words, but the Japanese in “Kan’i Shokei Nichigo Dokugaku” only used relatively new and modern vocabulary. This is considered to be due to the fact that “Kan’i Shokei Nichigo Dokugaku” was a study guide for independent study of Japanese, and thus the vocabulary used was selected with learners of Japanese language in mind.
  • 3.

    Constraints on the use of expressions of supposition and request for confirmation

    lee kil yong | 2015, (44) | pp.43~55 | number of Cited : 0
    This research is a case study on the communication competence and language maintenance by a Korean learner (HT) of Japanese language. The analysis focuses on expressions of supposition and request for confirmation and clarifies constraints on the use of these expressions observed in HT’s speech. Speech data was collected through a longitudinal survey totalizing 12 recordings over the various steps of HT’s language acquisition. The last survey was carried out ten years after HT returned to Korea. The results are summarizes as below: (a) The use of expressions of “doubt”, “supposition” and “request for confirmation of proposition” indicates HT’s uncertainty about his opinion or information he is conveying. (b) “Request for confirmation of shared knowledge” is used based only on the speaker’s point of view and knowledge. The speaker assumes that the hearer has the same point of view as his. (c) The analysis of the data shows that the speaker does not consider shared knowledge with the hearer from the hearer’s point of view when using expressions of supposition and request for confirmation. This is probably due to simplification of the constraints which affect the use of modality expressions. This simplification may also ease the speaker’s language performance.
  • 4.

    Late adoption of honorifics and Panel survey data

    Inoue Fumio | 2015, (44) | pp.57~70 | number of Cited : 1
    This is a report on the results of the Okazaki Honorifics Surveys which the National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (NINJAL) implemented repeatedly over more than half a century in a city in Central Japan. Honorific expressions and politeness behaviors for asking and introducing matters were investigated through interviews, and whole utterances were transcribed. Not only random samples but also panel samples (that is, tracking the same person interviewed in a prior survey) were acquired. A new scattergram was drawn to arrange all the individual speakers of the repeated interviews by year (and month) of birth on one axis, and the numerical values of the sentence length (by characters) on another axis. New findings were made; for example, the following contradictory age pattern was observed. The scattergram showed that sentence length became longer in the second and the third surveys for the same individuals (real time change). However, when age differences are compared within three surveys, younger speakers use shorter expressions and older speakers use longer expressions.When judged from this age difference (in apparent time), it would be expected that expressions become shorter in the later surveys as time passes. However, each time the survey was repeated, the age curve showed the same pattern, with shorter expressions among the young generation. It is different from ordinary linguistic change.More minute analyses have shown that the newer honorific expression of adding te-itadaku is increasing recently, but this is utilized more by older people. Also, hedges and fillers are in greater use recently, but more by older people. Discourse behavior and honorifics are acquired late in life. People acquire discourse behavior as a skill as they grow as a member of society. This extremely late adoption can only be ascertained through repeated surveys spreading over several decades as in this study.
  • 5.

    About the adnominal expression “N1ナ(na) N2”

    Lee myungock | 2015, (44) | pp.71~86 | number of Cited : 1
    This study introduces various examples of the adnominal expression “N1ナ(na) N2” to make it clear the cause of its increase, grammatical aspect, and function in meaning. Before, the adnominal expression “N1ナ(na) N2” had been studied in “ナ(na)/ノ(no)“ selection and its attribute and non-attribute concepts. However, the grammatical position of “N1 ナ(na) N2” was not clear due to the existence of anomalistic expressions. In this study, the reasons why such adnominal expressions are used are considered by focusing on changes in contemporary Japanese vocabularies. This led to the consideration of the grammatical aspect, and the function in meaning of the adnominal expression “N1ナ(na) N2”. The additional use of Kanji as nouns and also as adjectives, combined with the increase of loanwords categorized as abstract nouns are confirmed in the contemporary Japanese. Along with this, concrete nouns and proper nouns have started being used as inflectable words.They have been changed intoナ(Na)-type adjectives in the process of these changes, which are the strongest in the process of making neologisms.
  • 6.

    The use of ‘Nanka’ in conversations between young generations: Focusing on conversations between female university students

    Lee Eun Mi | 2015, (44) | pp.87~99 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the use of ‘nanka’ as a discourse marker in the conversation between friends of university students in Japan was investigated. Through this study, it was empirically revealed that most of ‘nanka’ in the conversation between friends of university students were used as a discourse marker. Furthermore, the functions of ‘nanka’ as a discourse marker were classified into ‘discourse development ’ and ‘mitigation’. In addition, ‘discourse development’ was subdivided into ‘topic maintenance’, ‘topic switching’ and ‘topic development’, and ‘mitigation’ was subdivided into ‘ information demand’, ‘expression of opinion’ and ‘others (surplus)’. Each use of those showed a different tendency from others in terms of the position ‘nanka’ appeared. ‘Nanka’ as a discourse marker is not a requisite element either grammatically or semantically in a discourse. Moreover, it is not concerned with the utterance contents at all. However, it may be said that it functions as a language strategy to maintain smooth communication while showing the consideration to a conversation partner as ‘nanka’ softens the tone of the utterance contents by showing the hesitation.
  • 7.

    A Study on Borrowed-Character Expression in the Manuscripts of Jeongchangwon (Eul grade)

    Lee, Ji-Soo | 2015, (44) | pp.101~117 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Up to now, we have analyzed the original text of Jeongchangwon for the borrowed-special-character(正倉院萬葉假名文書)(Eul-grade) and compared/investigated the expression of ancient special borrowed characters (上代特殊假名づかい)(Gab-grade/Eul-grade), polite expressions (敬語表記) and expression of auxiliary verbs (助動詞表記) through out the ancient literatures from the aspect of the borrowed-special-character description (借字表記) focusing on the vocabulary of the original text. The analysis of the original text in Chapter 2 was possible only roughly because one same original text existed in two types of form with different structure and its meaning was ambiguous. Chapter 3 addressed all the vocabularies that were subject to ancient special borrowed characters (上代特殊假名づかい) in the original text. With regard to the description of polite expressions and auxiliary verbs in Chapter 3 and 4, ancient special borrowed characters (上代特殊假名づかい;甲/乙) which were related with the inflectional form, the relevant grammatical utilization and the connection of the borrowed-special-character description(萬葉假名表記)(borrowing Chinese characters/descriptions in borrowed-character) were analyzed and then, compared with various ancient literatures.
  • 8.

    Honorific prefixes in Japanese language during infancy

    정정미 | 2015, (44) | pp.119~131 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study we first defined various terms pertaining to the language of infants. Next we broke down infant languages into ``toddler language’’ and ``preschooler language’’ according to the children’s developmental stages, and then observed the honorific prefixes ``at the stage of toddler’’ and ``at the stage of preschooler.’’ Further, we also looked at “infant language” as a whole, which appeared repetitively through the stages of toddler and preschooler. The ``toddler language’’ is initiated by mothers and almost one-sidedly influenced by mothers. This language is not toddlers’ spontaneous speech, but represents the attitude of adults to their children. On the other hand, the ``preschooler language’’, more specifically the use of honorific prefixes at the stage of preschool children, is a diverted form of the honorific prefixes of adults. These honorific prefixes in the ``preschooler language’’ have interactivity between ``speakers’’ and ``listeners’’ and, although not entirely deprived of dignity or decency found in the honorific prefixes of adults, are rather characterized as ``gentleness’’, ``softness’’, ``infancy’’, or ``immaturity.’’ These ``toddler language’’, ``preschooler language’’ and `` infant language’’ become abandoned by the stage of school child and each of them shows some discontinuity but some part of them transitions into child language, and eventually into adult language.
  • 9.

    A Study of Korea-Japan Comparison of ‘Discourse of Apology’ in a lightly imposing scene -Targeting Korea and Japan male and female college students-

    JungHyunAa | 2015, (44) | pp.133~149 | number of Cited : 5
    In a lightly imposing scene of apology, it turned out that both Korean and Japanese male and female native speakers tend to use interaction of ‘core discourse’ with formulaic expressions of apology. In particular, Japanese native speakers showed a higher tendency to use it than Korean native speakers. Since it is not a highly imposition situation of apology, they often used ‘discourses related to follow-up’ and ‘parenthetical discourse’. In detail, Japanese female native speakers had a tendency to repeat ‘core discourse’ and more ‘parenthetical discourses’ while Japanese male native speakers showed a obvious tendency to terminate conversation only with ‘core discourse’. Korean male native speakers were characterized with ‘negotiating discourse’ which occurred before ‘core discourse’ began while Korean female native speakers had a strong tendency to end conversation only with ‘core discourse’.
  • 10.

    Imperative Sentences that Employ Give-and-Receive Verbs and Politeness

    최선희 , Kang, Suk-Woo | 2015, (44) | pp.151~165 | number of Cited : 4
    Recently imperative sentences that employ the give-and-receive verbs “temorau/teitadaku” are frequently used. Against backdrop in which there have already been typical imperative sentences employing “shiro/shinasai” or courteous imperative sentences employing the “tekureru” (and its variations such as “tekudasai/o–kudasai”) this paper, focusing on the increasing frequency of using “temorau/teitadaku” sentences as the substitutes, tries to rebuild the system of imperative sentences in the contemporary Japanese in terms of the Leech’s theory of politeness. As “shiro/shinasai” sentences are the expression that lacks the respect for the listener due to the explicit compulsory power, they cannot be used for superiors. Unlike “shiro/shinasai” sentences, “tekudasai/o–kudasai” sentences are truly respectful language that can be used to superiors as they mean honorific and benefit, as yet they are still direct imperative sentences that constrain the behavior of the listeners. On the other hand, “temorau/teitadaku” sentences have the implications of unilateral command that defies the listeners’ intentions. However, they are imperative sentences that show special consideration on the listeners because their compulsory power is indirect and implicit on surface. In addition, they are also imperative sentences that include the respect for the listeners and explicitly indicate the benefit from the listeners. This paper argues that, because of these properties, “temorau/teitadaku” sentences are being used as the substitutes for the direct imperative sentences such as “shiro/shinasai” or “tekudasai/o–kudasai” ones.
  • 11.

    A Study of the Collocation of Japanese Compound Verbs by Investigating Major Corpus

    Ho chiming | 2015, (44) | pp.167~181 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to examine the collocation of Japanese compound verbs by using a major corpus, Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) "Chûnagon" developed by the National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics. It is difficult for Japanese language teachers to teach Japanese compound verbs in the classroom environment since there is a large number of compound verbs to cover. In order to lighten the instructor’s burden on teaching compound verbs, the author proposes that it is not necessary for Japanese language teachers to teach all compound verbs but only those most frequently used by native speakers of Japanese at the start of the learning process. The findings of this paper provide significant clues to determine the frequently-used compound verbs and their collocation by using data derived from the BCCWJ "Chûnagon". The major findings in this paper are: 1. In the collocation of compound verbs, "wo" is the particle that can co-occur with a largest number of compound verbs. 2. Japanese language learners can apply the collocation information to their learning process of compound verbs. It is important for them to know not only the compound verb itself but also its usage.