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2016, Vol., No.47

  • 1.

    The change of usage of 'desu' in the Meiji era

    Park Hyokyung | 2016, (47) | pp.3~21 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of 'desu' in the Meiji era, based on data of the colloquial style. Meiji was a transitional period when a writing style of modern Japanese was being established, and when a colloquial style had been changed a lot. In particular, colloquial 'desu' was the expression that changed most. In this study, I summarized data of the colloquial style in the Meiji period, and extracted the text which used 'desu' from each document. After that, I classified the data into 3 groups; noun sentences, verb sentences, and adjective sentences. There was no usage of 'desu' in newspapers, documents for speech and documents for enlightenment in the Meiji period. There were a lot of instances of 'desu' in Rakugo and novels which were divided into two parts, a conversation part and a narrative part, but its conjugated forms were quite different from those in contemporary Japanese. With regard to its conjugation, 'desu' was sometimes combined with the root verb, and was not combined with adjectives. The phrase 'desu' was only connected to substantives before the Meiji era, but was also connected to predicates in the Meiji era.
  • 2.

    Accent of causative-passive in Gyeongsang Korean: In contrast with Japanese

    Son Jaehyun | 2016, (47) | pp.23~34 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to describe the accent systems of Gyeongsang Korean by contrasting them with Tokyo Japanese. Both dialects are classified as having the pitch accent. Every dialect has its own regularity in its accent, which is also found in the accents of causative-passive forms, which I describe in this paper. Until now there have been many literatures on the accent system of causative-passive forms in Tokyo Japanese while its Korean counterpart is lacking pilot studies and data. Therefore, in this paper, by adopting methodologies of the pilot studies on Tokyo Japanese, and also by using the data collected from the fieldworks relating to Gyeongsang Korean, I will discuss the regularity found in the accent of causative-passive in Gyeongsang Korean in contrast with Tokyo Japanese.
  • 3.

    A study of collaborative group work in Japanese class: From the class assessment among students

    SHIN EUNJIN | 2016, (47) | pp.35~55 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    In this study the use of group work as one approach to student encouragement in Japanese class is discussed. Collaborative group work has been designed as a classroom activity. The following four matters have been considered. (1)Sharing the same aim, (2)Being fair in making groups, (making groups with fair?), (3)Activating the communication between learners, (4)Facilitating and supporting. 27 students formed seven groups each of which had three or four members. Each group carried out three types of tasks as follows; (1)Textbook-related (2)Task based (3)Presentation. In this case study, class assessment by groups was performed on (2) and (3). The results of assessment by groups in this Japanese class are as follows. (1)High degree of satisfaction was shown for groups formed with fairly. (2)All group members were satisfied with the selection of "Kakao talk" as the communication tool. (3)Correlation of "satisfaction for classroom activities" and "good Class" was not clear. (4)Although the evaluation of teachers was high, there were also some negative comments. Collaborative group work can be used to encourage deeper learning. However, this does not necessarily mean that it is a good lesson. It is necessary to further improve the instructional class design and classroom activities.
  • 4.

    A Study of Hōkun in Daikanwajiten

    Mi young Oh | 2016, (47) | pp.57~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study deals with Hōkun (Japanese usage) in 10 radicals of Chinese characters, To-bu, San-bu, Shin-bu, Sui-bu, Gyoku-bu, Seki-bu, Shi-bu, I-bu, Soku-bu, Gen-bu of Daikanwajiten (大漢和辞典). Daikanwajiten contains 144 Hōkuns in 110 characters of 10 kinds of radicals. At first, we compared these instances with those of Kokanwajiten (広漢和辞典) and Kanjikai (漢辞海). As a result, it appears that 82 Hōkuns in 74 characters are dealt with as Hōkun in these three dictionaries. However, there are some cases where although the Hōkuns are the same, the meaning is different, and only 80 Hōkuns in 73 characters have the same meaning in all three dictionaries. Likewise, the range of recognized Hōkuns differs depending on the direction of edition or references used for edition. Second, we investigated the 144 Hōkuns in Kanchiinbon Ruijumyōgisyō (観智院本類聚名義抄) which was compiled in the 1200s. As a result, only 43 Hōkuns in 41 characters (about 30%) were found. There is a high possibility that these 43 instances were already used as Japanese usage when Kanchiinbon was compiled. However, we cannot confirm whether or not they had the same meaning as those of Daikanwajiten, because Kanchiinbon did not contain the meanings of words. Further, 95 Hōkuns in 64 characters are contained in the index of Kanchiinbon, but these instances are not contained in Daikanwajiten. These instances may have been used as Japanese usage after the 13th century. However, 5 characters (惘, 沁, 没, 泌, 礑 ) are not contained in the index of Kanchiinbon. Finally, we investigated Kangxizidian, a Chinese old dictionary, in order to confirm whether or not the 144 Hōkuns were used only in Japan. There are 274 meanings in the 144 Hōkuns, and 15 meanings are also confirmed in Kangxizidian. Therefore these meanings were not admitted as Japanese usage because they were used in the Chinese language already.
  • 5.

    Cooperative Online Japanese Classes in Japan, Korea and China: Focusing on the Case of Partner Universities

    Saito,Asako | 2016, (47) | pp.73~89 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study is an empirical research that investigates online classes with different subjects taught by the industry - university - government specialists who do not have professional Japanese language teaching backgrounds in the partner universities of Japan, Korea and China. The syllabus is designed to let the Japanese language learners of these countries take classes about the Japanese society by these specialists and have discussions afterwards by using Skype which is connected by personal computers or mobile computers. As a result, the study reveals that exchanges can be deepened while the students of the three universities are taking the same class at the same time, and are easily connected to each other by computers in their common classrooms. There are four advantages already confirmed through the cooperative online classes as follows. 1. It is possible to interact among the Japanese language learners of several countries and the native speakers of Japanese in real time. 2. It is possible for the students of the three countries to attend the omnibus online classes given by teachers without professional Japanese language teaching backgrounds. 3. It is possible to obtain information about a partner university before going to study there, and build a connection with the teachers and students of the partner university. 4. It is possible to attend special classes of a Japanese university. It is important to build a unit accreditation system as well as a double degree system for online Japanese language education in the future between the partner universities connected by Skype and at the same time to create a pleasant environment in which online lectures can be carried out smoothly, even in common classrooms. In addition, it is also important not to just dispatch information from one county, but to deepen exchange relationships through online talks between the partner universities making full use of the characteristics of each country.
  • 6.

    Contrastive studies: Past, present and future

    Lee Duck Young | 2016, (47) | pp.91~103 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    At a setting of the foreign(or second) language education, understanding(dis)similarities between a target language and the students’ mother tongue is not only useful for predicting the tendencies of errors that the students may typically make, but the degree of such(dis)similarities(i.e. how far and in what aspects the two language are different each other) would greatly influence the contents and approaches of a curriculum. If a teacher understands such(dis)similarities he/she would be able to manage his/her courses more effectively by preparing teaching materials and conducting classes in the way to avoid students’ typical errors. Contrastive study of linguistics aims to clarify the(dis)similarities between two languages in connection with the foreign language acquisition. The aim of the current study is to detail the background of contrastive study, its development and changes, and future prospect. Contrastive study may, from a macro perspective, indicate a sub-discipline of linguistics as in Contrastive Linguistics, while it may, from a micro perspective, indicate a variety of investigations at various units/levels of linguistics as in contrastive analysis. Further, It has two aspects. One is its close relation with foreign language learning, as noted above. The other is its close connection with linguistics, that is, the research trend of contrastive study has changed along with those in(applied) linguistics. In this regard, it is important to note that an approach based on a large size of data or corpus is already a strong trend in linguistics, and that this trend is also appearing in contrastive studies. It is expected that such a trend will continue and further be expanded in contrastive studies in future.
  • 7.

    Development and implementation of the conversation test, "Showcase", aimed at improving learners' motivation and satisfaction: for Korean Japanese learners at junior college in Korea

    이부키 사야카 | 2016, (47) | pp.105~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    It is believed that a lack of enthusiasm for studying and learning at junior college in Korea has recently been rather common. This, in turn, negatively affects both the students’ lifestyle and their activities regarding gaining employment later on, and our school is no exception. In order for us to find a method to solve the problem, we conducted oral interviews with students of the Japanese language on a one-to-one basis. We have discovered that evaluations done by some teachers are too strict which makes it difficult for students to gain good marks regardless of how much a student tries, and which in turn leads to problems and dissatisfaction among students. In addition, the level of some classes is considered too high overall which makes it difficult for students to gain good marks regardless of the efforts made by the students, which also leads to problems and dissatisfaction. In line with the above, we in this study developed and conducted a conversation test called “Showcase” with the purpose of eliminating dissatisfaction caused from the above mentioned evaluations. The test led to an increase in the level of satisfaction. The result of written surveys and of oral interviews showed that about 60 percent of students somehow feel that “Showcase” is effective. It was also revealed that about 80 percent of students achieved better results. Furthermore, it is possible to utilize “Showcase” on various occasions, show it to other students, look back at oneself, and review the contents of one studies. Thus the conversation test “Showcase” contributes to fairer evaluations, and makes it more fun and more enjoyable for students, leading to more satisfaction and motivation among them.
  • 8.

    The Classification of Sounds on the Common Sino Japanese Characters: Mainly on the Group of Geng(梗)

    Lee Sang Hee | Lee, Kyong Chul | 2016, (47) | pp.121~134 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This research aims to classify 234 sounds for 188 characters in the group of Geng(梗) within Common Sino Japanese Characters (2010) into 5 types, Go’on, Kan’on, Go’on & Kan’on(i.e. Go’on and Kan’on are the same), To’on, and Kan’yo’on. Findings are as follows. A total of 234 sounds in the group of Geng were classified into 152 sounds of Kan’on, 62 sounds of Go’on, 15 sounds of Kan’yo’on, 4 sounds of To’on, 15 sounds of Kan’yo’on, and 1 sound of Go’on & Kan’on. Go’on and Kan’on appear as the same -wjau/-wjaku type only in the second rounded rhyme Geng(耕) and Geng(庚), but Go’on and Kan’on appear as different types in other rhymes in the group of Geng. Therefore, Go’on & Kan’on is just one Kou(鑛コウ) in the second rounded rhyme Geng (庚), and Kan’on occupies a great rate of 65% in the group Geng. There are 4 sounds of To’on that appear as an -iN type in the group of Geng.
  • 9.

    A study on the ellipsis in Japanese - Korean translation : With a focus on grammatical elements

    Hajune Jeong | 2016, (47) | pp.135~155 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This research was conducted to analyze the ellipsis of Japanese grammatical elements in Japanese-Korean translation. The characteristics may be summarized as follows.   ① ‘No’ in the phrase ‘A no B’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 19.7% (375/1900) on the whole.   ② In the ‘Ko-so-a-do’ system ‘So-’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 92% (23/25). Among Conjunctions ‘Datte’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 30% (3/10). Among Particles ‘No’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 75% (634/845). In the Voice category ‘the Passive Voice’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 70.3% (71/101). In the Aspect category ‘Teiru’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 89.1% (375/421). Among Giving and Receiving Expressions ‘Teyaru’ and ‘Tekureru’ were the most omitted grammatical elements with 42.9% (3/7) each. Among Modality Expressions ‘Noda’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 52.5% (85/162). Among Honorific Expressions ‘Kun’ was the most omitted grammatical element with 32.1% (70/218).