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2016, Vol., No.48

  • 1.

    The Criteria and Tasks for the Email Automatic Evaluation System: Focusing on the achievement of tasks and required vocabulary

    Kim ranmi | 2016, (48) | pp.3~19 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper explains the preliminary research of an Automatic Scoring System being developed through which Japanese learners can submit compositions for pre-set tasks to an online scoring application. We investigated the ‘YNU written language corpus’ to find a method by which completion of tasks can be automatically determined. The aims of this investigation were to determine the feasibility of automatic content evaluation and appropriate tasks for this application. We extracted nouns from 30 compositions from each of 6 tasks written by native Korean speakers(NKS)、 and the same number of compositions written by native Japanese speakers(NJS)、 using the morpheme analyzer “Cha-Sen”. We then categorized the extracted “mandatory words”(MW)using the 『Bunruigoihyo』. We also compared the number of MW with the total number of nouns used for each task、 and found certain tasks were more appropriate for automatic content analysis、 because the number of MW was small. We found differences in both the number and types of MW used by NKS versus those used by NJS. We also discovered that while NJS did not use unnecessary nouns to complete the tasks、 NKS did. Our analysis of the participants' submissions using the『Bunruigoihyo』showed that NJS used a wider variety of synonyms to express the same notions than NKS. Based on the results of this investigation、 we came to the conclusion that an automatic scoring system that focuses on MW can not only evaluate the content of compositions、 but also determine the fulfillment of pre-set tasks.
  • 2.

    Quantitative analysis in turn-taking in Palauan Japanese language conversations

    사이토케이타 | 이소노 히데하루 | 2016, (48) | pp.21~32 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze lower Japanese nonnative speakers’ conversations at Palau. We analyzed the utterances by comparing Japanese native speakers and Japanese learners for similarities or differences. As a result, he(TN) used "back-channel feedback" and "discourse-marker" as much as these speakers. Needless to say, he could communicate more smoothly in Japanese. In addition, this study found "Short turn-taking" by "back-channel feedback" and "discourse-marker". On the other hand, there were non-typical expressions of "back-channel feedback おお", function of " repetition " and so on. As the significance of this study, we provided limited data about lower Japanese nonnative speakers’ conversations at Palau, and such empirical analyses of actual data will enable us to offer effective and realistic materials for instructing non-native speakers in the techniques of Japanese conversation construction.
  • 3.

    The Relation between the Spatial Meaning of Nouns and the Motion Verbs "Iku", "Tsuku" and "Mukau" :Based on the results of an acceptability judgment testing

    SHIN JEONGEUN | 2016, (48) | pp.33~48 | number of Cited : 0
    The aim of this paper is to examine the phenomenon of nouns that express a spatial meaning when combined with motion verbs, even though they normally do not convey that meaning.Furthermore, this paper examines how the degree of the shift to the spatial meaning differs between different nouns and the reasons for that difference. In order to examine these phenomena, I conducted a survey among Japanese native speakers, using a questionnaire that contained sentences with motion expressions. The results of the survey indicate that the degree of acceptability is higher with some nouns than with others, regardless of the verbs. However, since in the case of iku ‘go’, tsuku ‘arrive’ and mukau ‘move toward’, the degree of acceptability varies depending on the nouns they are combined with, it can be said that the type of verb also affects acceptability. Furthermore, the results of the survey show that the reasons for differences in the degrees of acceptability are closely related to semantic characteristics of motion verbs, the degree of motion, and size of the physical objects of nouns.
  • 4.

    An analysis of the distributions of personal reference terms in modern Japanese and Korean

    오기 나오미 | 2016, (48) | pp.49~64 | number of Cited : 5
    This study explores the use of personal reference terms (PRTs) in modern Japanese and Korean from a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural point of view. It is well known that both Japanese and Korean are rich in PRTs and their use is closely related to biographical factors such as the social status, age and gender of interlocutors as well as the level of situational formality (e.g. Lim, 2001; Oh, 2010). The study will take a macro approach and clarify the distributional differences of the use of PRTs in Japanese and Korean. By doing so, it will highlight the unique socio-linguistic features of each language. First, the study divides the PRTs used in three Japanese TV drama series and their Korean remake versions into five categories: (i)pronouns (i.e. personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns and demonstrative pronouns), (ii) kinship terms, (iii) names (i.e. last names, first names and full names), (iv) occupations and positions, and (v) other nouns, and provides an overview of a tendencies in the use of PRTs in each language (e.g. What types of PRTs are used more/less frequently in each language, etc.). Second, the study observes and compares detailed distributions of the PRTs in three categories (i.e. (i) pronouns, (ii) kinship terms and (iii) nouns) of both Japanese and Korean, which particularly exhibit the significant differences between the two languages, and discusses the unique features of each language in the use of PRTs. The study will ultimately show that Japanese has a more distinguished ‘personal pronoun system’ compared to Korean, while Korean has a more distinguished ‘kinship term system’ compared to Japanese, and is further characterised as a ‘social-relationship-oriented’ language.
  • 5.

    A Contrastive Study of Cover Ratios in Contemporary Japanese and Korean Words

    Chang,Won-Jae | 2016, (48) | pp.65~83 | number of Cited : 3
    In this study, I preliminarily review and critically discuss previous studies of cover ratios in contemporary Japanese and Korean words based on comparisons of the vocabulary lists which are made from different research materials and different research conditions. Then, I research cover ratios of the two languages with the same research conditions and compare them. Also, I propose ‘change ratios’ which are correlated with research conditions. 1) With regard to the change ratios correlated with research conditions, the ratio of [the existence or non-existence of dependent functional words] is the largest with 22%, the ratio of [the length of counting units] is 5%, the ratio of [the existence or non-existence of proper words] is 3%. 2) [The existence or non-existence of dependent functional words] significantly influences the cover ratio of the highest 500-1000 words, and [the length of counting units] significantly influences the cover ratio of the highest 2000-3000 words. 3) The change ratios of Japanese and Korean words show a very similar distribution pattern, but the change ratio of Korean words is a little bit lower than that of Japanese words when those ratios cover the high-frequency words, the highest 500 words.
  • 6.

    Features of the Structure and Development of ‘Apology Discourse’ in Korean and Japanese university students : Focused on Politeness Theory

    JungHyunAa | 2016, (48) | pp.85~103 | number of Cited : 7
    In a heavily imposing scene of apology, it turned out that both Korean and Japanese male and female university students tend to use more ‘prepositional discourse’ and ‘negotiating discourse’. Especially, the apologetic process under this condition turned out to be quite complex; apology could or could not be accepted according to the interaction of ‘core discourse’ and ‘negotiating discourse’. 10 apologetic conversations of Korean males (total 16) and 14 apologetic conversations of Korean females (total 16) were accepted by the party who was in a position of receiving the apology, while 11 apologetic conversations of Japanese males (total 16) and 8 apologetic conversations of Japanese females (total 16) were accepted by the party who was in a position of receiving the apology. In short, it turned out that in a heavily imposing situation, ‘core discourse’ decreases while ‘negotiating discourse’—a focus on reactions to solve a problem—increases. However, both Korean and Japanese male university students tended to repeat ‘core discourse’ and ‘negotiating discourse’ in order to have their apology accepted. On the other hand, Japanese females had a strong tendency to change their intention when the party receiving the apology directly expresses rejection to the apology. Korean females showed an active tendency to propose solutions such as laying down an alternative.
  • 7.

    A Corpus-based Study of the Synonymous Adverbs

    Cho, Eun-Young | 2016, (48) | pp.105~123 | number of Cited : 0
    This study was aimed at examining the literary style of the adverbs dandan, jojo-ni and shidai-ni in a synonymous relation based on appearance tendencies in various genres and in ‘narrative passages’ and ‘conversation’ of ‘literature’. Moreover, the study examined the characteristics of adverbs in expressions used together with dandan, jojo-ni and shidai-ni on ‘Blog’. The findings are as follows. 1. In literary styles of dandan, jojo-ni and shidai-ni, dandan is more colloquial than jojo-ni and shidai-ni, and their order of formality is dandan, jojo-ni and shidai-ni. In other words, in a more colloquial genre dandan showed up more frequently, and in a formal genre and style jojo-ni appeared more frequently. 2. Verbs used together with dandan, jojo-ni and shidai-ni on ‘Blog’ showed changes in quantity, vertical position and natural phenomena. Individually, dandan showed changes in a person’s sense, emotion and thought, jojo-ni showed changes in quantity of substances and statuses of people, and jojo-ni showed changes in the status of a situation. In expressions that described developments in a situation, jojo-ni was frequently used and dandanwas used in expressions that described the beginning of a situation. 3. Jojo-ni and dandan were written together with expressions that showed will, but they differed as to whether the agent influenced the target.
  • 8.

    Interactions between Practitioners and Japanese Language Learners in Practice Teaching of Japanese Pronunciation :Focusing on Practitioners’ Learning

    천선영 | 2016, (48) | pp.125~142 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the learning of practitioners in practice teaching of pronunciation they obtained through their interactions with Japanese language learners while teaching pronunciation. Based on the learning of practitioners, I discuss the practice teaching of Japanese pronunciation to support practitioner learning. I investigated a practice teaching specializing in pronunciation at the Graduate School in Tokyo. I took participant observations at the pronunciation class and interviewed the practitioners. In this paper, I focus on a practitioner who has experience as a Japanese language teacher. Through interaction with the Japanese language learners, I found that the practitioner learned about Japanese language learners. (1) Their devotion and achievement to learn pronunciation in learning pronunciation (2) Their flexible attitude towards learning pronunciation (3) Their self-correcting capabilities in Japanese pronunciation (4) Their anxiety about pronunciation Thus, the practitioner came to deepen their understanding of the potential of Japanese language learners in learning pronunciation. This study shows that practice teaching can support practitioner learning when a practitioner finds and develops the potential of Japanese language learners in learning pronunciation. Hence, it is necessary for practitioners to be provided with an opportunity to develop the learners’ potential in order to develop themselves.
  • 9.

    A Contrastive Study of the Grammaticalization of Spatial Terms (“中”) in Chinese and Japanese

    황소려 | 2016, (48) | pp.143~158 | number of Cited : 0
    This article mainly examines the grammaticalization of the Chinese spatial term“中(zhong)”and Japanese spatial term “中(naka /tyū)”.Based on Croft’s examination of the four types of complex sentences(2001),we hereby analyze the construction of “中(naka)”and “中(zhong)”in the continuum frame of complements, adjoined relative clauses and adverbial clauses. Depending on the differences in the subordinate clauses and main clauses, “中(naka)”shows different levels of grammaticalization, which are all embodied in the construction of “subordinate clause + 中(naka)”.Similar usages can be found in the Chinese“中(zhong)”,hence the typological meanings of the examination of “中(naka)”in Japanese. On the other hand, “中 (naka)”in Japanese is used to describe status and direct experience, which is related to the “IHRC (internally headed relativizative clauses) construction”, a special feature of the Japanese language. In addition, “中(zhong)”and “中(tyū)” can act as an aspect auxiliary after they achieve a real sense of grammaticalization. Semantically, it’s a language universal that the meaning of space can be transformed into the meaning of time. In syntax, an adverbial clause can act as a main clause by way of “prominence”. What is different is that Japanese is restricted by the kun-yomi and onn-yomi, so instead of“中( tyū)”, “最中(saityū)”or “最中(sanaka)”are often use as aspect auxiliaries.