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2017, Vol., No.54

  • 1.

    Study on the Japanese conditional expression 'nara'

    Kim, Kyoung-Hye | 2017, (54) | pp.3~16 | number of Cited : 1
    This study explores the form nara, which represents the conditional meaning in Japanese. The form nara connects to the upcoming main clause, and influences from outside of the proposition of the preceding clause. Its use has the premise that sets the situation to a condition. The from is derived from the auxiliary verb [da] and is established as a form representing the conditional meaning, so it should be recognized as a connective. The syntax characteristic of nara is that the it functions to set up a situation as a condition regardless of whether the proposition of the precrding clause is true or not, and thus the form is not constrained unless it indicates a truth or a general repetition of an event. Since nara is a form to express the psychological attitude of the speaker, the Modality that conveys the speaker’s will appears at the end of the upcoming clause and the Modality is not constrained except for an assertive narrative representation sush as the description statement. In the case of Tense indication, nara can be expressed in the syntax content of the future point of view, but this is for the preceding clause only, and the upcoming elause, according to the characteristics of the sentence of nara, appears at the time of utterance or after the time of utterance. Such special features of the nara statement are so because the syntax of nara has a deep relationship with the display of the Modality and the Tense. Finally, nara 's semanteme is basically a condition, the purpose of which is, in the form of semantic characteristics, to present a hypothesis, semi-realistic condition that appears in the expression of assumption conditions, the presentation of a topic or subject, and the semantic characteristics of circumstances that are presented by setting the condition to indicate the psychological attitude of the speaker.
  • 2.

    Comparison between Japan and Korea in response to spoken greeting as exhibition of a negative evaluation: Composing and interaction of adjacency pairs

    김지은 | 2017, (54) | pp.17~30 | number of Cited : 1
    This study examines how the informant responds to the greeting of speaker giving a displeasure, focusing on the interaction of the adjacency pairs. According to the analysis results, in the context of a negative evaluations, Japanese tended to respond to the spoken greeting of the other speaker even in the case of a weak displeasure scene and a strong displeasure scene. However, Koreans had a weaker tendency to respond to spoken greeting of the other speaker in comparison with Japanese. In addition, Japanese were not greatly influenced by the disparity of ages, or the closeness of the relationship and they tended to still respond to the other speaker's greeting regardless of these factors, but Koreans tended not to respond to greetings of the speaker in close relationship, and the tendency toward composing the adjacency pairs was largely influenced by the closeness of the relationship between the informant and the other speaker. Further, Koreans tend to exhibit negative evaluations to the elders by lowering the equivalence of interaction in adjacency pair. This is interpreted as a means of compensating an exhibition of negative evaluations, which is caused by the difficulty the informants have in exhibiting an explicit negative evaluation. Also, in the close relationship, both Japanese and Koreas tended to exhibit negative evaluations by lowering the equivalence of interaction in adjacency pair, but the tendency of Koreans was stronger than that of Japanese.
  • 3.

    Comparison between Japanese and Korean students on scenes of borrowing objects from a close friend: Focusing on the sense that “the object is the other party's possession”

    Nakamura, Yuri | Oikawa Hiroe | 후지타 토모히사 | 2017, (54) | pp.31~45 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper is a research to compare of the sense that “the object is the other party’s possession” of Japanese and Korean university students when borrowing objects from a close friend. As a result the following 5 points were drawn from the study. (1) Japanese and Korean students both have the strong sense that even when borrowing from a close friend the object is the other party’s exclusive possession regardless of the type or position of the object. (2) For both Japanese and Korean students the sense that “the object is the other party’s possession” in genaral becomes stronger in the order of “eraser < phone charger < laptop”. (3) For Korean students, regardless of the type, the closer the object is positioned to the other party, the more it enhances the sense that “the object is the other party’s possession”. On the other hand, for Japanese students trivial objects are influenced by the position but otherwise are not influenced by position. (4) For Japanese students, regardless of the type and position of the object, the responses to the sense that “the object is the other party’s possession” are densely distributed on “very strong” and many share the similar sense. In contrast, Korean students show large individual variations when trivial objects are positioned close to the borrower or in between the borrower and owner. (5) Regardless of the type and position of the object, Japanese students have the stronger sense of “the object is the other party’s possession” than Korean students have.
  • 4.

    On the meanings of kakaru and kakeru: From the perspective of cognitive linguistics

    박용덕 | 2017, (54) | pp.47~63 | number of Cited : 0
    By documenting the semantic features of the Japanese verbs kakaru and kakeru, this study examines the motivation for the meaning expansion of ~kakaru and ~kakeru. The study reveals that a sense of "hinderance" derived from kakaru is accountable for the motivation behind the expansion of the aspect meaning "incompeteness" denoted by ~kakaru and ~kakeru , which, accordingly, results from the conceptual expansion from the dimension of space to that of time. In addition, kakaru and kakeru behave remarkably differently in the way they express the results of behaviors and changes. For example, kakaru may express the sense of "completion" while kakeru does not. These findings may explain the differences between the grammaticalized ~kakaru and ~kakeru
  • 5.

    A study of images held by Japanese people toward Korean country, people and language: Through comparison to images held by Japanese people toward Japanese country, people and language

    세키자키 히로노리 | 김경분 | 최재영 | 2017, (54) | pp.65~86 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the images that Japanese people have toward Korea in an attempt to obtain an objective view to improve the relationship. For this aim, the features of images that Japanese people have toward the Korean country, people and language are described through comparison to the images about themselves. The data were collected through a questionnaire, which required to freely describe positive and negative images, respectively. As a result, it was revealed that Japanese people have relatively more negative images than positive toward Korea considering that the numbers of images against Korea was fewer than that against Japan. In addition, the result of coding and text analysis showed that Japanese people tend to have images such as “clear assertion” and “strong patriotism” toward the Korean country and people in common. Moreover, these images turned out to be positive and negative images at the same time. As for language, it was found that <sound/hearing impressions> and <sense in common> are typical images on the one hand, while language system, including grammar and vocabulary, was rare on the other hand. In particular, the tendency of holding negative <sound/hearing impressions> toward the Korean language is suggested to be influenced by negative images toward the country and people. It is discussed that the Japanese images toward the Korean country and people are strongly influenced by such factors as familiarity, media, or frequency and experience of contact with Korean people. Besides, the images about the Korean language are considered to be brought by little knowledge, information or study experience.
  • 6.

    NSM-based approach to meanings of synonyms: Focusing on hearsay markers in Japanese and Korean

    아사노-카바나 유코 | 이덕영 | 2017, (54) | pp.87~106 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyse hearsay markers souda, rashii and -tte in Japanese and -tay and -nikka in Korean from the perspective of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM), which was proposed and developed by Anna Wierzbicka and colleagues (Goddard 1994, 1998, 2008, 2016; Goddard & Wierzbicka 2002, 2014; Peeters 2006). Souda, rashii and –tte are used in similar situations and are often translated in English as ‘he/she says’, or ‘I heard’. Although these hearsay markers are considered synonyms, they are not necessarily interchangeable. There are subtle differences which cannot be captured by a dictionary or conventional semantic analysis. The current study shows that the NSM Approach is more advantageous than previous researches in that it can describe the (dis)similarities of synonyms in a simple and accurate fashion. The study will then analyse Korean markers, -tay and -nikka from the NSM perspective, and compare its results with those of the Japanese hearsay markers. Within the NSM framework, the semantic properties of each expression are defined by semantic primes, which are near-universal in nature. It will be demonstrated that the NSM Approach is capable of dealing with semantic properties of markers/expressions in different languages, and that definitions facilitate the understanding of each expression and enable to compare the meanings cross-linguistically.
  • 7.

    A translation indicating the literature and the culture: Focusing on the KoreanJapaneseEnglish translation in the masterpiece

    Kyoungsoon Oh | 2017, (54) | pp.107~123 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines cross-cultural elements in Korea, Japan, and the United States, and how they are accepted in the process of translation and cultural transformation. In addition, it analyzes how different viewpoints affect translation, which is considered to be crucial factor in novel translation. The scope and the content of the analysis mainly focused on the opening paragraph of each novel and how the traslator’s strategies of "Domesticating Translation" and "Foreignizing Translation" are applied, in terms of the readability. In translation of transcultural terminology, the translators are required to choose a precise strategic translation for accurate translation, such as Domesticating Translation,i.e those familiar to readers, or Foreignizing Translation. i.e. those unfamiliar to readers. It is not possible to translate without understanding culture. Ensuring cultural equivalence is the most difficult task in the translation process and the translators must pay attention. Especially, it is important in the translation of intercultural terms, where cultural equivalence does not exist. The result of this study is expected to contribute to improvement of the translation quality in response to the expectations of readers, and it will be adopted in the translation education to advance the skills of translation.
  • 8.

    A study of annotation on Genji-monogatari(貴3201/60B) possessed by Seoul National University

    Mi young Oh | 2017, (54) | pp.125~138 | number of Cited : 0
    The manuscript of Genji-monogatari, possessed by Seoul National University (SNU manuscript, hereafter) can be referred as an annotative text or high-level textbook, because it is written with high usage of Chinese characters and is easy to understand. One of the characteristics of the SNU manuscript is the many annotations on the text with red and black ink conveying additional indication. Especially, there are a variety of linguistic information in black ink annotation. The frequency of these annotations are not distributed evenly and vary by chapter. This paper reports the concrete examples with black ink annotations on the 3 chapters (Suma (12th chapter), Akashi (13th chapter), Miotsukushi (14thchapter) because there are many annotations in these chapters. There are 1288 examples of annotations with black ink on the 3 chapters. These annotations consist of annotations about correction of text (248 examples) and annotations about orthography and pronunciation (1035 examples). Also, there are 5 examples of annotations with two or more types of linguistic informatio noted on the same character. First, annotations that are related to the text correction consist of alternative version mark (24 examples), additional mark (103 examples), and deletion mark (121 examples). These examples show well thet annotator’s efforts to elevate the accuracy of the text. Then, annotations that are related to orthography and pronunciation consist of sonant mark (460 examples), non-voiced sound marks (75 examples), Katakana marks beside the Chinese character (468 examples), Katakana mark beside the Hiragana (29 examples), and Chinese marks beside the Hiragana (2 examples). There are in particular a large number of marks beside the Chinese characters and repeated signs, and Katakana marks beside of Chinese characters. There marks were affixed for pronouncing accurately when reading the text aloud.
  • 9.

    Recipient’s utterances after self-disclosure in the first meeting contact situation

    Oh, Hyun-Young | 2017, (54) | pp.139~153 | number of Cited : 3
    In this research, I discuss recipient speech of Korean Japanese learners (KJs, hereafter), which they deploy after their self-disclosure in the contacting situation. Based on申 (2006), I categorized recipient's speech into information acceptance (inheritance, laugh, repetition), information exchange (information request, information provision) and information empathy (facts, impressions, opinions). First, with regard to the acceptance of information, native speakers of Japanese (Js, hereafter) used back-channeling most frequently, and KJs used laugh second most frequently after the most frequent use of listener reponse while they used this speech category twice as many as Js. As for the information exchange, Js requested information mainly within the contents of the conversation partner's self-disclosure to the extent that can be expected. On the other hand KJs tended to request the contents more deeply than the level the conversation partner provided during his/her self-disclosure. In the case of information empathy, KJs showed a higher frequency than Js in all the items. KJ tended not to deploy responsive utterances, but rather expressed impressions of the partner’s self-disclosure and responded with empathic utterances. From these results, it became clear that there are differences in the utterance of recipients after self-disclosure of KJs and Js.
  • 10.

    Study on the formation process of contemporary Japanese school grammar: Focusing on the part-of-speech name and classification system

    Youngmin Yun | 2017, (54) | pp.155~168 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to show the linguistic negotiation relationship with the Japanese grammar book, which is found in the systematization of modern Korean grammar. First of all, the part of speech which appeared in the modern Japanese grammar book is explored. Focusing on the name and classification system, this paper explores the process of establishing the contemporary Japanese school grammar. Japanese grammar education has been classified as "colloquialism method" and "literal grammar law" before the full-fledged pronunciation movement of the 1910s emerged since the school system was released in 1872. In addition to this, Hashimoto's grammatical point of view is being sought for an eclectic position of "nationalism" and "Western studies" established by Fumihiko Otsuki in the 1890s. Such a viewpoint has been publicized through Matsushita, Yamada and Tokieda who led contemporary Japanese grammar. This review focuses on Japanese grammar books published from the 19th century to the 20th century, such as the Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods, and observed the flow of part of speech and classification of Japanese. And I explore how this grammar book affected the establishment of Japanese school grammar. As a result, the part-of-speech classification form of Japanese school grammar has appeared since the 1700's, and the original form was presented by Hashimoto while the viewpoints of "體・用" and "言・辭" were compatible. However, it was found that early concepts and forms of Hashimoto's part-of-speech classification system can be already confirmed by Okakura Yoshizaburo's 1891 "New Japanese Bibliography" which is a so-called eclectic grammar book.
  • 11.

    On the types of multi-sound characters in Old Chinese: Focusing on initials

    Lee, Kyong Chul | Oh, Chae Hyun | 2017, (54) | pp.169~188 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    I classified the types of multi-sound characters in old Chinese mainly focusing on Initials, and investigated the phonology system of ancient Chinese and showed how ancient Chinese changed to old Chinese. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) It seems that natural phonological changes in one language system include exchange between velars-laryngeals and dentals, exchange between linguals and affricate dentals and exchange between n and ɳ. (2) It cannot be seen as natural phonological changes in one language system that exchange between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds, exchange between aspirated sounds and unaspirated sounds, exchange between voiced sounds and aspirated sounds, exchange between velars and laryngeals, exchange between affricate dentals and fricative dentals, exchange between fricative dentals and vowels, exchange between consonants, exchange between palatal dentals and non-palatal dentals, exchange between ɳ and vowels, and exchange between l and vowel j. In my view, these phenomena occurred through contacts with various phonological systems in many different language groups. (3) It is deemed that there were two different main language groups in ancient Chinese: One group distinguished between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds and the other distinguished between aspirated sounds and unaspirated sounds. Further, I presume that voiced sounds in the language group that had the voiced-voiceless distinction changed to aspirated sounds in the language group that had the aspirated-unaspirated distinction. (4) It is thought that the changing process of linguals was linguals > affricate dentals > fricative dentals > vowel j. However, exchange between fricative dentals and vowels occurred in the language group that distinguished between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds because only voiced fricative dental sounds changed to vowel j. (5) I view that Ancient Chinese was affected by Altaic languages or Proto-Korean because there were double consonants and the consonants ɳ・l exchanged with vowels in ancient Chinese.
  • 12.

    The mismatch between Japanese educational theory and practical usage: An example of the objective marker in the potential expression

    이동철 | 박미금 | 2017, (54) | pp.189~201 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper discusses the phenomenon of alternative usage of ga and wo in the potential expression, based on examples of corpuses collected, and of textbooks/materials that are currently used in Japanese education in universities. To be more specific, the word wo in the construction of “Chinese gerund+dekiru”, which was regarded as a wrong expression, is now used twice as many as ga. This phenomenon seems to be serious because it shows a mismatch between the theoretical and practical usages, and suggests the alternative use of ga and wo in the Japanese education. Furthermore, only ga is allowed to occur when the verb is dekiru theoretically; however wo is also used practically. So we also investigated the reason for such a phenomenon and the possible scenario that the marker wo is used. As a result, we found that the marker wo is used in the case that ga already exists in the sentence. Another case is that the “dekiru” is an alternative expression to “suru” with wo in which ga is preferentially used as an accusative case marker.
  • 13.

    A study on the overlap (common features) and the differences of meanings of 「junbi」, 「youi」, and「shitaku」: By collating junbi, youi and shitaku with junbi in Korean

    Jonghoon Choi | 2017, (54) | pp.203~221 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper studies the overlap and differences in the meaning features of junbi, youi and shitaku, which have synonymous relations in Japanese. It also clarifies the (dis)similarities with “junbi (Korean)”, a Korean word. because this Korean word corresponds to several Japanese words, Korean learners of Japanese language often wrongly collate junbi, you」 and shitaku with junbi in Korean. The result of this study shows that the common meaning feature of junbi, youi and shitaku is “reserving the stuff someone needs for it when something is performed”whereas they also present the overlap and difference in other meaning features, and depending on context, only a few of the meaning features appear as any of them are suppressed. Next, the result of collating showed that junbi, youi and shitaku had a one-to-one correspondence to “junbi(Korean)”. It can be thought that there is no difficulties in translating Korean into Japanese. On the other hand, it was discovered that in translating Korean into Japanese, “junbi (Korean)”corresponds with junbi, youi, shitaku, whereas the three words junbi, youi and shitaku had a subtle difference in their meaning features and usage owing to synonym relations. Therefore, it can be said that these similar words bring difficulties in learning to Japanese learners.