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2018, Vol., No.56

  • 1.

    A contrastive study on abbreviation of drama titles in Korean and Japanese

    Kim, Joung-Min | Takako Akiha | 2018, (56) | pp.3~17 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper aims to analyze the abbreviation patterns of drama titles in Korean and Japanese from a contrastive linguistics perspective. For this purpose, we classified the abbreviation patterns into seven types in Korean and five types in Japanese, and then investigated their frequencies and the number of shortened-form moras and syllables in both languages. The findings of this study are summarized as follows. (i) An acronym combining the initial moras and syllables in the discrete segments of a title turned out to be the most frequent pattern in both languages. (ii) On closer scrutiny, a subtle difference was found. Korean predominantly takes the initial syllable of each segment of a title, whereas Japanese takes two moras from each half of a title, regardless of their position within their respective halves. (iii) Both disyllabic and trisyllabic forms occur with high frequency in Korean, while four-mora forms are overwhelmingly common in Japanese. (iv) Korean abbreviates trisyllabically by eliminating the initial or final segment of a title, while Japanese tends toward quadrimoraic abbreviation with phonological ormorphological changes. (v) A title containing a proper noun tends to be abbreviated down to the proper noun only, regardless of its position in the title in both languages.
  • 2.

    Study of the simplified form of the kanji "候"

    Saito Tatsuya | 2018, (56) | pp.19~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper discusses the simplified form of the kanji "候" used in literary works mainly transcribed as hentaigana in early modern period of Japan. We used "Heike-monogatari(Kokkai-bon)" for research materials, and also referred to "Ujisyuui-monogatari(Ryuumonbunko-bon)" when necessary. As a result of the analysis, what has been obtained is as follows. (1) The simplified form "候" is not generated only by the constraint of front and back character shapes. (2) The simplified form "候" was prepared as one of the options for not having to repeat the same character. (3) A guarantee ensuring that one can read even when using a simplified form "候" is the fact that the kanji notation of "候" has been rooted throughout the work. (4) The features of the form of the simplified character "候" is that "the character is written with a curve" and "the size of the character is small". These features tell us that the simplified form "候" is used in the character strings of hentaigana. The simplified form "候" is positioned as a "new form of Kanji" generated in the character string of the hentaigana.
  • 3.

    Vowel Coalescence and palatalization in Japanese : The case of the dialect of Okayama

    Bum Ki Son | 2018, (56) | pp.37~54 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper analyzes the asymmetric vowel coalescences pattern and palatalization of Okayama Japanese within the framework of Optimality Theory. The coalescence pattern of Okayama Japanese is similar to that of the Bingo dialect of Hiroshima Prefecture. However, the emergence of a fused vowel like [tja:], [tsa:], [tjo:], [tso:], [dja:] and [djo:] is specific to this dialect. Most Japanese dialect studies tend to describe the phonological characteristics of a target dialect based on Hattori's (1951, 1960, 1979) phonemic system, especially /t/ and /c/. This tendency is shown in the previous studies for Okayama Japanese vowel coalescence. However, Hattori's system presents several problems in terms of distinctiveness and distribution. I will account for the emergence of [tja:], [tsa:], [tjo:], [tso:], [dja:] and [djo:] by assuming input /t/, and by postulating morphologically privileged constraint and OO correspondence constraint, both of which prohibit affrication.
  • 4.

    Study on the Characteristics of noda in the Japanese interlanguage

    Yang, Naeyun | 2018, (56) | pp.55~73 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study defines an interlanguage as a dynamic entity that builds an independent system to reach a target language, and aims to identify the characteristics of noda in the Japanese interlanguage. This study describes Japanese language learners' use of noda by formulating the hypothesis that Japanese language learners use noda in their keigo, or honorific speech, to speak fluently while alleviating the burden of forming polite language, and tests this hypothesis. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The characteristics of the usage of noda in the Japanese interlanguage are more prominent in the colloquial (oral) style than the literary style and in the polite (and formal) form than the normal (plain) form. (2) The characteristics of noda, such as its early and frequent use, co-occurrence with final particles, and affinity with verbal predicates, which were found in polite conversations, were not observed in writings in the polite form or conversations in the normal form. (3) Learners appear to use noda as a means to exercise a fluent command of Japanese, aiming to simplify and automate sentence-ending expressions. Through such considerations, this study was able to verify the hypothesis that Japanese learners use noda to attenuate the burden of using the polite and formal form in polite conversations (and oral language) while speaking fluently. Therefore, learners appear to use noda as a means to enhance their communication capability by streamlining the complex procedures of sentence-ending expressions and then pursue natural use of the Japanese language while demonstrating their fluency.
  • 5.

    A study on the "Les Miserables" translation by Min Tae-won

    YOUN KYUNGAE | 2018, (56) | pp.75~102 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study aims to reveal the purpose and methods of translation, and transformation of narrative structure by verifying the translational root of Min, Tae-Won's Aesa(Sad History) which is a translation of Les Miserables, and also comparing it with its source text. In the results of comparing Aesa(Sad History) by Min, Tae-Won with the Japanese translation by Kuroiwa Ruiko as its source text, in the methods of translation, both translators showed the hybrid aspect like domesticating translation of some names of characters and places. Regarding the transformation of narrative structure, just as the purpose of translation shown in the preface, Kuroiwa Ruiko not only rapidly developed a condensed story focusing on Jean Valjean and main characters for 'fun', but also realized the 'social criticism' in the text while Min, Tae-Won focused on the delivery of story by deleting or adding some contents from the Japanese translation by Kuroiwa Ruiko. Such methods of translation and transformation of narrative structure by Min, Tae-Won might be because of the Japanese colonial period when it was tough to show the social/political criticism, which was the political background of forced ruling with severe control over publication.
  • 6.

    A Study on the replacement of the Christian term in Korean : ‘禮拜堂’ and ‘敎會’

    Lee, Ja-Ho | 2018, (56) | pp.103~119 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper is a survey about the phenomenon whereby ‘禮拜堂’ was replaced by ‘敎會’. The terms ‘禮拜堂’ and ‘敎會’ have begun to be used and settled with Christian meanings since the 19th century. The two terms have been used differently in Chinese, in that ‘禮拜堂’ refers to building, and ‘敎會’ refers to organization. Originally ‘禮拜堂’ was used as a religious term of Buddhism, but as Japan accepted Christianity from the Western world in the 19th century, the term ‘禮拜堂’ became a Christian term. As a result, the two terms ‘禮拜堂’ and ‘敎會’, once used differently, has reduced to ‘敎會’, so that ‘敎會’ now covers both ‘building’ and ‘organization’. Korean followed suit. The Chinese suffix ‘堂’ has attached to ‘敎會’ and became ‘敎會堂’. Thus, ‘敎會堂’ was given same meaning with ‘禮拜堂’ - that is building. Now that the suffix is eliminated, ‘敎會堂’ returns to the same form of ‘敎會’, but still has the meaning of ‘禮拜堂’.
  • 7.

    Expression contrast between Korea and Japan of 'apology and answer' in the heavy situation

    JungHyunAa | 2018, (56) | pp.121~138 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    "Apology" reflects the delicate and complex difficulties of human relationships and is a language act that has the same "定型表現 (means formal expression) " as the expression of human resources. In this paper, we analyzed the actual conversation data using the role play method and used features similar to those shown in the perspective of the "apology expression" and "answer expression" of Korean and Japanese college students through interaction. The material was analyzed by collecting 16 Korean male college students, 16 Korean female college students, 16 Japanese male college students, and 16 Japanese female college students. Both men and women in Japan expressed their responsibility when apologizing, explained the unpleasant situation they caused, and released more emotional statements to release the anger. They were using a complicated "apology expression". However, "direct apologizing" was popular with men, while "talking about the situation" and "a way to talk and soothe" tended to be used by women. The "positive response" is about 40 percent for men and 60 percent for women. "Negative Responses" showed that men used about three times more than women. In Korea, both men and women, like Japanese college students, not only admitted responsibility but also explained the unpleasant situations they created and helped ease the anger of a person who was upset. However, "direct apologizing" is more popular with men, and "admit responsibility ", "refer to the situation" and "a way to talk and soothe" are popular among women. About 50 percent of both men and women replied "positive" in an apology, while men used "negative responses" more than twice as much as women.
  • 8.

    A longitudinal study on the existence verbs in Japanese of Korean returnees

    HWANG YOUNG HEE | 2018, (56) | pp.139~156 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper describes the linguistic features seen in the existence expressions of Japanese after more than 10 years, which has been acquired while two sisters of Korean returnees staying in Japan. As a result of analyzing the data of the sister's natural conversation, composition and survey text, I found the followings about the existence expression of Japanese in the incubation period. (a) In the retention period up to 6 months after returning to Korea, it becomes Japanese-based. In the retention period after 6 months, it becomes Korean-based and Japanese is no longer used in the attriton period after one and a half years. The system of existence expressions are mainly seen in the speaker A (older sister) who has a high level of contact with Japanese, while the active and appropriate use of the two axes of ARU and IRU. Additionally the speaker B (sister) who has low contact with Japanese is using a non-standard ARU and showing the process to migrate to ARU. (b) In the acquisition period, they are also in contact with the dialects of the West Japan region, but the use of ORU is not seen as a repetition of native speakers or auxiliary verbs. The analytical type of "existence verb+DESU" seen in the adults Japanese learners does not appear and it usually can be left as an integrated type. (c) In the surveys in the attrition period, it is divided into "speaker A, a prototype of a physical object predicate is IRU/ARU/GOZARU" and "speaker B, a prototype of a physical object predicate is ARU". GOZARU/IRASSHARU may be easy to maintain in speaker A as honorific forms. (d) The difference of age in sisters and (it is very tentative) fossilization may be considered as factors influencing learning, acquisition, retention and loss of existence expressions.