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2018, Vol., No.58

  • 1.

    A Study on Japan-Korea ‘Character Endings’ that Animation Characters Use

    KWAK EUN SIM | 2018, (58) | pp.5~26 | number of Cited : 2
    This study attempted to compare the 'character endings' used in the Japanese animation characters' way of speech with a version with dubbed voice in Korean. First,, it grasped the realities of usage of Japanese character endings, and analyzed the translation-realities of a Korean-dubbed version in response to it. Next, it examined the grammatical properties of Japanese and Korean character endings. The results are as follows: (1) Japanese character endings are classified into the sound of an animal, what shows its gestures, what shows its status, what shows its dialects, and what is derived from a character’s name. (2) Korean character endings are classified into what was used accepting Japanese pronunciation, what was derived from a character's name and type, what shows a character's status using 'Hao style,’ ‘Haera style,’ and a dialect. (3) Japanese character endings are classified into a character postpositional particle, a character copula, an animal character postpositional particle, and an intermediate form between character copula and animal character postpositional particle according to its location in relation with the its final postpositional particle, appearance possibilities in inversion sentences and the end of a clause, the existence of an authentic model, a verb form used in a command expression, and whether or not it may alternate copula,. (4) Korean character endings are divided into two: a sentence-final form to which something is added as extra and a sentence-final ending. Further, the sentence-additional form in a sentence end is classified as a postpositional particle of a character, and the sentence-final ending is classified as an intermediate form between a character copula and a character postpositional particle.
  • 2.

    Analysis of Teacher’s Comments on Learners’ Presentation Materials in Advanced Japanese Conversation Class

    Sakaguchi, Sayaka | 2018, (58) | pp.27~44 | number of Cited : 2
    For the ultimate purpose of creating textbooks for advanced Japanese conversation which pay due attention to the logicality and the organization of contents, we present an analysis of the teacher’s email-based comments on the presentation materials prepared by 111 students whose Japanese proficiency levels range from the intermediate to the advanced level. The analysis indicates that the passages commented are captured in terms of 117 “codes.” In this article, we focus on the most-commented 35 codes, which themselves are largely divided into 6 codes relating to the design of presentation slides, 6 codes relating to data, and 23 codes relating to the contents of presentations. In most of the comments on the design of presentation slides, amendments were not difficult. We thus created a checklist, which will help the learners modify their presentation materials on their own and also lessen the burden of teachers who are supposed to check these materials. As for the comment “Content needs to be presented concisely,” the learners tend to be unaware of this point by themselves, and we propose two class activities which incorporate this point. The codes about data concern the paucity of data, irrelevance of data to the claim in question, and so forth, and we propose two class activities which reflect these points. The number of the codes about the contents of presentations is particularly high (23), and these points need to be carefully addressed in class. More precisely, our analysis reveals the directness of rebuttal and surrebuttal, the vagueness of expressions and definitions, the paucity of explanation, and the necessity for critical discussion of content. Based on the analysis of the comments as well as the proposed class activities, we created a textbook for advanced Japanese conversation.
  • 3.

    A Bibliographical Study on the Japanese Reader Published by the Chosun Governor-General

    Song, Sook-Jeong | 2018, (58) | pp.45~61 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, in order to explore Japanese language reading books issued by the Chosun Governor-General during the Japanese rule period, we gathered information scattered in various places, including the National Central Library and the Diet Library, and gathered materials from gazettes of the Chosun Governor-General and newspaper articles of Donga Ilbo. Based on these smaterials, we classified the textbooks by time. As a result, we found that there were various schools and numerous textbooks in the secondary education level, compared to what is already known. In particular, the reason why simplified schools and practical schools, which were not regular schools, were activated was due to Japan’s colonial educational purposes of 'simplicity' and 'practical use', and it is revealed that a textbook for these schools was issued separately. In particular, it is clear that practical schools and practical training schools, as institutionalization of employment and wage discrimination by academic background, were the choice at a secondary educational level after ordinary schools in order to compensate for it. Meanwhile, in spite of the fact that the second Korean education order changed the term of lessons to six years, ordinary schools still had the four-year system in the majority of regions. Reflecting this, readers of the national language specialized in the four-year system were issued for ordinary schools. As such, it is unveiled that various textbooks were issued by Governor-General of Korea depending on the special circumstances of colonial Korea-.
  • 4.

    A practical study on Japanese in liberal arts as Intensive Course: Focus on Using Cyber Campus

    SHIN EUNJIN | 2018, (58) | pp.63~81 | number of Cited : 5
    This is a practical report on Intensive courses in Japanese as a liberal arts at a Korean university. The purpose of this study is to search for effective instructional design and management plans, that and to reduce the physical and psycological burden on instructors in seasonal semesters who need to deal with the same contents as regular courses in a shorter period of time, and thereby This study also aims to increase the satisfaction and learning achievements of Japanese learners. This practice was a Summer intensive course in 2017. The class ran for three hours almost every day for four weeks using a textbook. First, it involved undertook a needs analysis for the 31 students on the first day. To maintain the learners’’ interest and concentration, class was designed to have a two-part structure consisting of regular lecture -type and learner-centered activities type. In addition, the Cyber Campus (e-class) of Learning Management System (LMS) was used to upload lecture materials in advance by the instructor so that the learners could prepare for, and review, the lecture. This was also used for communication and feedback with the learners. After the end of the course, a survey on the students’ satisfaction in relation to the class showed that their satisfaction level of ‘the textbook’, ‘the class operation’, and ‘the instructor’ appeared all high. Satisfaction with the Cyber Campus was highly evaluated for the ‘sharing of teaching materials’ and ‘feedback’, but opinions were divided on ‘communication’.
  • 5.

    A Study on Expression Aspects and Strategies of Refusal Speech Acts in Japanese

    Sangsil Yoon | LEE JIHYUN | 2018, (58) | pp.83~99 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this paper is to systematically study characteristic expression aspects and strategies in refusal speech acts from a pragmatic viewpoint. Refusal speech acts do not appear in explicit or fixed linguistic forms, but are mostly indirectly done dependent on various contexts. They appear extensively in Assertive sentences, Non-declarative sentences, Imperative sentences, Interrogative sentences, and Abridged sentences. The speech act is not accompanied with the speaker’s consideration towards the listener in Assertive sentences and Imperative sentences, whereas it is in Non-declarative sentences, Interrogative sentences, Abridged sentences and even in Assertive sentences if the predicate is a negative potential form. Also, linguistic persuasion appearing in Refusal speech acts are generally divided into ‘Persuasive refusal strategy’ and ‘Non-persuasive refusal strategy’. The former includes strategies of ‘expression of apology’, ‘explanation of circumstance’, ‘presentation of alternative’, and ‘response of sympathy’, and the latter includes strategies of ‘expression of non-potentiality’, and ‘evasion’. Refusal speech acts have the characteristic that they are used in a super-positional way because they have a high possibility of infringing on a listener's face. This study has shown that Japanese has been pursuing smooth refusal speech acts through the method of the use of multiple persuasive refusal strategies, or the use of non-persuasive refusal strategies and then adding persuasive refusal strategies again. Since the speaker takes an attitude to have the listener understand their refusal acts, the refusal strategy has a very significant meaning in maintaining smooth human relations. Given that the refusal act may cause a great infringement on a listener’s face, a variety of expressions and high level verbal strategies are pursued in order to reduce a listener’s face-threatening, and thereby maintain smooth communication and a good interpersonal relationship. It can be said that Japanese, which aims at the co-construction utterance type, naturally shows a very sensitive aspect in that regard.
  • 6.

    On the Nasal Finals Confusing of Multi-Sound Characters in Ancient Chinese

    Lee, Kyong Chul | 2018, (58) | pp.101~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explored changes in the syllable structure in Old Chinese by analyzing instances of the alternation of Nasal finals with other finals through multi-sound characters in Ancient Chinese. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) Word-final Nasals in Language A of Early Old Chinese changed to Vowel u・i・∅ in Language B of Middle Old Chinese. (2) Early Old Chinese had closed syllables, for example, CɑC and C1C2ɑC1C2. The syllable C1C2ɑC1C2 in Early Old Chinese changed to an open syllable, such as C1ɑ∅・u・i or C2ɑ∅・u・i in Middle Old Chinese. Therefore, the initial a double consonant can be reconstructed easily, but athe final double consonant waiss difficult to reconstruct. (3) In Language AB in Middle Old Chinese, which was formed through a contact between Language A and Language B, there existed many sub-language groups such as AB1(C)→AB2(Q・N)→AB3(t・k・n・ŋ)→AB4(p・t・k・m・n・ŋ), according to the word-final consonant. This is also observed in changes in word-final consonants form Ancient Chinese to Modern Chinese as well as in Chinese dialects. (4) Early Old Chinese had closed syllables wherein many consonants continued, such as CɑC or C1C2ɑC1C2 or C1C2C3ɑC1C2C3. These syllable structures suggest that meant Early Old Chinese was influenced by asome language that was dissimilar tohad totally different syllable structures from Chinese . (5) It is necessary to further study many Altaic languages around China and Old Korean in order to clarify the double consonant syllable system in Early Old Chinese.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Reflections of the Rhymes Compound open mouth of Grade Ⅱ in Sino-Korean, Sino-Japanese & Sino-Vietnamese

    Lee Sang Hee | KOKUSHO KAZUMI | 2018, (58) | pp.115~133 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study, we analyzed how the Grade Ⅱ rhymes of the used sounds are accommodated in the Chinese. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In Sino-Korean, the low-back vowel /ɑ/ of the first equal lyme was discriminated to「아」/a/ and the mid-back vowel /ʌ/ was discriminated to「ᆞ」/ɐ/. In addition, the low-front vowel /a/ of the bisexual rhyme was discriminated to「아」/a/ and the mid-front vowel /ɐ/ was discriminated to「」/ɐ/. In other words, in Sino-Korean, the difference between the front and back in mid-vowel is excluded and accepted as「아」/a/ and mid-back vowel “ʌ” as「」/ɐ/ with only the difference between low and middle. This means that “ɐ” as「」/ɐ/ existed as phonemes of Korean language from the acceptance stage of the rhymes, and the mid-back vowel ʌ and the mid-front vowel were accepted a「아」/ɐ/. It can be judged that the consonants form is the Qinyin(秦音). 2) In the acceptance process of Sino-Korean, there are three forms of substitution, joining, and declination due to differences in phonological structure between Chinese and Korean. The main factor is the difference in the number of vowels and one syllable. In the case of a single vowel, the vowel is replaced by another vowel in the Korean language with fewer vowels than the Chinese word. In the case of multiple vowels, Syllable. 3) The main vowel of the Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ was reflected as /a/ because Sino-Japanese Kan’on is the Qinyin(秦音) that all Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ are all joined. However, it can be seen that there is a strong tendency to substitute the lower prefrontal vowel /a/ with the mid-front vowel /ɐ/changes to /e/ and the mid-back vowel /ʌ/ changes to /o/. 4) Sino-Vietnamese are reflected in the main layer of Qinyin(秦音), which integrates both vowel of the Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ isochronous rhythm by reflecting both the low-back vowel /ɑ/ and the mid-back vowel /ʌ/ as /a/. However, it can be seen that that they are mixed of layers before Qinyin(秦音) because consonants /ə/ are also distinguished by「â 」/ə/ and「ǎ」/ǎ/.
  • 8.

    An Ancient Borrowed Notation System of “Jŏgŭ Taishi Bloodline

    Lee, Ji-Soo | 2018, (58) | pp.135~149 | number of Cited : 0
    “Jŏgŭ Taishi Bloodline” is one of the articles in deceased Suikochŏ iIbun (literary remains of Suikochŏ) and refers to the bloodline of Prince Shotoku, which was ingdescribed in the beginning of “Emperor Shominomiya Seikaku”. Unlike other articles in Suikochŏ iIbundeceased , “Jŏgŭ Taishi Bloodline” contains records about names of the emperor's family and many ancient borrowed notation systems out of the names, due reflecting its special feature of a bloodline. This paper analyzed the original scripts and determined the meanings of Chinese characters in “Jŏgŭ Taishi Bloodline” in order to sort ancient borrowed notation systems out of bloodlines, and compared their features with the entire borrowed notation systems in Suikochŏ iIbun articlesdeceased , “Manyoshu”, a famous book written in ancient Japan, and “Hyangga” native songs in Korea's Shilla Dynasty, whose transcription was very similar to Japanese counterparts. This paper also summarized the features of ‘ki 支(キ)’ and ‘no 乃(ノ)’, readings of Chinese characters of ‘Different borrowed notation systems’, which was pointed out by scholars such as Toru Omiya. As a result, regarding ‘ki 支(キ)’, the 1st type of reading of Chinese character, ‘kie’, kanjia reading from the Later Han Dynasty, was replaced with ‘ki’ and eventually transcribed as the ‘ki 支’ in “Hyangga”. TThis type of readings was transferred by immigrants from ancient Korea to Japan. In Japan, they were distinguished from ‘shi’ of Wu reading (呉音 Goon) or ‘shi’ of Han reading (漢音 Kanon), and finally written as ‘ki 支’, the 1st type of Manyogana, in articles in Suikochŏ iIbundeceased . TAs for ‘no 乃’, which is the 2nd type of kanji reading of Chinese character, it had a basic form of ‘nəi’ from the Wei and Jin dynasties, and was replaced with ‘nɐ’ or ‘nɑ’ in “Hyangga”, and further transferred to Japan and written as ‘no 乃’ in “Manyoshu”.
  • 9.

    Errors in politehonorific expressions in business Japanese language textbooks in Korea

    Cho, Nam-Sung | 舩橋瑞貴 | 2018, (58) | pp.151~163 | number of Cited : 2
    This studyresearch deals with the errors that occur in honorific expressions in Korean textbooks about Business Japanese Languageand . In a business situation, it is impossible to leave honorific expressions behind, and it is also one of the most important aspects of Business Japanese Language Education. It is easy to make mistakes while using honorific language because there are various scenes to which it relates. Many textbooks published in Korea show inappropriate language regarding honorific expressions. This research extracts these errors and organizes the types and causes of each one. Because the errors in textbooks mean errors committed by teachers, and because this leads to students’ errors, it is important to guide them through first. The results of the research is as follows. The errors (23) on honorific language in Business Japanese textbooks are respectful language (8), humble language I (7), and so forth (other respectful expressions other than honorific language (6), courteous language (1), and humble language II (1)). They are listed in order of their frequency. There are no errors on beautifying language. Humble language I has a lot of verb errors (6), and respectful language has a lot of noun errors (5). In other errors, there are those such as “arigatougozaimasu”, “kekkoudesu” and “osewaninarimasu”. As a result, one should be careful in Business Japanese Language textbooks and in honorific language education regarding verbs in humble language I, nouns in respectful language, and errors in various polite expressions.
  • 10.

    The usage of ‘Omou’ in conversations between university female students : Focusing on ‘Omou’ as hedge

    최혜인 | Lee Eun Mi | 2018, (58) | pp.165~182 | number of Cited : 0
    This study investigated the usage of ‘Omou’ focusing on the function of hedge in conversations of native Japanese female university students who are in their 20s. The conversation took place among friends of the same age and students meeting for the first time. The usage of ‘Omou’ was divided into ‘Thinking verb’ and ‘Hedge’. The results of the usage of ‘Omou’ discussed in this study are summarized as follows. In both conversations between friends and first-time meeting students, it found that ‘Omou’ was used more as ‘Hedge’ than ‘Thinking verb’. The functions of ‘Hedge’ in conversations were classified into three categories for this study: ‘Uncertainty’, ‘Private information maker’ and ‘Softening’. The most frequently used function of ‘Omou’ as hedge among first-time meeting students and friends was the function of ‘Private information maker’. In the first-time meeting students’ conversation, they appeared in the order of ‘softening’ and ‘Uncertainty’. However, in the friends’ conversation they appeared in the order of ‘Uncertainty’ and ‘Softening’. The analysis of the function of ‘Omou’ as hedge demonstrated that ‘Omou’ as hedge in both groups of students was frequently used to show ‘Private information maker’.
  • 11.

    Current Status and Problems in Intermediate writing classes in Korean universities : Focusing on classes of native speaker teachers

    Honda Miho | Pak, Hye-Song | 2018, (58) | pp.183~201 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this research is to clarify the current status of writing classes in Korean universities. For that purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted for native speaker teachers, and then analyzed qualitatively. As a result, the items targeted by most teachers in intermediate writing classes were "to learn written language", "to let students learn about composition of sentences and paragraphs" ,"get used to writing long sentences","enable to write sentences of various themes", and "try to write kanji positively". There was a central flow common to many teachers in class flow, but the characteristics of each teacher were seen in the method of incorporating activities. In the class, various problems occurred, teachers were trying to solve them while dealing with those problems. However, there were many difficulties, such as "how to appropriately present the naturalness which is the strength of the native speaker teacher at the time of feedback" and "how to evaluate criteria" in feedback and evaluation methods, which was a problem. Regarding teaching materials, many teachers used commercially available teaching materials as their main teaching materials. For the teaching materials that teachers would like to use in the future, many requested "overall structure", "theme", "activity", and "form of teaching material". Among them, "theme“ and "activity" were regarded as particularly important.