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2019, Vol., No.60

  • 1.

    The Acquisition of Noun-modifying Clauses of Japanese as a Heritage Language

    Keiko Kawaguchi | 2019, (60) | pp.5~20 | number of Cited : 1
    This study investigated the acquisition of Japanese noun-modifying clauses by Korean-Japanese bilingual children who attended Korean elementary school. The acquisition of noun-modifying clauses as a heritage language was analyzed by comparing with the data of L1 children and adult learners of Japanese (L2 learners) in order to clarify the characteristics of Japanese as a heritage language. The oral interview data from 62 speakers of Japanese was utilized and analyzed in terms of their ages and proficiency levels. It is investigated whether center-embedded clauses are difficult to be produced. While L2 learners show a tendency that center-embedded clauses are not used at all at the lowest proficiency of Japanese, no such tendency is observed in a heritage language. However, it is indicated that for Korean-Japanese bilingual children, proficiency levels have an influence on the acquisition of center-embedded clauses. Second, I examine what kind of modified nouns are used, focusing on their animacy. Korean-Japanese bilingual children use animate nouns more than L1 children do, and show the same tendency as L1 and adult Japanese speakers do. However, the use of animate nouns increases as the children advance to higher levels of Japanese, which shows that proficiency of Japanese has an influence on the acquisition of animate nouns. In addition, the use of modified nouns such asもの・ところ is analyzed. The result shows that children of lowest grades and lowest proficiency of Japanese have a tendency to use modified nouns such asもの・ところ.
  • 2.

    Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between JLPT Level and OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview) Level : Based on the JLPT Vocabulary Level Found in Examinees’ Utterances

    KOJIMA KENJI | 2019, (60) | pp.21~33 | number of Cited : 0
    I have served OPI as a tester for the past 7 years and always had the following two questions every time when I conducted it: that is, (1) Is there a strong relationship between the level of the JLPT vocabulary used by examinees and the level of OPI?; and (2) Can the gap of examinees’ vocabulary levels be a main factor for the separation between Advanced Level and Intermediate Level in OPI? This paper observed utterances of 10 OPI examinees, and investigated the level of vocabulary in terms of JLPT (i.e. N1, N2/N3, N4, and N5 level) as well as frequencies of vocabulary for each level. As a result, (1) OPI Advanced learners appeared to use N1-level words more than 2% overall. Therefore their data had around 1700-1800 words overall. There was a gap between N2/N3-level vocabulary and N4-level vocabulary. Further, for both OPI Advanced and Intermediate levels, N5-level vocabulary occupied around 70% overall. Statistics analysis (Estimation of population variance) showed its general feature of occupancy in N5-level vocabulary. Lastly, the underlying principal was confirmed as such that OPI ratings relied on the appropriate usage of words, and not on the presence of words themselves.
  • 3.

    A Study on Students’ Reasons for Choosing the Japanese Major and Preferred Learning Styles : Based on the Results of Research on the First and Second Year Students at a Four-year University in South Korea

    kim hyon ju | Kudo, Eriko | 2019, (60) | pp.35~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine (1) Japanese major students’ specific reasons for choosing the Japanese language as their major and (2) learning styles that were preferred by learners majoring in the language, and investigate Japanese major students’ needs, whereby promote the qualitative enhancement of Japanese language education. It conducted a survey that incorporated a four-stage criterion for the students’ reasons for choosing this major (40 questions, Cronbach’s α: 0.944)and preferred learning styles (30 questions, Cronbach’s α: 0.753) on 45 first and second year students majoring in the Japanese language at Hanbat National University, which is a four-year national university. The completed surveys were then divided into “Atehamaranai (あてはまらない)” and “Atehamaru (あてはまる)” according to responses, and analyzed by using a chi-squared test in order to observe differences between the two responses in distribution. According to the results, the reasons for the students’ selection of the Japanese language as their major included interest in Japanese and Japan and interest in the Japanese people’s ways of thinking and life. The desire to understand the content of television dramas, animation, prose fiction, and magazines, traveling in Japan, or communicating with the Japanese people by learning Japanese were cited as well. A perception of Japanese as a tool for selecting an occupation and expressing oneself socially was also presented. As for learning styles, the students preferred solitary learning or individual guidance to pair or group learning. They also preferred teachers who were fluent in both Japanese and Korean.
  • 4.

    Socio-cultural Characteristics of New Words and Buzzwords in ‘U-Can Japan New Words and Buzzwords Awards’: Focusing on Topics

    Lee, Dan | Lee Eun Mi | 2019, (60) | pp.53~68 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper explored the socio-cultural characteristics of new words and buzzwords in Japan through the analysis of the characteristics of topics on the words awarded and nominated for the ‘U-Can Japan New Words and Buzzwords Awards’ from 2006 to 2017 on the official website of Jiyu Kokumin sha. The results can be summarized as follows. First, as for the characteristics of topics of new words and buzzwords, topics were divided into 6 categories of ‘culture, art, education, philosophy, society, and nature’; and the number of words were presented by year and category. The result shows that the number of new words and buzzwords belonging to the ‘society’ category was the highest, counting 346 (53.8%) out of 643 words in total. The second highest number of new words and buzzwords belonged to the ‘culture’ category with 244 words (38%). Further, each category was classified in detail and the number of words for each year was counted. Among these, the item with the highest number of words was ‘mass media’ in the ‘culture’ category, with 150 words. The item with the second highest number of words was ‘politics’ in the ‘society’ category, with 93 words. There were cases where the original meaning of new words and buzzwords changed to refer to different objects; the number of such words was 137 (21.3%).
  • 5.

    Licensing Condition of Multiple Indeterminate+mo Constructions : From the Perspective of Syntactic Processing

    Park Kanghun | 2019, (60) | pp.69~86 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this paper is to examine licensing condition of multiple indeterminate+mo constructions from the perspective of syntactic processing. Park (2017) indicates that there is a limit to clarify the true licensing conditions of multiple negative polarity item (hereafter, NPI) constructions including sika 'only' merely through generative grammar. Park (2017) focuses on linguistic phenomena that argument-adjunct asymmetry appears in both the multiple NPI constructions including sika and the prosodic structures. Park (2017) argues that it is possible to clarify the licensing condition of multiple NPI constructions from the perspective of syntactic processing. However, this research approach does not apply to multiple indeterminate+mo constructions such as dare-mo nani-mo tabe-nakka-ta ‘nobody ate anything’. This is because the type of Case-marking between indeterminate+mo and sika is different, even if they appear in the same adjunct positions. In other words, host NP of indeterminate+mo has structural Case, whereas sika has inherent Case. Therefore, this paper suggests that a different research approach is needed for the licensing condition of multiple indeterminate+mo constructions. The arguments of this paper are as follows: (i) Syntactic processing of Japanese multiple NPI constructions varies depending on types of NPIs. The syntactic processing of multiple indeterminate+mo constructions is distinct from one of multiple NPI constructions including sika. (ii) Syntactic processing of the multiple indeterminate+mos are determined by Case-marking, semantic role, and animacy of each indeterminate+mo phrases. (iii) The above-mentioned claims are also supported by Similarity-based Interference constraints.
  • 6.

    Motivation in Intensive Japanese Lectures : For Learners with Low Learning Motivation

    SHIN EUNJIN | 2019, (60) | pp.87~99 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to find an efficient instructional design and an operation plan that can enhance the learning satisfaction of domestic Japanese language learners. The study examines the motivation for Japanese language learners who have low motivation in Intensive Japanese Lectures at winter session in 2018. Learner A is the target of the survey. The data includes surveys on learner backgrounds conducted at the beginning of the session, interviews after the session ends, and answer sheets of the midterm exam and final exam. The results of this study are as follows. First, we examined the learner A 's learning process and its achievement, the satisfaction level of the session class, the satisfaction level of the class activities in "Japanese 2" and the change in motivation of learning Japanese. As a result, learner A's learning motivation was kept low regardless of the teacher's attempts, efforts, and class contents. This case can be seen as a failure of a teacher in the field of Japanese language education. In reality, however, it indeed reflects the current situation that the increasing number of learners choose Japanese, just like the case of the student A, by needs, i.e. because it is a compulsory and so they have to, rather than by their interests in Japanese. For the future of Japanese education, it is a urgent agenda to make various countermeasures such as learning by level and learning by purpose, etc.
  • 7.

    Value of Peer Review for Pronunciation of Single Sound among Japanese Learners with Different Native Languages : Through Comparison with Review by Native Japanese Speakers

    Ito, Marina | 2019, (60) | pp.101~114 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to examine the value of peer review by comparing peer review of single sound pronunciation among beginners of Japanese language learner with review by Japanese native speakers. The survey method is (1) Each learner pronounces 104 single sounds and the author records it, (2) The recorded assignment is reviewed by other learners, 1 native Japanese language teacher, and 3 native Japanese speakers, and (3) The reviewers provide their feedback based on their ability. As a result of analysis and consideration, it is clarified that the learners were able to find the same incongruous words as the ones the teacher had found. Reviews from learners were vary depending on each learner’s language proficiency level. In other words, it was possible for the learners to point out the single sounds that the teacher would point out, and it was shown that the learners might be able to comment on each other in various expressions. In addition, we observed that Japanese native speakers’ reviews varied, which confirms that several pronunciations are possible for a same word. This challenges the idea of one rigid way of pronouncing. It was observed that learners with favorably reviewed pronunciations, especially learners from Sri Lanka and Nepal who have used multiple languages on a daily basis tended to be more critical towards other learners’ pronunciations. In contrast, learners whose pronunciation was unfavorably reviewed tended to be more accepting of others’ pronunciation, similarly to the teacher. To summarize, the peer review process can be a valuable learning experience because (1) learners are competent to identify incongruous pronunciations concurring with the teacher, and (2) the peer review can be a great opportunity to take advantage of learners various language backgrounds. From the above, it can be said that pronunciation peer review is valuable in a new language learning.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Use of “O/GO-SASETEITADAKU” in “The Diet Record search system”

    Lee, Hyeon-Jin | 2019, (60) | pp.115~134 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of "O/GO -SASETEITADAKU". For this, the study has investigated the use of "ITAS" and "SASETEITADAKU" in the data set "the Diet Record research system" of the past 70 years. As a result, 1."O/GO-SASETEITADAKU" is one of the new humble expressions that have increasingly used along with "SASETEITADAKU" the use of which has increased dramatically from Showa 60. 2."O / GO ~ SASETEITADAKU" tend to co-occur with words related to questions and answers. This is interpreted as a result of the increase in the consciousness of the speaker who intends to speak in a more polite way in consideration of the listener. 3. The words in which the prefix of "O/GO-ITAS" and the prefixc of "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU" overlap include "NEGAU", "TAZUNERU", and "HANASU". It is regarded as an extension of "O-ITASU" because these words can be expressed by "OTAZUNESASETEITADAKU" and "ONEGAISASETEITADAKU". 4. Among words that can be used with both "SASETEITADAKU" and "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU", some Sino-Japanese verbs such as "SITSUMONNSURU" and "SETSUMEISURU" tend to be used mainly with "SASETEITADAKU" only. This was affected by "ITASU", not by "O/GO-ITASU”. In addition, the increasing use of "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU" is connected with the expansion of "O/GO" that is easy to use. 5. Among words that can be used in both "SASETEITADAKU" and "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU", native Japanese verbs such as "KOTAERU" and "UKAGAU" tend to be used with "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU". It is thought to be influenced by "O/GO-ITASU" because it presented to change these words with "O/GO-SASETEITADAKU" according to increasing of the year.
  • 9.

    Structural and Semantic Features of the Attribute Predication with the Inanimate Subject

    Choi, Seo-Young | 2019, (60) | pp.135~150 | number of Cited : 0
    In general, the event predication is expressed by verb sentence and the attribute predication is expressed by nominal and adjectival sentences. However, each type of sentence does not have a single meaning usuage, each of verbal, adjectival and nominal sentences can convey both event and attribute predications. This study explores special features of the attribute predication by taking a closer look at the adjectival and nominal attribute sentences that have the inanimate subject, with some additional investigation on the verbal sentence in order to supplement Choi (2016) that examined the verbal attribute sentence earlier. Regarding the data, this study drew the data from novels, essays, movie scenarios, textbooks, weelky magazines, dictionaries and the Mainichi Newspapers. I examined special features of the attribute predication in terms of the syntactic and semantic areas. With regrad to the structural features, I analyzed the characterization of sentence patterns, subjectization of non-nominative nouns, usuage of negative forms, characteristics of the compound sentence structure, and formulation of predication. With regard to the semantic features, I analyzed the type of meaning that can be conveyed by the verbal, adjectival and nominal sentences, and clarified the similarities and differences between their meaning types.
  • 10.

    Teaching Method of Sino-Japanese Using the Correspondence Rules : Focus on s(ㅅ) Consonants in Sino-Korean

    HA SO JUNG | Lee, Kyong Chul | 2019, (60) | pp.151~164 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we extracted only Chinese characters with an On’yomi in the Joyokanji Table (2010) and used them as research data. Then, after extracting 277 Chinese characters the reading of which begins with an initial consonant /s/(ㅅ) or /s*/(ㅆ) in Sino-Korean, we analyzed the correspondence relationship between Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese. We also analyzed them on the basis of the system of Chinese characters and the Ancient Chinese. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) The /s/ consonant of Sino-Korean mostly correspond to Sa-gyo /s/ (76.67%) and Za-gyo /z/ (21.72%) in Sino-Japanese. (2) The /s*/ consonant of Sino-Korean all correspond to Sa-gyo /s/ (100%) in Sino-Japanese. Therefore, we suggested ‘correspondence rules’ on the basis of these regular correspondence relationships between the /s/(ㅅ)・ /s*/(ㅆ)/ consonants in Sino-Korean and in Sino-Japanese. (Rule 1) The /s/・/s*/ consonant in Sino-Korean corresponds to Sa-gyo /s/ in Sino-Japanese. (Rule 2) Part of the /s/ consonant in Sino-Korean corresponds to Za-gyo /z/ in Sino-Japanese. In this case, Za-gyo are almost Go’on. In addition, we proposed 4 steps of teaching-learning method in order to utilize these rules in Japanese education.
  • 11.

    A Contrastive Study on the Use of Fictive Kin Terms in Korean and Japanese

    Hong, Min-Pyo | 2019, (60) | pp.165~178 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines results of researches on how middle-aged men and women at their 50s refer to people who are not actually related to them, in Korea and Japan, from a sociolinguistic point of view. The main findings are summarized as follows. (1) When people call a worker at a restaurant/pub or call a stranger on the street, the word “yeogiyo (Here!)” or “jeogiyo (Hey!)” was mainly used in Korea, whereas the word “sumimasen (Excuse me!)” was used most often in Japan. (2) When people directly call or mention a friend's grandparents, parents, and siblings (older/younger brother, older/younger sister), in both Korea and Japan, people agree that the same terms used to their grandparents, parents, and siblings are most frequently applied to them. (3) The term such as「Name+san」 is used in Japan for a senior or junior spouse, whereas in Korea the equivalent is used only for a junior spouse. (4) In Korean, male speakers tend to refer to their senior and junior colleagues’ spouses as relative terms such as “Hyeongsunim (older sister-in-law)” and “Jesussi (younger sister-in-law)” respectively, whereas in Japanese, male speakers use "okusan" or “okusama”, and female speakers used "dannasama" or "gosyujin".