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2020, Vol., No.65

  • 1.

    Study of Japanese sentence composition from the cognitive perspective: From ellipsis and explicitness in sentence style

    KeunRyeong Kwon | 2020, (65) | pp.5~23 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this study, we explored the ellipsis and explicitness of the constituent elements in the sentence composition in Japanese sentence style from the cognitive point of view. A sentence is composed of the subjective judgment of the subject who generates the sentence structure, and the cognition of the person who is the subject is expressed in the form. Therefore, in this research, we examined the article sentences, advertisement sentences, and diary sentences in order to analyze the cognition of language users in various sentence styles. The advertisement text shows the highest frequency of the ellipsis phenomenon, and readers’cognitive interpretation of guessing is required. Therefore, it was considered that the advertisement text is intersubjective during the expression in which the writer was aware of the cognitive state of the reader. On the other hand, in diary sentences, it had been expected that many sentence constituents would be elliptic, but it was clarified from actual examples that a considerable number of explicit phenomena were seen. This is due to the fact that the writer tends to explicitly indicate elements that focus on the writer’s "profile" in the diary sentence, and thereby the subjectivity was indexed. Finally, in the case of article sentences, it was revealed that the ellipsis was not seen and the sentence components were explicitly shown in detail. Article sentences are mainly intended to describe facts and deliver them to readers as information. It means that the article sentence presupposes neither the information shared with readers nor the writer’s profile. The sentence constituents for the article sentence are thus the information necessary to describe the facts, and are not the ‘explicit phenomenon’offered by the current study. In other words, the article sentence has a style of grasping situations objectively, and thereby describes the fact as it is without ellipsis or explicit phenomenon in which the indices of subjectivity and intersubjectivity are seen.
  • 2.

    Analysis of the Japanese media's emotions about Korea-related news using text mining techniques; by implementation the Semantic Orientations of Words analysis method using Python

    Yu Young, Kim | 2020, (65) | pp.25~43 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In the era of big data, it is no longer possible to effectively collect, refine, and perform meaningful interpretations of necessary information only by methods such as conventional manual and intuitive insight. Therefore, in this paper, we built a large-scale text data independently and performed the text mining analysis based on the recognition that the text mining technique needs to be used in the field of Japanese studies as well, and that the verification of the practical technique itself is also necessary. As a result, it was confirmed that an analysis of semantic orientations of the text using 'the Semantic Orientations of Words' is effective for the analysis of the 'emotion' of the text. Besides, it has been confirmed that Japanese media's 'semantic orientations' toward Korea has been deteriorating over the past decade. Above all, it was also confirmed that semantic orientations of Japanese media news articles about Korea were actively reflected in the issue of Korea-Japan relations.
  • 3.

    An analysis on the insubordination of tunci in Korean and its Japanese counterparts

    Kim, Joung-Min | 2020, (65) | pp.45~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to examine usages of utterance-final tunci in Korean and clarify its Japanese counterparts. Using data of Korean original drama and its Japanese dubbed version and Japanese translation, this study investigated the frequency distribution of tunci with particular attention to interlocutors’ sex (male/female) and hierarchical relationships (superior ↔ inferior, equal and the others). The findings of this study are as follows. (i) The frequency of tunci uttered by male speakers is higher than that of female speakers. (ii) In terms of interlocutors’ relationships, tunci is frequently used both in the ‘superior → inferior’ and ‘equal’ relationships. (iii) In total, 16 kinds of Japanese counterparts are attested. Of those, four forms that show high frequency are “imperatives> te form > ba/tara ii = ba/tara”. (iv) From the point of view of insubordination, the Korean connective tunci has developed into final particle to make suggestion or request toward addressee, while the Japanese conditional marker ba/tara is utilized to encode similar pragmatic meanings to tunci .
  • 4.

    An analysis of the Revised Joyo Kanji for effective Japanese kanji education

    Seon ok Park | 2020, (65) | pp.61~79 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study investigates the development of the Japanese Kanji policy after World War II for efficient kanji education for Koreans who learn Japanese and characteristics of the pronunciation and the meaning of the Revised Joyo Kanji (2,136 words). In addition, it explores the difference of the Revised Joyo Kanji from Korean kanji in terms of their shape. Results are as follows. (1) The policies of Kanji by Japan after World War II are represented by “Toyo Kanji List” in 1946, “Joyo Kanji List” in 1981 and “Revised Joyo Kanji List” in 2010 and each of them was executed reflecting the social situation. (2) The investigation on readings of the Revised Joyo Kanji revealed that the number of kanji with the phonetic-based reading was 820, with the semantic-based reading was 77 and with both phonetic- and semantic-based reading was 1,239. (3) The proportion of kanji that uses different letter form Korean kanji was approximately 30 %, or 600 kanji, of all the Revised Joyo Kanji. Among this, 362 of them had a distinct difference and 238 of them had a minor difference such as a direction of strokes and a slight simplification. (4) Examining the revised common kanji itself, even the kanji that contains the same components did not adopt a unified letter form. Of these, the kanji with the elements of the old words were those that were newly added to the "Revised Joyo Kanji List".
  • 5.

    A study on BCCWJ as a corpus of written Japanese:

    EO SOOJEONG | 2020, (65) | pp.81~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) provided by the National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics is one of the most frequently used corpora for studying written Japanese. However, it is quite controversial to consider all 13 registers of BCCWJ as a general corpus of written Japanese. This paper overviews the BCCWJ, and clarifies the characteristic of each register by analyzing the frequency of appearance of ten words and expressions as either spoken Japanese or written Japanese. Results are as follows. First, BCCWJ is a Japanese corpus with a strong characteristic of written Japanese, in which written Japanese appears more frequently than spoken Japanese in a ratio of 2:1. Second, the usage rate of spoken Japanese and written Japanese varies greatly depending on the register, and unlike other registers, blog registers use more spoken Japanese than written Japanese. Third, the ratio of spoken Japanese and written Japanese varies greatly depending on the word, regardless the part of speech (adverb, adjective, conjunction) of the word. Based on the results of these analyses, this paper argues that it is somewhat problematic to regard BCCWJ as a corpus of written Japanese as a whole without considering the characteristic of each register. In addition, these results show that it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to the selection of the analysis object when analyzing written Japanese using BCCWJ.
  • 6.

    Conditions on the Cognitive Change Expression “Natteiru”: With a Focus on Comparative Expressions

    ueda hiroshi | 2020, (65) | pp.97~114 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper examines the conditions for establishing the cognitive change expression “natteiru (have become)” from the perspective of “construal”. The results of the observation are as follows. 1) When using the cognitive change expression “natteiru” in this state of comparison, the speaker recognizes the cognitive difference between the assumption and situation in front of their eyes as “change”. This kind of difference in recognition, in cases where the descriptive attribute is X, are expressed by the change scheme of “one object has become more X than another object.” 2) To use “natteiru” in a comparative situation, the difference between the two described attributes must be small. If there is the assumption of no difference between the two compared items, it is exceptionally easy to establish “natteiru” as an expression of cognitive change. 3) When focusing on the size of the object and using “natteiru,” the size and shape of the two compared items must be (almost) the same. When focusing on the height of the object and using “natteiru,” the shape of the two items compared does not necessarily need to be the same. 4) In a situation where one compares and describes height or body size that changed through immanent force, as the focus is on the actual change, one cannot use “natteiru”. However, when comparing the length of arms, as it is difficult to focus on changes due to immanent force, one can use “natteiru”. 5) “Natteiru” is often used in situations where one is comparing attributes gathered from perceptions. 6) In a comparative situation, “natteiru” basically does not co-occur with adjectives that include an evaluative meaning. This is because it is extremely difficult to demonstrate the differences in objective quantity in case of attributes expressed by adjectives that indicate the evaluative meaning.
  • 7.

    International Comparative Study on Word-of-Mouth Communications : Customer Reviews in Japan and South Korea

    Yukari Ishizuka | 2020, (65) | pp.115~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of Internet reviews on tourist services in Japan and South Korea. As a result of investigating the Internet reviews posted by hotel users among two countries, Japanese guests had a tendency to post negative evaluations compared to Korean reviewers. The results of the Internet reviews also show that many of the those posed by Japanese and South Korea reviewers were regarding the customer services and guest rooms.
  • 8.

    A trial to construct the Cultural-Image-Frame-Network based on Big-data framework

    LEE JUNSEO | Kyoung-Soo Han | LOH WOONG-KEE | 2020, (65) | pp.131~142 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research is to construct the multi-lungual Cultural Image Network Element(CIFN) based on big-data framework. Our research team has already made a desktop application version Korean-Japanese CEMS at LEE & Han(2016) with a purpose of enhancing language education efficiency. Since then, we could produce several achievements which extract cultural elements from the corpus of each language. But we could find that the CEMS has several limitations i.e. 1. basically, CEMS is a desktop version application with lack of openness, 2. CEMS handles limited languages, Korean and Japanese, 3. The corpuses which CEMS depends on have only the fixed data. In this paper, we try to find out the way out to overcome the limitations which CEMS has by constructing the Cultural-Image-Frame-Network.
  • 9.

    Upon the composition pattern-based approach to the essay writing in Japanese

    Hae-mi, Lee | 2020, (65) | pp.143~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper aims to offer formalized writing patterns and major language expressions of each sentence in the writing pattern so that anyone can write an essay if s/he knows the meaning and utilization of common Japanese grammar. For this, it analyzes the validity of writing patterns as to whether or not they can be used in Japanese writing education. A special lecture was given to 41 intermediate-level Japanese learners on how to write a Japanese essay within 75 minutes. Every student who took the special lecture wrote a 1,500-character essay. Methods of analysis are as follows. Writing cases of Japanese writing patterns and major language expressions were analyzed by dividing them into five elements: title, lead, fact, comment, and ending. Further, I analyzed a learner's essay that best utilized the Japanese writing pattern and expressions. It was found that the formalized writing pattern was useful in that it provided Japanese learners who were unaccustomed to writing essay with a guide of how to develop ideas for an essay. In addition, I would like to suggest that Japanese education should also provide a series of sentence structure forms, such as the writing technique that is actively used in English education. This type of teaching method can also be used as one of the effective writing teaching methods.
  • 10.

    A contrastive study of narratives in Korean and Japanese in daily conversation between friends: focusing on production and initiation of narrative

    JANG YUN AH | 2020, (65) | pp.161~179 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed similarities and differences in the production aspect and introduction strategies of narrative observed in daily conversation between the same sex speakers in Japanese and Korean. Results of this study can be summarized as follows: (A) In both Japanese and Korean conversation, narratives that contribute to the development of topics have the highest proportion of usage. As for the narrative produced to express consensus or empathy with the counterpart, it was observed more frequently in the conversation between female friends in both Japanese and Korean. (B) Participants produce narratives as a means of changing conversation to a new topic more often in Korean conversation than in Japanese conversation. Moreover, participants in Korean conversation tend to introduce narratives without using strategies. When a narrative relevant to a certain topic was initiated in Korean conversation, participants often use the strategy that presents the conclusion obtained from the event first. When producing the narrative that provides the information similar to what the counterpart provides, participants tend to use the strategy of expressing their will to speak. (C) A narrative that contributes to the conduction and development of topics is produced with a higher frequency in Japanese conversation than in Korean conversation. When producing a narrative to change the topic, Japanese often use the strategy of notifying the change of a flow of conversation. Moreover, when introducing a narrative related to the topic and a narrative that provides the information similar to what the counterpart provides, the most preferred strategy is to talk about the conclusion of the story first. The speaker often uses the strategy of expressing the will to talk spontaneously.