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2021, Vol., No.69

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  • 1.

    About the Relationship of Ruigo Kanazukai and Shochu Kana Benran

    KANGSEONGMUN | 2021, (69) | pp.5~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper examines Ruigo Kanazukai and Shochu Kana Benran. Both are which are the kana orthography note published after Kogentei. Both materials employ historical kana orthography, which is widely used among kokugaku scholars. There were no signs of exchanges between the authors of Ruigo Kanazukai and Shochu Kana Benran. However, after the comparative study of this two materials, it is found that there were many similarities between the two materials. First of all, the preface and legend of Shochu Kana Benran seemed to have been quoted from Ruigo Kanazukai. Some words and sentences were almost exactly the same. In addition, Shochu Kana Benran had a special mark on onbin, on’yomi(including Sino-Japanese vocabulary), and slang, which were the same as the idea of making a special mark on these three words in Ruigo Kanazukai. Similarities were also seen in the way words were included. Both materials first list the words, borrowing from the main category of Wajibenran. Then, they arranged the words in order of ‘the location of the problematic kana → the length of words → Gojuon’. In other words, both materials arranged the words through the four-step process. Also, Most of the words in the Ruigo Kanazukai were also included in the Shochu Kana Benran. However, some of the words that were reorganized in Shochu Kana Benran existed, such as the addition of Teika’s kana orthography or the change of categories of some words
  • 2.

    A contrastive study of Korean and Japanese quotation structure: Focusing on quotative verbs and quoted clauses

    KIM HYUN AH | 2021, (69) | pp.19~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the semantic relation between quoted clauses and quotative verbs in terms of the ‘saying verb level’ and the role of quotation markers in modern Japanese and Korean quotation structure. It classifies types of quotative verbs into high, medium, and low ‘saying verb levels’, and analyzes the semantic relationship between each verb type and the quoted clause. As a result, for general verbs with a high ‘saying verb level’, the quoted clause suggests specific contents of the verb, and emotional verbs with a medium ‘saying verb level’ conveys a cause of the emotion in the main clause. The low level saying verb shows a situation in which the utterance of the quoted clause coincides with the action of the verb, and unlike in the previous two types, there is no semantic relationship at all in the low level saying verb type. In addition, the marker to is not acting as a quotation marker but as a marker to indicate the ‘equivalent relation’ when it appears in the “-o –to V” clause.
  • 3.

    A study on the implementation of Flipped Classroom in university online Japanese classes - Case study of ‘Basic Japanese Grammar’ for beginners -

    Ro Ju Hyoun | 2021, (69) | pp.39~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this study, a case study of Flipped Classroom of ‘Basic Japanese Grammar’, a major subject for beginners among online Japanese classes at D University, was reported, and the results and improvements were reviewed. First, Flipped Classroom is said to be a difficult learning method for students who lack the motivation to learn. Fortunately, students who took ‘Basic Japanese Grammar’ showed a high will to learn as they majored in Japanese and Japanese literature. Next, as a result of examining the practice cases of Flipped Classroom that combines Pre-Recorded Video Lectures and Zoom real-time lectures in university online Japanese classes, three achievements were confirmed; (ⅰ)A part that the learner is not familiar with or that needs to be confirmed can be studied repeatedly, (ⅱ) The fact that the student may just check what they already know and go further beyond it, and (ⅲ) It is possible to improve the motivation to learn, to motivate the major study, and to lay the groundwork. The new part of this flip learning class model is that the face-to-face class in the conventional flip learning class has been replaced with ‘Zoom real-time lecture’. In the Zoom real-time lecture, students received positive evaluations for the ‘1:1 Q&A Small Conference Room’ opened during the problem-solving session and ‘Appreciating Music’ before the class started. Face-to-face and online hybrid education are being discussed for university education in the post-Corona era. I consider it is necessary to find various ways in terms of class design and operation so that students’ motivation and learning effect can be improved not only face-to-face but also online. Based on this report on the implementation of Flipped Classroom, which combines Pre-recorded video lectures and Zoom real-time lectures, we would like to set the status and direction of university education in the Post-COVID-19 era as future tasks.
  • 4.

    A Study of Japanese verbs in the Bible: Focusing on the Bible Proverbs

    Bae, Jin-Young | 2021, (69) | pp.55~69 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines frequently used verbs in the Japanese Bible based on the quantitative survey of verbs in the Japanese Bible “Proverbs”. A comparative analysis was conducted based on the JLPT Japanese Proficiency Test to determine the difficulty of verbs in the Japanese Bible. As a result, I found that a total of 2,374 verbs appeared in the Japanese Bible, and 799 were used in individual words. Acquiring the verbs ―230 words― that appear more than three times in terms of frequency of use in the Proverbs, the reader can understand more than 70 percent of the Bible’s Proverbs. In addition, the Bible verbs were classified by level of the JLPT Japanese Proficiency Test and analyzed in this paper to show that about 35% of the verbs in the Japanese Bible Proverbs were verbs that could not be classified by level of JLPT. These verbs were those with no level classification and no headword and were compound verbs in the latter case. On the other hand, looking at the level-specific verbs of JLPT, about 18% of the verbs(145 words) belong to N1 and about half of the verbs in Proverbs were N1, N2, and N3, suggesting the level of difficulty of verbs in the Japanese Bible. Since this study is not a quantitative survey of the entire Japanese Bible, it cannot be said that it is the result of the entire verb in the Japanese Bible, but the verb classification and level classification presented in this study can be the basis for step-by-step acquisition of Japanese Bible-related verbs.
  • 5.

    Actual usages of a redundant expression -ka ni naru

    Sakaguchi, Sayaka | 2021, (69) | pp.71~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The phrase -ka ni naru is deemed to be ungrammatical because it is a redundant expression. However, interestingly it is sometimes seen in texts on the Web. Previous studies have not dealt with this -ka ni naru. Therefore, in this paper, we conducted BCCWJ researches and web researches as a quantitative study. In the BCCWJ researches, it appeared that the three registers Chiebukuro, blogs, and Diet meeting minutes accounted for more than three-quarters of all usage examples. Since there were few examples in the publishing and library registers, it can be suggested that -ka ni naru was corrected to -ka suru, -ka sareru, or -ni naru in the process of proofreading. Focusing on the writing style, the ratio of the desu masu style was higher in -ka ni naru than in -ka suru, and in particular, a difference of about 20 percentage points was seen in the Chiebukuro and blogs. Through web researches, examples of -ka ni naru were also obtained from official websites, such as of companies and local governments. From these results, it was suggested that -ka ni naru is not a misuse, but a new expression that certain native speakers consider to be correct. In addition, there was not much difference in the number of hits between -ka ni naru, -ka suru, and -ka sareru in the web researches. Hence it can be pointed out that -ka ni naru is used more than a little on the Web. Taken together, these results suggest that the motive for using the redundant expression -ka ni naru might be to further express politeness. Based on the results of this quantitative study, qualitative studies will be needed from semantic and syntactic points of view.
  • 6.

    A study on research trends in speech studies of Japanese learners with text mining

    Yi Kyong-Suk | 2021, (69) | pp.93~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the AI era, it is important to extract some keywords of a particular field in order to grasp trends of research and classify them in order to lead to a new research theme. In this study, we use text mining to analyze speech studies of Japanese learners. We search 669 previous researches published from the 1980s to the 2010s on Google Scholar with the keywords, ‘Japanese’, ‘Learners’, ‘Speech’, and ‘Pronunciation.’ As a result of the search, we observed how its trend has changed. For text mining we use KH Coder, a free software. 1) As a result of conducting analysis of frequent words, we found a lot of more research regarding formation than perceptual parts of pronunciation. 2) As a result of analyzing the co-occurrence network of frequently occurring words, it was possible to visualize the frequency of research themes. 3) We also analyzed how research trends have been changing since the 1980s to the 2010s. The number of researches published has been increased, and themes have also become further diversified since the 1990s. During the 2000s, research in relation to speech recognition became outstanding with some useful techniques of it. Since the 2010s there has been a lot of research in regard to speech education and accent education.
  • 7.

    A study on the vocabulary in Korean-Japanese Middle School textbooks currently in use in 2020 - Focusing on national language textbooks for grades 1 through 3 -

    Lee,Mi-Suk | 2021, (69) | pp.107~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper aims to illuminate the socio-cultural characteristics of the national language textbooks, which Korea and Japan intend to make their students influenced by, through drawing on the significant differences between categories that appear in lexical distributions by areas of the meaning of vocabulary in the current national language textbooks for middle school students in Korea and Japan. For a qualitative change, the lexical distributions were compared according to the five major categories of Bunruigoihyou (1964, 2004). In the case of Korean textbooks, there are significant differences in the order of <1.2>, <1.4>, and <1.3> based on the total number of words. In the case of Japanese textbooks, significant differences are in the order of <1.5> and <1.1>. It was also compared with Lee(2020) that analyzed the vocabulary of a first-year textbook, which revealed the significant difference in <1.2> and <1.3>, <1.5> is shrinking. Therefore the characteristics of first-year textbooks are now slightly ambiguous. These tendencies were also found in the medium categories. In the case of Korean textbooks, significant differences were found in <human>,<race・people>, <family>, <members・position> <duty>, <mind>, <economy>, <dwelling>, <clothing>, <foodstuff>, <body> and <life>. On the other hand, Japanese textbooks are different from Korean ones in terms of <instruction>, <quantity>, <time>, <space>, <living organism>, <nature・object>, <animal>, <creation・writing>, and <machinery>. In particular, Korean textbooks have more vocabulary associated with humans and families than Japanese ones, while Japanese textbooks have more words related to information literacy which is the same tendency shown in the previous textbooks. In addition, the revision of Japanese textbooks has resulted in a decrease in literature-related vocabulary and an emphasis on environmental and ecological themes.
  • 8.

    The case binding frequency of the “V1-teiku/V1-tekuru” form with the “ni, he, made” cases: A comparison study of the case binding frequencies with V1

    ZHAO JINCHANG | 2021, (69) | pp.127~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this paper, I explore the “V1-teiku /V1-tekuru” form of transitive verbs denoting the spatial movement of the object, and investigate the frequency of coupling with the “ni, he, and made” cases that co-occur with the “V1-teiku/V1-tekuru” in the corpus. Through the comparison of the frequency of connection between the main verb with the “ni, he, and made” cases and that with the “V1-teiku /V1-tekuru” form, three tendencies are found. Depending on verbs, (1)“V1-teiku /V1-tekuru” does not co-occur with the “he” case or “made” case, but only with the “ni” case; (2) It is easier to co-occur with the “he” case and “ made” case than with the “ni” case; and (3)It does not co-occur with the “ni” case or “he” case in some cases, and with the “ni” case or “made” case in some others. The present study further divided the case of transitive verbs into four groups according to the four semantic features, “result”, “telicity”, “continuity”, and “arrival”. These features of V1 are also involved in the change in the case binding frequency when it is used with “teiku” , whereas a different feature “afferent” is involved when it is used with “tekuru”.
  • 9.

    The change and prospect of L2 attrition research**

    HWANG YOUNG HEE | 2021, (69) | pp.147~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the flow of research that has been conducted in the field of second language attrition, and summarizes the main results. It further points out the main issues to be considered in the L2 attrition study, related hypotheses, intralinguistic factors, extralinguistic factors, constraints of study and methodological issues. To be specific, it is as followings. (1) Previous studies have mainly focused only on the short-term learning process and there are few studies that comprehensively describe all processes of long-term individual language changes, including maintenance and attrition stages. (2) L2 attrition research mainly targets English, and there are few studies targeting Japanese, and there are few longitudinal studies targeting attriters like imperial Japanese speakers and child returnees. (3) There are few studies focusing on various social properties such as L2 attriters and Japanese contacts, and there are few studies from sociolinguistic aspects including discourse and linguistic behavior. (4) The mainstream is to consider the L2 attrition from the linguistic formal aspect, and few are to consider from the grammatical functional aspect such as modality. Particularly, there is a lack of linguistic theoretical approaches such as transference, analytic structure and synthetic structure. (5) Under the stage of incubation, few L2 studies have discussed the correlation with learning environment, attitude and motivation, proficiency, and frequency of use. There is much left to find out in order to lay the foundation for the future of L2 attrition research. It is based on a very limited number of studies and target languages and should be validated. And we still have a lot to discover about the dominant hypothesis of L2 attrition. Additionally, it is necessary to determine what factors and their combinations affect the attrition process and how they affect it. L2 attrition research is expected to develop further based on knowledge of psychology, linguistics, and even brain science as a field of acquisition research. L2 retention study of grammatical ability and sociolinguistic ability, which had few linguistic descriptions, is expected to contribute to L2 education such as saving effects in the construction of new linguistic theory and relearning.
  • 10.

    The effects of short-term training in Japan on participants

    本多美保 | Byoung-Boo You | 2021, (69) | pp.173~193 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper is a study on “how short-term training affects participants”. An interview survey was conducted with 12 participants about short-term training in Japan and analyzed qualitatively with M-GTA. The analysis results are represented in nine extracted categories as follows. Participants first participated in the training with their [Passive participate motivation], but during their stay in Japan, they had [positive evaluation of Japanese society], [positive evaluation of university culture] and [positive evaluation of training], and experienced [Rebuilding of Japanese image], [realization of the cultural differences between the two countries] and [effort to improve Japanese language skills]. At the end of the training period, it created awareness of [the will to improve Japanese language skills] and [the acquisition of future vision]. In other words, it is suggested that short-term training contributed to the change of awareness and the self-growth of participants. It was also revealed that participants felt that they improved their Japanese skills during their stay in Japan, and gained confidence in two abilities, particularly [explain] and [communicate]