The Japanese Language Association of Korea 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.82

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pISSN : 1229-7275
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2022, Vol., No.72

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  • 1.

    A study on the frequency of the use of omoimasu‘I think” and zonjimasu‘I think (honorific)’ in business conversations: based on a business-related questionnaire

    Kanehara, Shuko | 2022, (72) | pp.5~20 | number of Cited : 0
    In this paper, we studied the use of omoimasu (思います) ‘I think’ and zonjimasu (存じます) ‘I think (honorifics)’ in business conversations. This is the result of an analysis of data collected through the survey of 50 people aged 30 to 59 working in Japan. Although zonjimasu is an honorific (humility) version of omoimasu, foreign Japanese learners often hesitate to use it as it can be regarded as incurring a bad impression depending on the situation. Therefore, there were concerns that learners tend to use omoimasu in all situations even when they have learned zonjimasu. The survey was designed to find out if there were situations where it would be easy for learners to use zonjimasu. As a result, several findings were unveiled: 1. Even in business situations such as a consultation, it is often more appropriate to use omoimasu than zonjimasu; 2. Many people think that it is not rude to use omoimasu in business situations; 3. Rather, the use of the humility expression zonjimasu sometimes makes the other person feel uncomfortable in some cases; 4. If one uses omoimasu in a situation where zonjimasu should be used, the respect degree would be weakened and thereby the other party would feel it is rude; and 5. It is more appropriate to use zonjimasu atin thean important part of the conversation part thatconsultation or conversation, or where at conversation the speaker wants to ensures tothey deliver the part of the conversation or consultation to the other person, rather than in considering the flow of the consultation or conversation.
  • 2.

    How can teachers embrace Outcomes-Based Education approach in university education?: A case study of a public university in Malaysia

    Koga, Makiko , Kimura, Kaori | 2022, (72) | pp.21~41 | number of Cited : 0
    Recently, designing and implementing the education based on learning outcomes has come to be essential for university educations. The reason why is that universities must elaborate explicitly of validity about the qualifications in university educations to the stakeholders, rather than that, the education paradigm has shifted from the conventional education to the outcomes-based education, i.e. from teacher-centered learning to students-centered learning. In this paper, a case of the Japan studies program of Universiti Malaya, where implemented National Qualifications Framework based on the learning outcome approach was examined. Meanwhile, we discuss how teachers can embrace Outcomes-Based Education approach, which is formulated by the government, and is focused on the students’ attainment of learning outcomes, moreover we suggested the bottom-up improvement. It was found from the case examined that a teacher was proactive and tried to embrace the "Malaysia Qualifications Framework" for university education in her way. The teacher had been interpreting the meaning of "MQF" while reading the local contexts; e.g. the course outcomes and the program outcomes of the Japan studies program. The teacher had been practicing and reflecting on her course following the Plan-Do-Check-Action cycle. Additionally, she provided feedback to the university. Although only one case was reported, this case implied to us that not only one teacher had given feedback to the university and the Ministry of Education in Malaysia but also many other teachers had done it. Therefore, the "MQF" for university education has been revised. This paper finally claims that teachers should: 1) design your own practices to interpret the outcomes in NQF by yourselves. 2) reflect on your own practices and discuss them with others to improve your practices. 3) not only improve your own practices but also innovate the outcomes in NQF and NQF itself.
  • 3.

    Aspects of utterance-final segments in discussions by native speakers of Japanese: Focusing on mitigating and conative functions

    Komatsu, Nana | 2022, (72) | pp.43~64 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to analyze how native speakers of Japanese express their opinions in discussions between native speakers and learners of Japanese, based on the occurrence tendency of utterance-final segments. The analysis focused on the two functions of elements included in utterance-final segments: the function to soften the utterance (mitigating function) and the function to actively engage the receiver (conative function). Firstly, for the overall characteristics, the analysis revealed that the utterance-final segments tended to include mitigating functional elements and conative functional elements rather than to be in the form of a simple declarative sentence. Each of these elements often appeared alone in utterance-final segments, while both the mitigating functional elements and the conative functional elements sometimes appeared together in a single utterance-final segment. Secondly, the analysis revealed that the form of "plain form" + to omou ‘(I)think that’ was used only in a small percentage of cases despite the use of the sentence pattern-to omou ‘(I)think that’ amounting to about one third of all expressions of opinion. In many cases, this sentence pattern tended to be used together with the mitigating function elements, such as -kana to omou and -to omou n desu kedo. In addition through an analysis of situations where these utterance-final segments were used the current study found that these utterance-final segments were used to avoid confrontation with the receiver, to soften and convey opposing opinions, and to confirm sharing of the utterance with the receiver. Taken together, these results suggest that native speakers of Japanese choose utterance-final segments of expressing their opinions on the basis of the context in order to maintain a smooth relationship with the receiver.
  • 4.

    A study on the ambiguous usage of So-series demonstratives

    Sakaguchi, Sayaka | 2022, (72) | pp.65~85 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper discusses the ambiguous usage, which has few previous studies, among usages of the So-series in modern Japanese demonstratives. The ambiguous usage of demonstratives has been described as "referents are unspecified" in previous studies. However in this paper, we proposed a definition in terms of the two respects, "introducing variables into semantic interpretation" and "perception of referents". As a result of the analysis of the data of place expressions, it became clear that there are also cases where it is easy for the listener to identify the referent. This suggests that the description, "it is difficult for the listener to identify the referent", is not necessary for the definition of the ambiguous usage, which has been regarraded as an essential elements of the definition. Further, the current study clarified that the essence of the ambiguous usage is not to have an indefinite meaning, but to indicate a place with the attribute "not too far from here". Hence the ambiguous usage is expressed by the So-series instead of the Do-series in modern Japanese demonstratives. There are cases that could not be classified into any usages under the conventional definitions, With the new definitions proposed in this paper, we could now classify those cases as the ambiguous usage. Furthermore, based on the suggestions in this paper, the essence of the So-series was clarified and the multiple usages of the So-series could also be explained in a unified manner from the viewpoint of "the listener can identify the referent".
  • 5.

    A study on the Japanese language learning strategies by MBTI: Focusing on an interview survey of adult Japanese learners

    SEOYURI | 2022, (72) | pp.87~105 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines the influence of leaners’ personality types intoon learning strategies that are actually used by Japanese leaners who are working, i.e. what different learning strategies are adopted in accordance with the leaners’ personality type. It appeared that most learners used many various 'cognitive strategies', and in particular, the SJ personality type used the strategy of taking notes while writing. In contrast, learners with other temperaments used cognitive strategies of memorizing through the context of the text or using images and radio. In particular, it was found that leaners with INTP and ISTP used the image strategy. This is because introverted thinking is the main function that prefers thinking in their own inner world. Further, looking at the ‘meta-cognitive strategy’, it was found that they were well aware of their strengths and weaknesses. This is probably because, as a mature learner, they prefer efficient methods that have already been learned through various life experiences in addition to Japanese learning experiences. It seems that they know not only the method related to overall learning, such as knowing their preferred learning environment well and being able to motivate themselves with tips to increase concentration, but also the fact that it is the type that is difficult to achieve even with diligent learning plans. Lastly, among the ‘mutual strategies’, the learning supporter was well utilized. However, the NT type seemed to require a learning supporter as a learning tool. Based on these results, it is suggested to apply the following in the actual class. (1) It is necessary to give learners sufficient time, for the SJ type to take notes or writing, and for the introverted learner to organize themselves; (2) When using media, learners’ class participation can be increased by preparing different activities depending on their temperaments, for example, group activities for leaners who prefer to work in small group, and by introducing themselves directly to everyone for leaners who have no difficulty in making a good relationship with others; and (3) Let leaners write a learning diary to promote clear learning objectives.
  • 6.

    Spoken grammar of the Japanese elementary course

    Lee, Duck-Young , Hirose, Marina | 2022, (72) | pp.107~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Like many other languages, Japanese has many special features, such as particle omission, sentence‐ final particles, responsive tokens, and so forth, that are unique to its spoken language (typically face‐to‐ face conversation). In spoken Japanese, these features are indispensable for initiating and maintaining a conversation through a collaborative interaction with other speakers, and also for deploying their utterances in a natural form. Therefore, these features should be included in the learning process of Japanese education given that one of the most fundamental goals of language education is to acquire conversation skills of the language in a natural form. Nevertheless, the importance of these feature has been neglected and virtually no research has previously been undertaken on these features in the literature of Japanese education. The current study is to fill the research gab and explores key points in teaching these features from the fundamental viewpoint of education, namely “what” and “how” to teach these features. It focuses on the elementary Japanese course under the assumption that these features should be taught from the early stage of the Japanese education. In brief, regarding “what” to teach, the study adopts ‘Corpus of Everyday Japanese Conversation’ created by National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics, and identifies nine features, Sentence‐final particles, Responsive tokens, Fillers, Hedging markers, Incomplete sentence, Echo‐question, Inversion, Particle omission, and Contraction, as the spoken features that are to be included in Japanese education at the elementary level. As for “how” to teach, the study offers the three points, ‘Teaching order (of these features)’, ‘The significance of the systematic explanation and practice’, and ‘The necessity of the assessment development’, that are important to consider when teaching these features in class.
  • 7.

    Revisiting "suspected misuse"

    LI, Domgzhe | 2022, (72) | pp.127~144 | number of Cited : 0
    The concept of "suspected misuse" was first put forward by Li (2016). This is a new term derived from the study of Japanese misuse published by Li (2017) in the following year. As is well known, the research on misuse and language misuses occurring in the process of foreign language acquisition plays a more and more important role in foreign language teaching. However, there have been many practical problems raised in the study of misuse as well as in language misuses in the past half century. One of them is the problem of "suspected misuse" to be discussed again in this article. “Suspected misuse” is observed in compounds or collocations that are produced by non-native speakers, and are not clear whether or not they are actually used in real life despite the fact that the combination of words correctly conforms to grammatical rules in the languageSuspected. “Suspected misuse" is usually not produced by elementary or intermediate level learners in the process of foreign language acquisition, but is a language phenomenon that can be produced by non-native speakers above the super-advanced level or some native speakers. By partially revising and supplementing the "suspected misuse" hypothesis in Li (2017), this paper reitrerates the necessity of introducing the concept of "suspected misuse" into the study of Japanese misuse.
  • 8.

    Japanese language maintenance and change in the linguistic landscapes of Korean “young people streets”: From the viewpoint of diversity and the strength of attitudes

    Lee,Soonhyeong | 2022, (72) | pp.145~165 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we focus on how changes in social conditions and values, such as the difficulties in face-to-face retail selling as a result of the covid pandemic, and the boycott of Japanese products under the "NO JAPAN" slogan, are reflected in language landscapes. In specific, our purpose is to examine the linguistic landscapes of shopping streets in Korea frequented by young people, from the perspective of the degree of "diversity" and the intensity of people’s feelings of intractability, in an effort to shine light on phenomena of changes and maintenance in Japanese usage. The results of our analyses may be summed up as follows. 1.In unique linguistic landscapes such as signs incorporating Japanese place names and regional specialties, those that utilize Japanese sentence structures, and those that use Japanese-style shop names and trademark logos, we find a great diversity in the use of kanji, hiragana, katakana, romaji, and hangul, revealing a strong particularity of attitudes. In particular, we find that attempts to produce a Japanese aura, as well as the use of imagery through store names and trademark logos play a strong symbolic role similar to that of pictograms. 2.With signs promoting a shop’s longevity such as “since 20xx”, and signs containing words targeted for eradication in the language purification movement, we find little diversity, but the former serve a practical purpose and the use of the latter in shop names reveals the strength of a desire to create a sense of authentic Japanese-ness. 3.Compared with the pre-covid era, we find a strong tendency towards signs that blindly and unquestioningly sought to purge hiragana on the one hand, and those which flexibly made use of Romanization or resourcefully disguised Japanese words as Korean by writing them in hangul (quasi-Korean signs). These opposing trends of “flexible resourcefulness” and “blindly following the crowd” demonstrate that change and maintenance of Japanese linguistic landscapes reflect its ability to interpret the zeitgeist and go with the flow. In conjunction with psychological and sociological factors, we conclude that from an economic standpoint, the use of Japanese is no longer useful in increasing sales.