Recently, designing and implementing the education based on learning outcomes has come to be essential for university educations. The reason why is that universities must elaborate explicitly of validity about the qualifications in university educations to the stakeholders, rather than that, the education paradigm has shifted from the conventional education to the outcomes-based education, i.e. from teacher-centered learning to students-centered learning.
In this paper, a case of the Japan studies program of Universiti Malaya, where implemented National Qualifications Framework based on the learning outcome approach was examined. Meanwhile, we discuss how teachers can embrace Outcomes-Based Education approach, which is formulated by the government, and is focused on the students’ attainment of learning outcomes, moreover we suggested the bottom-up improvement.
It was found from the case examined that a teacher was proactive and tried to embrace the "Malaysia Qualifications Framework" for university education in her way. The teacher had been interpreting the meaning of "MQF" while reading the local contexts; e.g. the course outcomes and the program outcomes of the Japan studies program. The teacher had been practicing and reflecting on her course following the Plan-Do-Check-Action cycle. Additionally, she provided feedback to the university. Although only one case was reported, this case implied to us that not only one teacher had given feedback to the university and the Ministry of Education in Malaysia but also many other teachers had done it. Therefore, the "MQF" for university education has been revised.
This paper finally claims that teachers should: 1) design your own practices to interpret the outcomes in NQF by yourselves. 2) reflect on your own practices and discuss them with others to improve your practices. 3) not only improve your own practices but also innovate the outcomes in NQF and NQF itself.