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2011, Vol.7, No.3

  • 1.

    The Relationships of Characteristics, Problem-solving Styles, and Stress among Cyber University Students

    Kim, Sunah | 정영선 | 2011, 7(3) | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze the relationships of characteristics and problem-solving styles of Cyber University students toward various stress among 1,044 students. Results show that first, gender was significant with academic, appearance, and economic stress, while freshmen and students' major were significant with academic stress. Age was related to academic, peer, appearance, and economic stress. Second, problem styles of helplessness and control had effect on family stress and academic stress. On peer stress, creativity and approach had negative effects while helplessness, control and avoidance had positive effects. Approach had negative effects and helplessness, control had positive effects on appearance stress. Economic stress was affected by helplessness and control. Findings reveal that female, freshmen, and younger age needed more support for better accommodation of students in school life. Special courses and counseling programs to enhance problem solving styles related to each specific stress need to be implemented.
  • 2.

    Factors to affect students' approaches to learning and academic achievement in distance higher education

    Young-Sook Jung | 성지훈 | 2011, 7(3) | pp.25~49 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate factors to affect students' approaches to learning and academic achievement in distance higher education. Based on the models of Biggs(2003) and Richardson(2006), this study designed a model including factors of learners, distance teaching context, approaches to learning, and academic achievement. The online survey was delivered to the students of the 'A' distance university and the responses of 14,785 students were analysed. The multiple regression and the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis were conducted. The adopted model was statistically significant to explain deep, strategic, surface approaches to learning in distance higher education. Three (age, self-management ability, and prior knowledge) out of the learners' factors and two (quality of contents and academic assessment) out of the teaching context factors were significant for all of the three approaches to learning. The relationship between GPA and the deep/strategic approaches were positively correlated whereas the relationship between GPA and the surface approach was negatively correlated. Especially, the relationship between GPA and the strategic approach was relatively stronger. Based on the study results, strategies of teaching and learning were discussed to guide distance learners to the deep and strategic approaches to learning.
  • 3.

    The Study on Factors Predicting Adult learners' Academic Achievement and Persistence in Distance Education

    김현아 | Kim Hyunjin | 2011, 7(3) | pp.51~78 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors predict undergraduates’ academic achievement and their academic persistence behavior in cyber university. As predicting variables, demographic information, prior learning preparation variables(experience of cyber learning, their perceived level of achievement in the final school), learner’s individual characteristics variables including motivation, attribution, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning strategies, and learning process variables involving academic development, social integration, and extra-institutional integration were selected. Students were asked to responded a set of surveys including predicting variables in the middle of semester. Academic achievement was based on their total GPA obtained in that semester and academic persistence behavior referred to whether they registered or not in the following semester. This study sampled a total of 487 first year and transfer students, 397(81.5%) persisters, 90(18.5%) wiredrawers, who first enrolled in C cyber university in 2008. Data were first analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, χ2 test, multiple regression and binary logistic regression. The following results were obtained from the analysis. First, among the related variables selected in this study, year, reason for entrance as degree acquisition and self-efficacy, and the use of self-regulated learning strategies were found to show statistically significant in predicting their academic achievement. Especially, entrance motive for degree acquisition was negatively associated with their academic achievement. Second, academic persistence was significantly predicted by goal commitment as students’ motivation, active interaction with instructor as an attribution, and academic development and extra-institutional integration of learning process variables. Finally, based on the results of the study, practical implication for lifelong education in distance education institute such as cyber university, limitations, and suggestions for future study are being discussed.
  • 4.

    An Exploratory Study on Perception and Changes due to Smartwork: Focusing on Experience of Smartwork Participants

    Minkyung SUNG | 방선희 | Sungho Kwon | 2011, 7(3) | pp.79~107 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine changes due to smartwork and perception of smartwork through narratives of smartwork participants. Smartwork is an alternative way of working that allows employees to work anywhere and anytime with flexibility through network connection. Smartwork has benefits of cost reduction, productivity raise, balance between work and life, realization of Green IT, and more employment opportunities for women and the old. This study investigates what kinds of changes smartwork systems brought to personal and working environment. Furthermore, perception about increased workload due to smartwork and unique features of jobs carried out during smartwork were discussed. Those who currently participate in smartwork joined the study to share their experience of smartwork in terms of changes in parenting, time management and environment, differences in perception about smartwork between self and others, and unique features of smartwork regarding task types and communication. Results show that smartwork participants feel relaxed due to decrease in childrearing costs and commuting time, and increase in time with children. Improved working environment enables them to engage in tasks and get more time for personal development. As for perception of smartwork, face-to-face communication is valued more than communication used in smartwork. Participants also experienced difficulty in communication due to lack of instant feedback and absence of nonverbal communication. Also, smartwork played a positive role in carrying out tasks that do not require intentive communication and collaboration. Overall, smartwork participants feel satisfied with time saving as they spend less time in commuting and more time at home, but uncomfortable with negative perception due to conflicts between the smartwork environment and the existing office environment. Thus, for smartwort to become an alternative work style, thoughtful observation and further research as well as changes in perception of smartwork is needed. There should be a change in perception that smartwork is not a vacation or a system only for women, but another type of working that can achieve productivity raise by working effective and efficient in anytime and anywhere.
  • 5.

    Development of a Content Analysis Framework in Online Group-Based Learning

    Hye-Jung Lee | 김인수 | 2011, 7(3) | pp.109~127 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Content analysis of online group-based learning activities is widely applied to understand classroom dynamics such as distributed cognitions and cognitive and psychological processes that learners experience. Educational researchers reveal an increasing number of research projects that employ content analysis methodology. Despite the increasing number of studies on content analysis, analysis frameworks based on empirical practice have been established by relatively few studies. Additionally, some messages are ambiguous to categorize in the present framework; at times, the category for messages cannot be identified or the messages overlap into different categories. This is because most frameworks based on conceptual theories are employed to classify messages in a group-based learning activity via the online bulletin board. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a framework derived inductively from the empirical practice for content analysis in order to understand and interpret the learners' interactive messages. Data were 773 messages posted on an asynchronous online bulletin board and were collected from 32 undergraduate students in an educational method and educational technology course at S University. As a result, this study developed three categories of cognition, relationship, and operation frameworks to elaborate seven further categories, namely, intelligent, informative, social, diplomatic, managerial, procedural, and technical. Findings are expected to provide a practical framework, which is derived from a learner’s activity rather than literature review, for analyzing interactions in a project-based online learning activity.
  • 6.

    Development of E-Learning Environment Based on Flow Theory

    정효정 | Jaewon Jung | Dong-sik Kim | 2011, 7(3) | pp.129~143 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This study intended to develop e-learning environment based on 'Flow Theory' and verify its effect. The design principles used in this study derived from the antecedents of flow and they were used for strategies such as learning objective and content display, providing feedback, and interface design. Objective and content display strategies are as follows: 1) to understand learners' level and provide proper tasks by analyzing the learning process and achievement level, 2) to help learners set a clear goal, 3) to allow learners to control their own learning. Strategy for providing feedback is 4) to provide learners with just-in-time feedbacks based on the analysis of their learning process and achievement level. Interface design strategies are as follows: 5) to use elements that induce learners' attention to learning 6) to use elements that draw learners' interest 7) to design and develop efficient interface in order to help learners concentrate on the task. In this study, the learning task providing system was constructed based on item response theory and data mining so as to implement effectively design principles and the learning environment was developed based on the application of online game environment and a game agent. 217 undergraduate students participated in this study to investigate the effect of the developed e-learning environment and the analysis showed that learners' satisfaction and achievement were statistically significant.
  • 7.

    Commodification of knowledge: A mechanism of knowledge appropriation

    윤창국 | 2011, 7(3) | pp.145~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to critically review issues of knowledge appropriation. The current society, the so called knowledge-based society, tries to facilitate the standardization and manualization of knowledge in order to transfer knowledge to people easily and efficiently increase economic value. In this process, the commodification of knowledge is inevitable and it creates the possibility that someone may create a monopoly of knowledge. To critically analyze this process, this paper investigates what kinds of perspectives on knowledge exist, what are the implications of terms, reification, commodities, and the commodification in Marxism to the commodification of knowledge, and what is the commodification of knowledge. To achieve its purpose, this paper scrutinizes and analyzes discussions on the commodification and appropriation of knowledge utilizing Marxist theoretical frameworks. This paper does not argue that no knowledge should be transformed into a kind of commodity. To develop social and economic growth for survival, some levels of knowledge need to be used to improve economic value. What this paper aims to highlight is that there are some kinds of knowledge that cannot and should not be changed into economic values. In addition, to defend our lifeworld from this danger of commodification, we need to critically understand and analyze the mechanism of this process. In this context, Marx's ideas can create a good starting point for understanding and analyzing the commodification of knowledge as a mechanism of knowledge appropriation.
  • 8.

    Mobile Learning: Educating for Life and for All

    Mohamed Ally | 2011, 7(3) | pp.169~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the world population increases so does the need to educate more people. However, because of the current education infrastructure and delivery model, it is impossible to educate everyone to achieve at least a basic education level to function in society. Educators and government must change the current system to deliver education in flexible formats so that lifelong learning can be expanded and basic education for all can be achieved. With the increasing availability of open education resources and electronic learning materials, learners can access the learning materials using technology such as mobile devices and tablets. Many citizens around the world have mobile devices and tablets rather than desktop and laptops computers. Hence, educators must deliver learning materials for access by mobile devices. This will help to achieve the “education for all” and “education is a human right” goals set by the different international agencies.