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2012, Vol.8, No.2

  • 1.

    Can The Use of QR Codes Enhance m-Learning in a Blended Learning Environment?

    Latifah Abdol Latif | Mansor Fadzil | Tengku Amina Munira and 1other persons | 2012, 8(2) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, with the introduction of smartphones, tablet computers and the advancement of information and communication technology (ICT), there has been a growing interest in the use of Quick Response (QR) codes for educational purposes. The majority of scholarly accounts in this particular topic have been those related to managing libraries, and to a lesser extent to teaching and learning. At present, applications of QR codes in higher education are minimal, and even fewer in a blended learning environment. This paper describes an exploratory project that attempts to introduce three specific examples of basic QR code-driven activities in an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institution. Learners were asked to scan QR codes using mobile smartphones or tablet computers. Three different types of content, i.e. text-based instruction, Uniform Resource Locater (URL) of video lectures (called iLectures) and URL of self-test activities were made available to learners via the QR codes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on learners who have been introduced to the QR codes. The objectives of this project are multi-pronged: first is to create awareness of QR codes among learners; second is to encourage and push the use of specific online materials via mobile devices; and third is to determine learners’ attitudes/perceptions towards the use of a combination of smartphones and QR codes in learning. This study is important to an ODL institution like Open University Malaysia (OUM). For a provider of flexible delivery of instructional materials, QR codes can play a significant role in enhancing mobile learning (or m-learning) and engaging learners in their learning process. The research findings are expected to indicate whether or not the integration of smartphones and QR codes can be considered an effective way forward in achieving a semi-ubiquitous m-learning environment.
  • 2.

    Lifelong Learning in the Long Tail Age: the Educational Challenge of Distance Learning

    Sebastian Vogt | 2012, 8(2) | pp.23~37 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Distance learning makes an essential contribution to lifelong learning. Media-facilitated courses offer access to (higher) education for people who are, for instance, unable to combine studies at traditional universities with family and/or work commitments. As in the past, innovations driven by media technology continue to play a key role in enabling learning as a social process in distance learning to be structured efficiently and to benefit from flexibility in time and space. Ubiquitous, networked and mobile computers in their diverse forms are the backbone of modern distance learning. The digital code in the form of software makes it possible to create individual (learning) worlds on digital platforms. Access to the tools needed for this is open. Contents can be created and exchanged on a cross-linked and networked basis. Algorithms support the supply and demand with regard to individual study contents. These options of the ‘long tail’ cater to the Bologna process at European universities. The declared objective is to orient the qualification goals of the individual study programmes to the competences (output) that graduates should possess following completion of their studies, rather than to focus on teaching knowledge (input) as used to be the case. A partial consequence of this, for distance learning too, is a shift from transferring mass-media-reproduced knowledge content towards promoting individual competence through individual contents. This article shows and reflects upon how the FernUniversität in Hagen (Germany) is using educational technology to respond to the challenge of lifelong learning in the long tail age, with a few selected examples drawn from teaching and research.
  • 3.

    The Role of ICT in Governance Education

    Juvy Lizette M. Gervacio | 2012, 8(2) | pp.39~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Many governments are already discovering and recognizing the potential of utilizing modern technology in delivering capacity building and training programs in the public sector. Moreover, the use of ICT to improve efficiency and effectiveness of different departments and organizations is growing. Through ICT, skills training and capacity building programs may be developed and delivered to the public sector. Given the self-paced nature of e-learning, public servants need not be bound by a specific time and place to study, thereby not consuming so much of their time. They are able to do it in their own convenient time and the resources and reading materials may be downloaded online (UN, 2009). The use of e-learning also serves as a cost-saving mechanism for the public sector, given the elimination of the need for print materials and physical structures for learning. More importantly, since e-learning aids in the upgrading of skills of the workforce it may likewise help them become more innovative in delivering public services. Hence, e-learning not only revolutionized the delivery of traditional education but can also be used in the delivery of programs intended to improve people’s quality of life. The paper aims to present the experiences of students in the use of ICT in governance education in the Philippines. Specifically, it will discuss how ICT is used in the distance e-learning program of the University of the Philippines Open University. It will also show the profile of the students taking up the Master of Public Management Program as well as their experiences in using ICT and interactive tools in learning. The paper will also discuss the prospects of using e-learning as a tool in capacity building for the public sector.
  • 4.

    Changes to the Educational Paradigm and Smart Learning: How Shall We View Them?

    Sungho Kwon | 방선희 | 2012, 8(2) | pp.53~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    How to use network recourses based on the latest information and communications technology for school education is highly debated nowadays. An integrated environment to use cutting-edge devices with built-in smart functions and a learning environment based on social network communities are forming making smart learning possible away from the existing standardized and uniform education focused on the college entrance exam. This study examines the change in the educational paradigm from smart technologies and discusses the concept of smart learning and how to view it. In addition, it discusses the purpose and characteristics of smart learning, and the kind of standards we should hold and use for it to help develop true learning among students.
  • 5.

    Use of ICT for Open and Distance Learning in KNOU

    LEE TAE RIM | 2012, 8(2) | pp.61~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Korea National Open Universities have been utilized one-way instructional delivery system during the history of distance education from 1972. The isolation of students in their learning is the most important problem to solve in this one-way mode. ICT application like e-Learning or m-Learning is an alternative instructional model that makes available student to have more interaction with their instructor and peer, is more accessibility to multimedia learning resources than the traditional delivery system. On behalf of starting 4 departments online graduate school program e-Learning center had established and 2002, e-Learning hub site “e-Campus” was launched. From December 2008 KNOU kick off the mobile learning system under the MOU with Korean Telephone Company KT. In 2012 KNOU opened the new chapter of Smart Learning using KNOU applet of smart phone. Mobile technologies, like mobile devices and wireless internet services, have the potential to introduce new innovations in the area of education. This paper aims to share experiences from the process of ICT adaptation at KNOU open and distance learning with both national and international perspectives.
  • 6.

    Two Faces of Utilizing Social Media : Exploration on Extensive and Paralytic Aspects as Educational Tool

    DoHun Kim | 2012, 8(2) | pp.85~110 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the educational impacts of social media as an educational tool Particularly, this study explores positive and negative aspects of social media from the perspective of Marshall McLuhan, who understands media as extentions of human as well as paralysis of human. This study used literature analysis method to examine educational impacts of social media. Based on the literature analysis, the study briefly summarizes research trends about educational use of social media in terms of research purpose, method, and context. The main results of this study describe and discuss positive and negative aspects of social media as an educational tool as follows: 1) self-identity formation through social networking activities, 2)impact of social media’s interactivity and multi-tasking on cognitive development, 3) changes in literacy by non-linear reading style and micro writing style, 4) impact of using social media on learning engagement and academic achievement, 5) facilitation and risk factors of educational interactions by using social media. Finally, educational implications and recommendations for future research were discussed.
  • 7.

    Identifying Predicting Power of Metacognition, Perceived Interaction, Presence on Learning Outcomes in Web-Based Collaborative Learning

    Kang, Myunghee | Yoon, Seonghye | Hyunjin Lim and 1other persons | 2012, 8(2) | pp.111~130 | number of Cited : 23
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the learning outcomes of Web-based collaborative learning for generating effective instructional strategies. We chose metacognition, perceived interaction, cognitive and social presence as predictors of learning outcomes based on the previous research. Fifty three college students who enrolled in a Web-based course were participants and hierarchical regression analysis applied to this study. The results show that metacognition and cognitive presence are significant predictors of satisfaction and social presence predicts perceived team achievement significantly. Moreover, cognitive presence mediates metacognition and satisfaction, and social presence mediates perceived interaction and perceived team achievement. These findings have implied that the effective facilitating strategies to enhance the level of metacognition, cognitive presence, social presence and perceived interaction should be implemented when web-based collaborative learning is executed.
  • 8.

    The Application of Content Analysis to Educational Technology in Korea, Based on its Contents and Model

    Younghee Woo | Yangjoo Park | 2012, 8(2) | pp.131~155 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to provide guidelines that help researchers who want to use a content analysis method in their research for comparing and selecting appropriate content analysis models. For this, we selected 32 articles from the entire volumes of the Korean Journal of Educational Technology that use the content analysis as their research methods, and categorized their analyzed contents through the literature review and extended discussion with other researchers. And the analysis models have been compared, analyzed and combined by category. The research findings indicate that the content analysis method was applied to analyze the nature of online learning interaction and various teaching and learning components occuring during the interaction. As has been seen from the 32 articles with 15 different topics, one can assume that the content analysis method can be used to analyse various topics. As for the analysis model, different models have been used to analyze the research contents except for the 14 research papers on interaction types using Henri’s model even though they are dealing with the same topic. Based on the results, the analysis models that were used for each topic have been described. And lastly, future research suggestions have been made for the content analysis model.
  • 9.

    Professionalization of Lifelong Educators in South Korea

    김혜영 | LEE HEE SU | 2012, 8(2) | pp.157~185 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the process of professionalization and the key characteristics of lifelong educators in South Korea. The researcher views professionalization of lifelong educators as the process of interaction with society at large and the professional protocols such as professional associations, professional knowledge and education, qualification systems, and codes of professional ethics with main actors of lifelong education have formed. This critical analysis covers more than 50 years since Korea’s liberation from Japan in 1945. A process of lifelong educators’professionalization was developed by qualification and training systems formation (based on the government’s policy of lifelong education), full-time practice field formation,professional association organization. In conclusion, the fact that much of professionalization of lifelong educators was conducted by the institutionalizing efforts of the national government preconceives the strengthening and the bureaucratization process in the future. In order to ensure genuine professionalization of lifelong educators, the educators themselves must make efforts to attain their independence and autonomy in the process. This, in other words, indicates a need for emphasis on more professional,practical knowledge as well as a firmer code of professional ethics.
  • 10.

    The Study on the Growing Process of the Study Circle Initiated by Highly Educated Women with Career Discontinuity : Transformation from Study Circle to NPO as a Steppingstone for Career Development

    Roh, Kyung-Ran | Sunjoo Hur | 2012, 8(2) | pp.187~214 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explore the growing process of the study circle. Authors clarified the characteristics, conflicts, problems and activation strategies of the study circle and suggested the functional meaning of women-directed study circle differentiating from the basic roles of study circles which are generally discussed in academic as well as practical field. For this study, a qualitative research design was employed with 15 interviewees of highly educated women those who restart to work as a freelance lecturer after participating this study circle. The collected data from the focus group interview were analyzed in the framework of the Grounded theory method as mapped by Strauss and Corbin(1996). Authors newly suggested 10 types of expectations and satisfactions theory as the theory how to activate women-directed study circle. Based on these findings, several suggestions were made in order to activate the women-directed study circle as a steppingstone for career development.
  • 11.

    A Case Study on Education Service for Professional Competency of the Lifelong Educator

    Lee, Hae-Joo | 2012, 8(2) | pp.215~236 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This is a case study which is attempted to reveal the meaning and effects on the education service for professional competency of the lifelong educator. I surveyed 3cases of education service program that were offered in regional campus of KNOU,interviewed volunteers on the processes and feelings of their voluntary activities and analysed results of their voluntary activities in the perspective of competency development of lifelong educator. The result of the study indicates that educational volunteers could get a sense of mission as lifelong educator and could learn many things as lifelong education programmer based on the need of residence and on the circumstances of their region. Therefore it is believed that education service was helpful and necessary experience for the professional competency development of lifelong educator. So I propose that education service program is offered as an obligational or optional courses for the practicum of lifelong education according to the circumstances of lifelong education institutions.