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2006, Vol.2, No.2

  • 1.

    A Comprehensive Approach to Support Interactions in e-learning of Mega Universities

    LIM, CHEOL-IL | Park | 송승훈 | 2006, 2(2) | pp.1~22 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study intended to examine the ways to support interaction in mega university in which the size of students in a class is so large that the transition to e-learning with enough interactions among students and teachers is not easy to be implemented. This study, first, explored the various types of interactions including that of among students and a professor, and discussed the challenge of interactions in terms of the educational perspective as one- way delivery, the practical difficulty of applying interaction, and limits of physical environment such as extremely high ratio of students per a professor. Suggestions were made in a comprehensive approach to increase interactions: first, educational programs should be provided to explore alternative ways to conceptualize education; second, opportunities should be secured to apply the techniques and design strategies to stimulate interactions; finally, Learning Management System can be developed to support interactions systematically among students such as ways to manage team projects.
  • 2.

    Reflection on the Concept of Learning in Learning to Learn

    Shin Ki-Hyun | 2006, 2(2) | pp.23~42 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempted to analyse the concept of learning in ‘learning to learn’ and elicit the research topics for the development of the theoretical framework. Generally speaking, the theory of 'learning to learn' should include the answers on following three questions or components: 1) what is learning to be learned? 2) how people learn to learn? 3) how to help people learn to learn? All three components of ‘learning to learn’ are important for the development of theory, but the first components is the most important. Because the inquiry of the two components must premise the first logically and practically. This study analysed the concept of learning that ‘learning to learn’ researchers have made an assertion what people learn. Their opinion could be divided into four classes; study skills, metacognition and learning strategies, specific learning type, and open type. Lastly, I suggested four topics for constructing of learning as a subject to teach and learn. That is the resolve of general and specific dilemma, the components of learning competence, the aspect of learning development, and the evaluation of learning development.
  • 3.

    Directions of school system reform for realizing the idea of lifelong education

    Yeokak Yun | 2006, 2(2) | pp.43~67 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The school system means a basic institution for schooling. We have been discussing about reforms of it. The necessity of it isn't avoidable due to ever changing circumstances. I think schooling is a part of lifelong education. But the idea of lifelong education has been excluded in a lot of discussions. Under this problematic, this article tried to reinvite the idea of lifelong education and suggested the directions of reform of the school system in terms of this idea. For realizing the idea of lifelong education, reforms of the school system should be directed as follows. - diversify chances participating in high quality education- restructure schooling as a process of lifelong education- diversify patterns of schooling- prepare schooling as a kind of continuing education- redesign evaluation system for coincidence between qualifications and competencies and gradual upgrade of them- redesign schooling including e-learning
  • 4.

    Development Strategy Explore of the Lifelong Learning City

    안우환 | 2006, 2(2) | pp.69~89 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to develop strategies for establishing lifelong learning city in Korea. To these ends, research goals were specified: First, to investigate the current status and problem of lifelong learning city system in korea, Second, to develop strategies for establishing lifelong learning city in Korea. Develop strategies model composed are three layer(individual, region, administration) and three domain(provision of opportunity, support of learning activity, propelling system). The current model proposed that organic operation is guarantees a success of lifelong learning city. To establish foundation of lifelong learning city and to activate the operation of lifelong learning city by the body of a drive, to connect and corporate among local organizations of lifelong learning city. Promote the culture of lifelong learning city and to expand institutions and facilities of lifelong learning city by strengthen professional development of staff and instructor of lifelong learning city institutes, and to promote a movement of developing lifelong learning region or city. Development model of lifelong learning city provide that including multi-levels and multi-domains to understand the complex nature of lifelong learning city in Korea.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Learner Information Standardization Model for Effective Human Resource Management in e-Learning

    JoungYoungRan | Dukhoon Kwak | 2006, 2(2) | pp.81~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was a subsequent one for a model development on learner information standards by Young Ran Joung and Duk Hoon Kwak(2004), aiming at developing a standardization model for corporate human resource management by strengthening information on learner capabilities. The importance in the management of learner’s capability is on the increase in corporate e-learning environments in order to improve organizational performance as well as for effective training of the members. In this regard, corporate e-learning should be acknowledged as a means to develop the members’ capabilities. From the analysis of the previous studies related to this issue, there were found two kinds of capabilities: ‘situation dependent competency’ and ‘situation independent competency.’ The former was dependent on the needs from the organizations or jobs, and the latter was come from the needs of members themselves not depending on circumstances. Thus, it can be said that information on learner capabilities need to be managed through the two approaches by developing a model in which it can be restructured at anytime depending on learner’s circumstances as well as a standardized competency model having little to do with circumstances. Accordingly, this study developed a comprehensive learner information standardization model with two different approaches.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Motives and Barriers of Participation in the Lifelong Education by the Worker's Status

    kimyoungin | Youngjae PARK | 2006, 2(2) | pp.113~136 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the motives and barriers of lifelong education according to socioeconomic status, occupational status, demographic status. The typology of motives was classified into social contact, social stimulation, community service, external expectation, professional advancement, and cognitive interest by Boshier. The typology of barriers was classified into situational barriers, institutional barriers, and dispositional barriers by Cross. Literature review and survey research were conducted to accomplish the purpose of this study. The collected data through the survey were analyzed with SPSS WIN 11.5 program, and x2 test, T-test and one-way ANOVA were employed. The major findings of this study were as follows: There were significant differences in the social contact according to each income, education, company size, occupational position, sex and age, in the social stimulation according to each company size, occupational category, sex and age, in the community service according to each occupational category, occupational position, and age, in the external expectation according to each income and age, in the professional advancement according to each education, occupational type, company size, occupational category, occupational position, and age, in the cognitive interest according to each education, occupational type, company size, occupational position, and age, at the level of p<.05. There were significant differences in the situational barriers according to each education, occupational category, occupational position, and age, in the institutional barriers according to occupational type, in the dispositional barriers according to age, at the level of p<.05.
  • 7.

    Developing Prototypes of the Web Visual Organizer Utilizing Human Visual Intelligence Principles

    Ilju Rha | Ahnna Han | 2006, 2(2) | pp.137~161 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to develop a set of prototypes of the web visual organizer, which enable learners to comprehend the web text better and to understand the web text structure better in the electronic document space. For the theoretical underpinnings of the designing visual organizers for the electronic text, a variety of principles and strategies, techniques were examined. At the same time, the arguments on the human visual intelligence were carefully reviewed. As a result of these reviews, a set of principles on designing web visual organizers were suggested; visual abstraction principle, compatibility principle, and navigatability principle. Based on the developed principles, a set of prototypes were developed. In developing the Prototypes of the Visual Organizer, 1) information representation styles(pictorial or verbal), 2) degree of abstraction(concrete or abstract), 3) visual verbal relationships(visual dominated or verbal dominated), 4) dimension of visual intelligence(interpretation or operation) were used as the identification dimensions of the potential prototypes. Among the possible combinations of the protypes, 5 typical and viable combinations were actually developed as protypes of the web visual organizer. The results of this study seemed to demonstrate the positive potential of new style visual organizers in designing electronic text. By reflecting human visual intelligence principles, structural attributes, text structures, and the information of location, form and length of the web text were provided in the concrete visual form, in other words, in the visual organizer. The visual organizers seemed to provide vital information to the learners in e-learning situation. The research discusses the potentials of the visual organizers and the new research areas. Four specific recommendations for future research were suggested.
  • 8.

    A Study on Developing Qualitative Evaluation Criteria for Elderly Generation's Digital Literacy Program

    Yoo Sang Mi | KIM, MI RYANG | 2006, 2(2) | pp.163~195 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    No other change in Korea has offered greater challenges and opportunities than the emergence of the Internet and its related Information Technology. Information is expanding at an unprecedented rate, and enormously rapid strides are being made in the technology for accessing the ever growing wave of information. But the lack of motivation for life-long learning gives the elderly generation the problem of digital literacy or ICT literacy. In order to improve the digital and ICT skill of disadvantaged elderly generation, government plans to draw up a huge budget. The purpose of this paper is to develop a set of qualitative evaluation criteria for elderly generation's digital literacy program, and test it in the exemplary program. A questionnaire with 36 items, concerning Reduction in Internet Stress, Self-Efficacy, Improvement in Internet Skill, Intention for ICT Use, etc., were developed. Each participant in the exemplary program was asked to fill the questionnaire out three times, at the beginning of the program, at the end of the program, and four weeks after the program was over. It was hypothesized that the post-program results would be better than corresponding preprogram factor scores, and that no significant difference exist between the post-program scores and the corresponding factor scores obtained four weeks after the training program was over. Comparing with the nonparticipant group, it was hypothesized that the participant group's score is higher than the non-participant group's score in all constructs developed for evaluation. Total 109 samples from the participant group and 111 samples from non-participant group were used for statistical analysis. We showed that the hypothesized model was largely supported by the sample data, and provided some useful guidelines for promoting digital literacy for elderly generation.
  • 9.

    A study on the French National Centre for Distance Learning the CNED(Centre National d'Enseignement à Distance)

    구신자 | 2006, 2(2) | pp.197~232 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The background, the status and the system on the distance learning and lifelong learning in European countries are not yet well known in Korea. Then, this article studies the system and the operation of the French National Centre for Distance Learning CNED (Centre National d'Enseignement a Distance)" as a part of studies, hopefully, to be vigorously continued on their systems and operations in the future. The reason why the CNED is selected as the object of research in this article is that it is the leading operator in Europe and in the French-speaking world as well. This study consists of 4 main parts. First, there will be a brief introduction on the status of distance learning in France and a short glance of its 67 year-long history. In the second place, this article deals with the whole educational levels and the programmes provided by the CNED. Third part will be the research on the educational materials and methodologies which are currently being used at the CNED. In the fourth place, the study will focus on the function and the role of the Eifad (l'ecole d'ingenierie de la formation a distance) which is one of the main attached institutions to the CNED. Lastly, the article suggests several implications and propositions through the study on the CNED.
  • 10.

    Effectiveness of blended tutoring in a Mega Distance University : A Case for Korea National Open University

    유효순 | 2006, 2(2) | pp.233~244 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, tutoring has been considered a key point in enhancing learnersupport within the distance education system. Korea National Open University(KNOU) launched a new tutoring system in 2005 blended tutoring for freshmen, to help their adjustment and learning and to promote educational quality in a distance learning system. The purpose of this study was to find the tutees' satisfaction with the blended tutorial and the effectiveness of the blended tutoring system. 1785 participants' grades in their courses, in which they had tutorials and the information about the participants registration for the second semester were collected. 288 tutoring attenders' responses to a questionnaire were also collected. Means, Chi-square, and T-tests were run using SPSS. The results showed that the blended tutoring system was a significantly effective method and was satisfactory to the tutoring attenders. The blended tutoring contributed significantly to the tutoring attenders' course grades and to their registration in their second semester. Based on the results, I discussed several points for further study to better run a blended tutoring system at mega distance universities.
  • 11.

    How to Overcome Social Barriers for an Up-credited Open University?

    Kyongson Kang | 2006, 2(2) | pp.245~257 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The prototype of open university is basically a lifelong learning institution which addresses the needs, aspirations of higher education of maximum possible number of people. Open university is definitely a futuristic model of university in the 21st century. Korea National Open University (KNOU) was opened in 1972 with a mission to achieve the goal of lifelong learning of those people who somehow could not join regular universities. Since the beginning, it has made significant contribution in catering to the people's aspirations for higher learning in the country. However, it still remains far from its final goal because of many social barriers such as discriminatory treatment with the open university students due to deep-rooted prejudice, which originally emanates from a gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots'. KNOU and its students have to experience discrimination in allocating financial subsidies, provision related to fund raising for research promotion, legislations and administration related to students and so on. Not only private corporations but government also is responsible for these discriminations. Sometimes discrimination is done unknowingly but sometimes it is also intentional too. Without removing these unjust and unequal barriers, the future of distance and lifelong education cannot be bright. So, it is the need of hour that we cooperate, hand in hand, to be faithful to the liberal and social principle of the constitutional law on the national level, and to go further making an international consensus in legal form about the importance of distance and lifelong education, and pave a way for the open and learning society through better education.