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2007, Vol.3, No.2

  • 1.

    M-Learning : Its Concepts and Implications for the Future of Education in Lifelong Learning Society

    Leem, Jung-Hoon | 2007, 3(2) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Mobile technologies, like mobile devices and wireless internet services, have the potential to introduce new innovations in the areas of education. m-learning, a new form of education using mobile internet systems and handheld devices, can offer students and teachers the opportunity to interact with and gain access to educational materials, independent of time and space. The purpose of this study was to define the definition of m-learning and to suggest the implications of m-learning for the future of education in lifelong learning society. In this study, m-learning was defined in three ways: technical perspective, educational perspective, and extensive perspective. Under extensive perspective, for example, m-learning was defined as "a prior step to proceed toward ubiquitous learning, and a learning system which facilitates a meaningful learning experience and supports interactive activity and self-directed learning at any time or at any place by means of mobile internet and mobile devices such as Tablet PC, PDA, or handheld phone." In addition, the concepts of m-learning and u-learning were discussed in terms of mobility and ubiquity. Finally, this study suggested some considerable suggestions for preparing the future of education based on ubiquitous learning.
  • 2.

    An Historical Review on the Making of the Student Assessment System of Open University : The Cases of KNOU and UKOU

    남신동 | Shin Chun Ho | 2007, 3(2) | pp.27~53 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the student assessment system of the Korea National Open University(KNOU) and Open University of United Kingdom(OUUK) in the special aspect of its historical origin and development. As an new model of the higher education, ‘open university’ had been appeared itself in the early 1970s. KNOU and UKOU, both of which now have about 200,000 students, have made a significant contribution to the widening of the higher education in each country. As an open university, which has very different nature from the ordinary traditional university, KNOU and UKOU had an important challenge from its beginning, that is, to harmonize or equipoise two core norms, i.e., the ‘openness’ and the ‘universitiness’. As the idea of ‘openness’ was regarded as the incompatible one with the idea of ‘universitiness’ implied in the idea of the traditional university, so the ‘universitiness’ couldn't be harmonized with the idea of ‘university for everyone’. These two core ‘norms’, which constitute the identity of the open university, had sharply and furiously conflicted at the foundation period of UKOU. In the case of KNOU, there was not such an apparent conflict at its beginning. But the analysis of making of assessment system of it shows that these norms have actively worked too. In this study, the qualities of the student assessment policy of the KNOU and UKOU were compared and analyzed from the respect of its historical origin and development. In the context of open and mega-university as KNOU and UKOU, student assessment policy has actually the most important role in the quality management and enhancement. The current qualities of two universities can be more fully understood when they are regarded as the result of the university's struggle with the above challenge.
  • 3.

    The Context of Implementing National Human Resources Development in Korea

    Ilju Rha | Byun, Hyunjung | 2007, 3(2) | pp.55~74 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In knowledge society where creation of knowledge is regarded as the core of nation's wealth and competitiveness, the governments around the world have started to use the term 'human resources' in their ministries or departments as a part of making an efforts to develop human resources. Although many nations share the word 'human resources,' the way of interpretation or application of it is diverse depending on their situations. The government in Korea has shown the interest on human resources development in national level, by promoting the Minister of Education to the Deputy Minister of Education and Human Resources, and by the President taking the seat of the head in Committee for National Human Resources. Although innovative efforts for national human resources development have been found since 2000, it is difficult to say that this efforts recently begun. Korea achieved dramatic economic growth for last 50 years. The reason of this growth was found in education for developing human resources. In this context, this study is to investigate conceptually the social context of implementing process in National Human Resources Development(NHRD). This study consists of four parts: the theoretical backgrounds, policy development process of NHRD, institutional development process of NHRD, and future directions for NHRD. The research method is focused on documents and literature review. The main points of each part are as follows. First, human capital theory, education and economic development, performance technology, and competency theory were reviewed. Three theories, except education and economic development, were originally used to explain human resources development in personal or corporate level. However, all four theories were expanded to interpret human resources development from personal or corporate level to the national level. Second, the National Human Resources Development in Korea was supported by educational policy to supply labors to meet the industrial needs for last 50 years. As the national industry was developed from labor oriented light industry, capital intensive heavy industry, technology intensive high tech industry to knowledge based industry, educational policies were also changed from literacy education, skill or technology focused education, the quantitative growth of higher education to qualitative higher education accordingly. Third, NHRD became the important issue in Korea and the institutional development in NHRD has got down to business since 2000. The human resources law and polices were established, the special committee was organized and the president became the head of the committee. Finally, the future directions for NHRD were suggested considering the needs of the present and future times. Firtst, NHRD policies should focus on developing human resources fitting for global standards. Second, the investment in research manpower by supporting research organizations or higher education institutions need to be considered. Third, the government need to minimize the intervention and to focus on marketization.
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  • 5.

    Reviewing the Research Agenda for Asian Open and Distance Lifelong Learning

    Colin Latchem | 2007, 3(2) | pp.93~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper asks the question ‘Why should we carry out research into Asian open and distance lifelong learning?’ For the purposes of professional advancement? To improve understanding and practice? To assure and improve quality? To inform and influence policy-makers and decision-makers? Or to ensure that open and distance lifelong learning are regarded as scholarly activities in their own right? It is argued that managers and practitioners should engage in such research for all of these reasons. It also argued that such research needs to be far more robust in its investigations, findings and conclusions and that the aim should be to achieve a higher profile for Asian research in the international literature.
  • 6.

    Designing Study TIME and Online Interaction : Mapping Tools FOR Practitioners

    Mary Thorpe | 2007, 3(2) | pp.119~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ELearning has the potential to support learning through the use of audio and visual media and an increasing range of tools and software. However research and evaluation of these technologies in use is required in order to ensure that the intended benefits are actually being delivered. The results of research at the Open University UK are presented and reveal that students experience workload challenges that can be addressed by making improvements to the design of courses. Study workload is also an issue in relation to students’ use of online forums and improvements to the design of activities online can lead to improved student participation. The aim of this paper is to discuss the way in which practice can be improved by using tools that help practitioners design the study time of their courses and the online conferencing activities that students are required to do.
  • 7.

    Bridging Pedagogy and Technology in Asian Distance Education

    Jon Baggaley | 2007, 3(2) | pp.137~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The academic reputation of distance education (DE) has traditionally suffered from the use of inefficient one‐way communication styles. Numerous new technologies have been developed to overcome this problem. Primarily Internet‐based, these range from text‐conferencing and ‘blogging’ to real‐time audio/video‐conferencing. Traditional academics still tend to regard DE as a poor secondary option for students, however, and many of their criticisms remain justified, for many technologies are inaccessible to the students and their pedagogical uses are inconsistent. To this day, the pedagogy and technologies of DE are imperfectly bridged. The present paper will describe the pedagogical implications of traditional and new technologies and the prospects for an uniquely Asian DE approach.
  • 8.

    Students' Perceptions of Workload in Distance Education : a Study from Indira Gandhi National Open University

    Asho K Gaba | P.R.Ramanujum | 2007, 3(2) | pp.151~170 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One of the components constituting quality of open and distance learning programmes is planning of self‐learning printed material (SLPM) content load itself. Content load determines students’ workload. The present paper aims to measure students’ workload in selected nine programmes of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), India. Feedback on the workload and other related an aspect of the course material was obtained from 319 respondents with the help of structured questionnaire. The data collected from the students were analysed using SPSS package. Findings from the study provided an understanding of the students’ time spent on different courses of their respective programmes. While majority of the respondents were satisfied with the language, quality of printing, content and structure of the courses, the time spent studying them varied from course to course. In some courses, respondents spent more time than required. This paper has been based on the feedback and suggestions from the students of nine programmes, which we hope, will help the faculty in deciding on the credits of a particular programme or a course at the time of developing new courses and also while revising them.