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2015, Vol.11, No.2

  • 1.

    The Effects of Learning-related Networks and Trust Perceived by Adult Learner on Learning Flow

    Dae-Bong Kwon | HYUN YOUNGSUP | 2015, 11(2) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adult learners’ learning-related networks and trust on lifelong learning flow. To achieve this purpose, a research model which contained networks and trust as independent variables, and learning flow as dependant variable based on the literature reviews. And 5 individual characteristics(sex, age, academic background, family income per a month, and scale of living area) were also contained as control variables. Data were collected from 326 adults who were selected from a panel set managed by a Korean survey company. The sample size of the panel set was one million Korean persons. To test a research model, hierarchial regression analysis was performed. The results were summarized as follow: First, all correlational coefficients among independent and dependent variables were statistically significant. Second, income per a month had positive effects on learning flow consistently. Third, networks showed positive effects on learning flow. Forth, trust also showed positive effects on learning flow. The implications as well as the limitations of this study were drawn from the results and discussed.
  • 2.

    From Competence-based to Capability Approach to College Education

    Sungsang Yoo | Jae-Jun Lee | 남유진 | 2015, 11(2) | pp.21~52 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at critically analyzing college education not to have promoted students' intellectual citizenship by which each student conducts self-reflection through learning while social requests are strong of universities to meet the industrial needs. Competence-based education that emerged by criticizing public education not to timely adopt social changes is to be highly problematized at colleges and the capability approaches to college education is suggested as an alternative way for the purpose. In short, college education has a clear limitation of education till it needs to be assessed by its match to vocational world. As for the concept of competence, its definition remains unclear and distant to the discourse on the process of teaching and learning. In addition, it has been criticized to passively respond to the external needs, to exclude the value of diversity and public good, and to manipulate every aspect of teaching and learning at college in association with economic interests. Then, the study would like to propose the capability approach as an alternative to college education, which has been theorized by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. It emphasizes an active attitude of learners to learning, a rational decision making based upon individual's choice for one's future, and re-direction of college education to just societal citizenship. By the capability approach to college education, college students as learners are able to understand the circumstance around themselves, to contextualize their learning in relation to vocation and career, and to reflect their interests with respect to public good, which should be mainly focused in college education.
  • 3.

    A Case Study on Recognition of Prior Learning in Secondary Education Sector: Open Middle & High Schools

    손찬희 | 2015, 11(2) | pp.53~80 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study takes an in-depth look at the recognition of prior learning(RPL) at the online middle & high schools(OMHS) - which is considered the very first institutionalized RPL in the secondary education level in Kore - with a case study research method. It aims to comprehensively reflect on the achievements and challenges in terms of the practices of RPL in OMHS and propose the future directions for reinforcing and invigorating the practices of RPL in the overall secondary education sector as well as OMHS. For this case study, a variety of materials related to the practices of RPL in OMHS were collected and analyzed. As a results, this study provides a comprehensive set of information on the RPL in OMHS in terms of background for RPL introduction, legal foundations, areas of prior learning recognized, recognition standards, evaluation system and procedures, etc. The results suggest that the achievements of RPL in OMHS include: improved assess to secondary education, establishment of evaluation system and procedures, and enhanced possibilities for connecting RPL with career search and vocational education. This study ends by suggesting both problems and possible solutions for improved practices of RPL, which include: improving perceptions of stakeholders in the schools and environments for practices of RPL, discovering possible areas of prior learning worth recognizing, and divergent approached to institutionalizing RPL.
  • 4.

    A Critics on National Lifelong Learning Survey for Individual Learners: Issues and Moving forward

    Park, Sung-ho | Kim, Jinhee | Ju Sung Jun | 2015, 11(2) | pp.81~107 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze current issues and limitation of National Lifelong Learning Survey for individual learners in Korea. To identify its issues and improve survey scheme and items, researchers analyzed it with four distinctive dimension; survey goal, survey target group, survey content and survey method. This study employed literature review, Focus Group Interview method and Content Validity Ratio method. Major findings showed that there is high demands on clarification of concept of lifelong learning, criteria of lifelong learning survey and standardization of survey contents to increase its credibility of national lifelong education statistic information. Second, it is essential to conduct comprehensive survey on lifelong learning in national level, which could include one’s holistic life span. Third, current lifelong learning survey on individual learners should expand sampling target and its scale in order to identify regional context. Fourth, to produce highly reliable lifelong learning statistics, current lifelong learning survey scheme should be re-constructed setting limits to survey areas.
  • 5.

    Study on the Strategy for Multicultural Education through Needs Analysis

    Lee, Hae-Joo | 2015, 11(2) | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Many social problems that happen at a multicultural society are no longer the problems of foreign countries only. It is already happening in the Korean society. The problems related to adaptation of immigrants, and their human rights, difficulties of educating their children, and the social conflicts between inhabitants and immigrants are becoming more and more severe. To prevent these problems and with an aim of developing a good multicultural society, government has been pouring various policies and funds for educating immigrants and their children. However, there exist various critics on such government policies and also on the process of multicultural education. We need to review the current situation and problems of multicultural education to cope with such problems in a better and more efficient way. For this study purpose, I reviewed the papers that have been published to discuss multicultural education of Korea and surveyed 60 institutions that are providing multicultural education programs, including, for example, after school programs, the center for multicultural education and the lifelong learning centers, in several districts. With the help of researchers at the KNOU adult educator association, I also interviewed the learners, educators and other participants related to multicultural education and asked what are the difficulties and the needs for them in their participation in multicultural education. Based on such data and interview, I suggest in this paper new strategies for multicultural education. The main points of this paper are as follows: we need develop programs and contents that (i) reflect different cultures of immigrants, rather than forcing them to learn Korean traditional culture, (ii) are offered and provided by the immigrants for the immigrants from their perspectives of living in the Korean society, (iii) should be provided in the form of a lifelong education in which both inhabitants and immigrants can participate and learn together, (iv) reflect gender equality perspectives so that the spouses, and in-law mothers of male immigrants may change their sex stereotype schema, and (v) would be taught to the adult educators in the multicultural citizenship education so that the ability and sensibility for multicultural education can be developed and enhanced.
  • 6.

    Current Issues and Future Directions in Lifelong Education for Immigrant Learners: Focusing on a case of Chinese of Korean descent in Korea

    이로미 | Seori Choi | 2015, 11(2) | pp.133~160 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes the current state and problems of education and learning of Chinese of Korean descent in Korea and explores the implications for the future directions of lifelong education policy in Korea which experiences an increasing influx of (im)migrants. Korean policymakers and scholars in the field of lifelong education have paid considerable attention to the learning of migrant women who have married to Korean men and settled in Korea. Meanwhile, Chinese of Korean descent have been hardly recognized as legitimate recipients of lifelong education in Korea even though their stay tends to be prolonged. This study shows that most of the Korean Chinese residents are marginalized in the areas of education and learning and their access for quality education is often limited. In this circumstance, the country encounters difficulties in fostering excellence and social cohesion through lifelong education. Considering the increasing influx of migrants and their transnational living arrangements, this paper suggests Korean policymakers and scholars develop a new framework for lifelong education that accommodate everyone in the society, including (im)migrants. A special emphasis should be placed on the vocational education of long-term migrants such as the Korean Chinese residents in order for the country to achieve social cohesion through lifelong education. To do so, the appropriate roles of the government, civil society and educational market should be defined and practiced.
  • 7.

    (A) Phenomenological Study of Learning Experiences of Married Women with Interrupted Careers at University Lifelong Education Center

    Moon, Jiyeon | LEE SANG-O | 2015, 11(2) | pp.161~188 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explore lifelong learning experiences of married women with interrupted careers who had participated in lifelong learning programs by applying phenomenological approach. Especially, the grasp of semantic structure while participants joined lifelong education programs would determine the learning outcomes in accordance with diverse dimensions. There were three findings. The learning motivation and objectives of married women with interrupted careers were divided into result-oriented, learning-oriented, and relationship-oriented. The participants also indicated imitation learning about the role of instructors, cooperative learning with peer learners, transition learning from the experience of career interruption, and liberating learning for releasing from the stress of child-care during lifelong learning program participation. Furthermore, significant consequences were derived from improving the ability for capable career woman, continuing social network with peer learners, advancing into a new field, and recovering self-efficacy.
  • 8.

    The Learning Process Research of the Practice Learning Community: The Talent Contribution Study Circle

    Kim Young Ok | 2015, 11(2) | pp.189~213 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The main goal of this study is focused on the learning culture appearing in the process where learning the talent contribution study circle having the practice learning community. To achieve the purpose of this study, qualitative case study was formed of the participant observation and the interview of 5 delegates. They are practicing the talent donative activity, and learn the talent contributing study circle. As a result the members of study circle who contributed their talent showed the committed attitude of trying to get any opportunity for learning and of practicing immediately anything they have learned, of uniting knowledge and conduct about practical learning culture. They have formed learning culture as win-win community learning. Besides, the progression of many type of different learning project improved the learning power of study circle and execution, and created a its base for the community of practice learning.
  • 9.

    A Narrative Study on Transformational Life of 2 Fifties Women:Living the second life as a laughter coach

    Hwang, Younjoo | LEE HEE SU | 2015, 11(2) | pp.215~243 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed what caused two middle-age women who started newly a life as a laughter coach in their life to lead transformational lives, with a focus on their perspective transformation and middle adulthood development. The method of this study was used the narrative study which is the story to refer to voices of specific situations (specially disoriented dilemma & career transition) and to long-term life events. It was found that they all had transformational events in their lives and experienced perspective transformation through disoriented dilemma. And we could see the process of career transition driven by the transformation of meaning perspective. The results of this study are as follows. First, the transformation of meaning perspective was arose the course of overcoming the disoriented dilemma by self-reflection, rational discourse, individualization. Second, it brought a self-awareness and shift of a view of the e world. And then, those of change led lifespan development and authentic transformational life. Third, as the laughter coach reached a turning point in the middle-ages, they experienced moral development which is result from the virtue of care and successful transition period for the next life structure. Overall, the career transition process in the life of a middle-aged woman is the adulthood development through transformative learning. These findings, based on a study of the transformative learning with the women’s lifespan development should be further extended.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Adult Learner's Reflective Learning on Psychological Well-Being: Mediating Effect of Learner Characteristics and Learning Flow

    Miok Choi | Ah-Jeong Hong | 2015, 11(2) | pp.245~274 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    Based on the perspective that learning brings happiness, this study was to examine the impact of the adult learners’ reflective learning on their psychological well-being and verify the mediating effect of characteristics of adult learner and learning flow between reflective learning and psychological well-being. Questionnaire survey was carried out on 510 adult learners who were attending various learning institutions. The following is the findings of the study: Adult learners’ reflective learning was positively correlated with all the variables, which were all statistically significant. On the contrary, non-reflective learning was negatively correlated in general. It was confirmed that reflective learning had direct positive impact on psychological well-being and learner characteristics and learning flow had a mediating effect between reflective learning and psychological well-being. Based on the findings, this study suggests that reflective learning should be accomplished through a variety of lifelong educational programs to improve adult learners’ happiness and psychological well-being. Also, educational institutions and educators should provide proper learning environment based on adult learners’ characteristics and needs that will make them more engage in their learning and ultimately make them happy.
  • 11.

    Mediating Effect of Perceived Interaction on the Predictability of Self-Regulated Learning and Teaching Presence on Google Plus-based Project Learning Outcomes

    Kang, Myunghee | Seyoung Kim | 강주현 | 2015, 11(2) | pp.275~302 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of Google plus as a platform for project-based learning in higher education, and to identify critical factors that influence its outcome. We chose self-regulated learning, teaching presence, and perceived interaction as possible predictors of the learning outcome. 59 undergraduate students were divided into 19 groups and worked in a team project using Google Plus for 8 weeks. The participants’ self-regulated learning, teaching presence, and perceived interaction were measured throughout the project via survey, and the final work submitted were graded. The data was analyzed using a multiple regression analysis. The major results of the study are as follows: first, perceived interaction predicts the success of learning outcome significantly. In addition, it was identified that self-regulated learning and teaching presence had an indirect effect in predicting student learning based on the perceived interaction as a medium. Based on the result, the study recommends the need among instructional designers to further develop strategy around facilitating an active level of interaction among team members using virtual platform such as Google Plus for learning.
  • 12.

    Lifelong Learning Policies and Higher Education in Europe and Spain

    Inés Gil-Jaurena | 2015, 11(2) | pp.303~338 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper describes and analyzes the set of increasing policies related to lifelong learning in Europe and Spain in the last 20 years. Lifelong learning and related concepts ― lifelong education, formal-non formal-informal learning, etc. ― are discussed to clarify and con- textualize their use. The contribution of higher education to lifelong learning is specially mentioned. The paper provides an overview of the European strategies and programmes, acknowledging Europe 2020 strategy and its Education and Training 2020 strategy and the Lifelong Learning Programme (2007-2013) and its successor, Erasmus+(2014-2020). Spanish policies and conceptions about lifelong learning are pointed out. The case of UNED and its continuing education activities is described. Special mention is devoted to initiatives about open education, framed within lifelong learning actions. Final section remarks some challenges and future steps, such as recognition and accreditation of non-formal, informal and open learning or integration of open education initiatives.
  • 13.

    A Spiritual Transition from ‘Rentership’ to ‘Stewardship’: A Qualitative Case Study on the Staff Development at a Worker Center in L.A.

    MIN HO KIM | 2015, 11(2) | pp.339~372 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Worker centers are community-based mediating institutions that service, organize, and advocate for low-wage workers, and they are empowering low-wage immigrant workers. They have been increasing since the late 1980s in the U.S. ‘K’ worker center was established in L.A.’s Koreatown in 1992, and realized social justice there. However, there are few studies on how the worker center staff members were recruited and trained. This study aimed to understand the meaning of becoming staff in ‘K’ worker center, and the role of situated learning in the process of becoming staff. Participant observations, deep interviews and document analyses had been done from Oct. 2012 to July 2013. As results, those who had ‘love for people’ were selected as new staff, new staff became full participants through situated learning in ‘K’ worker center, and new staff developed their spiritual identities from ‘rentership’ through ‘ownership’ to ‘stewardship.’ Becoming staff in ‘K’ worker center means to develop their spirit of relationship. This study has theoretical and practical implications for training of social movement leaders.
  • 14.

    The Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Metacognitive Strategy Use and Language Achievement in Distance Education Setting in China

    XU Wei | 2015, 11(2) | pp.373~396 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Metacognitive strategy training plays a significance role in cultivating learners’ self management ability, with the guidance to select appropriate learning strategies, make plans, self-monitor their progress, evaluate their performances and future learning directions. So far, there are lots of studies on metacognitive strategies training, but few of them focus on the empirical study with distance learners as research subjects. Therefore,it is worthwhile drawing extensive attention in distance education setting of China that how to transfer appropriate learning strategy into distance English education and improve the learning effect accordingly. The research therefore aims to make a correlational study on metacognitive strategy training with the improvement of metacognitive strategy use and language achievement in distance education. The research lasts for a whole semester from September to December, 2013, including both quantitative and qualitative study. Major findings in the study are as follows. There is positive correlation between metacognitive strategy training and distance learners’ metacognitive strategy proficiency, which can enhance learners’ use of metacognitive strategy. Furthermore, metacognitive strategy training could contribute to the improvement of learners’ language proficiency.