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2015, Vol.11, No.4

  • 1.

    Lifelong Learning in Higher Education in Korea

    Chae, Jae-Eun | Han, Soonghee | 2015, 11(4) | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 33
    Abstract PDF
    As the number of college students has decreased, lifelong learning has attracted the attention of policy makers as a key driver of higher education reform. In this context, this study aims to analyze the development process of lifelong learning in higher education of Korea from a historical perspective. The findings of this study reveal that both student quota policies to regulate the supply of higher education as well as sociocultural factors (i.e., strong educational aspiration and credentialism) have contributed to the expansion of demand for higher education. The unmet demand has led to the expansion of potential demand for lifelong learning in higher education in 1990s. In response, the 1995. 5. 31 Education Reform introduced various policies that would increase the opportunities of higher education for mature students. The policies on credit bank system, part-time enrollment and cyber university altogether have partly met the demand of mature students for higher education. However, currently those policies have been regarded as a marginal success. It is because higher education is still considered not as a continuum of lifelong education in Korea, but as a completion of formal education. As a way of addressing this problem, the Korean government should reform higher education from a lifelong learning perspective and thus make higher education available for all, regardless of age. It should also make university education more diverse and flexible to accommodate various needs of mature students.
  • 2.

    Trend Analysis of Learning Network in Korea

    KIM, YOUNG HWAN | KANG DOO BONG | Jeong Juhun | 2015, 11(4) | pp.25~48 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the trend of learning networks and provide the basic data in order to set the direction and research subjects for the future learning network. 115 academic articles on learning networks published by domestic journals from 1996 to 2015 April were analyzed. The current status was developed from analysis by year and journal, the content analysis was conducted with research methodology, scope, target, and network type. Also, the network texts between index terms and abstracts were analyzed through frequency analysis. From the current analysis, it was shown that researches on learning network have been steadily increased, the publications have been produced mainly in the field of adult lifelong education and education technology education media journals. As a result of the content analysis, survey research and case study had the highest rate of usage in methodology. In order of frequency, the scope of research were school, virtual space, community, and the objects were human resources, cyber network, local resources accordingly. The most types were appeared as offline and online from the outcome of network type analysis. As the result of network text analysis, the most frequent word was ‘Network’, followed by ‘Social network service (SNS)’, ‘Lifelong education’, ‘Online’, ‘Learning network’, and ‘Social connection’. This result leads the suggestions that the discussion on elementary middle school education and non-formal informal education is needed, the theoretical research on literature review and concept establishment is required, the individual level researches in education psychology or sociology of education have to be conducted, and various researches and policies on blended education combining of non-formal informal education and formal education are necessary for the proper connect.
  • 3.

    Self-reflection experienced when “Being alone” and Care for the self as a Spiritual Action

    이정희 | Euna Yang | 2015, 11(4) | pp.49~81 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study has examined the trajectory of introspection and transformation experienced in three dimensions of human mind-intellectual, emotional, and spiritual dimensions ― when focusing on transformation of self-understanding, through the context of “being alone” which has been scarcely noted as a learning context. This study, for which in-depth interviews with seven informants had been used, is divided into four parts. First, the context in which entry into “being alone/aloneness” as a variation of daily life takes place and methods which mediate the entry have been reviewed. Second, the appearance and levels of internal change shown in the process of detaching from daily method of existing and contextualizing “being alone / aloneness” have been examined. Third, meaning of “self-reflection” which is experienced during compact reflective time of “being alone” and the layer of dense friendly relations with self has been analyzed. Lastly, a bridge towards spiritual dimension and the process of reflection and transformation in it has been traced. As a result of the examination, it has been revealed that “being alone” with the process of self-reflection triggered expansion of subjective frame which limits existence through restricting ‘my’ knowledge, thinking, value, or emotion; and caused enlargement of relationship and horizon on which one’s own problem is placed. In other words, one learns oneself in a new way. Through this, the ultimate questions, which cannot be solved in the frame of self-awareness, become self-transcendent: not confining oneself to one’s own desire or narrow awareness, but attempting to connect oneself to a bigger world than him/her or a higher existence who can objectify him/her. Existence expanded through spiritual communion concerns overall view of life beyond one aspect of reality and actualizes his/her ability to reflect on him/herself in view of inherent and transcendental world.
  • 4.

    Meanings Inquiry Contained in the Practical Knowledge of One Teacher: Teacher L’s Story of Education

    Youngbeom Oh | Jung,Young-Ae | 2015, 11(4) | pp.83~113 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to investigate meanings of practical knowledge through teacher L’s story. For this, the researcher conducted participant observation, content analysis of dialogue with teacher L, and analysis of teacher L’s blog. The researcher also wrote reflective diaries. Data was analyzed using 3steps; transcription, coding, and theme finding. Researchers deduced meanings through transcription, coding, and theme finding using ‘PARANGSAE 1.0’ which is a CAQDAS(Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software). The meanings contained in teacher L’s practical knowledge consist of 4 results, ① learning and caring through a double role as a teacher and a father, ② class commu- nity-making ‘learning together’ through destroying the wall, ③ 3 dimensions of educational practice: educational reconstitution, thorough planning, and human․ material resources, ④ practical knowledge development and reflection through teachers’ learning community. Teacher L’s practical knowledge results were combined contextually with teacher’s value and belief, teacher’s experience based on theoretical knowledge and reflective thinking. Based on this, researchers suggested way in which to direct teacher education through practical knowledge.
  • 5.

    The Impact of Learning Communities on Academic Self-Efficacy, Self-Directed Learning, Communication, and Cooperation Abilities

    Park Sung Hee | 2015, 11(4) | pp.115~136 | number of Cited : 47
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore the impact of learning communities focusing on academic self-efficacy, self-directed learning, communication, and cooperation abilities. Two hundred thirty-one university students participated in the study. Specifically, one hundred nineteen among them participated in learning communi- ties at the center for teaching and learning for nine weeks while the others were are not in the group as a control group. Pre-post surveys with 73 items were conducted regarding academic self-efficacy (26 items), self-directed learning (35 items), communication (7 items), and coopera- tion abilities (5 items). To analyze the data statistically, ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariate) was used. As results, university students in the learning community showed significant difference in the areas of self-efficacy, self-directed learning, and cooperation abilities. In other words, university students in the learning communities improved their self-efficacy, self-directed learning, and cooperation abilities more than those who were in the control group. Furthermore, suggestion and ideas for the further studies were discussed.
  • 6.

    Analysis of Adult Learners’ Lifelong Education Participation Opportunity Gap in Busan

    조정은 | Yun, Myung Hee | 2015, 11(4) | pp.137~163 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find methods to allocate the fair opportunities by exploring and analyzing lifelong education opportunity gaps of adult learners in Busan. In order to achieve this goal, a questionnaire was developed by studying previous researches and references, and 400 questionnaires were distributed to adult learners by quota sampling methods. 351 out of 400 were collected and analyzed. The collected data were computed by SPSS program. The frequency distribution, Cronbach’s α, t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were analyzed the opportunity gap of lifelong education according to individual background, such as gender, age, education, region, and earning. As a result of analyzing lifelong education participation opportunity gap, the opportunity gap was occurred in terms of age, gender, education, region and earning. In other words, male adults consider that it is more difficult for them to get opportunities of lifelong education than female adults. Also, people in twenties, fifties and sixties consider the opportunity of lifelong education less compared with people in thirties and forties. People with high school diploma or below consider themselves as having less opportunities of the lifelong education than those with college or advanced degrees. Residents in western Busan have hard time in obtaining access to lifelong education than the counterpart in eastern Busan owing to lack of institution or facilities. And lower-income group considers that it is more difficult for them to have the opportunity of lifelong education than higher-income group. This study is expected to be used as the basic materials to measure lifelong education participation opportunity gap among adult learners and to provide fair educational opportunities for alienated adult learners.
  • 7.

    Meta-analysis of the relationship between motivation and satisfaction of adult lifelong learner

    lee seok jin | 이승진 | 2015, 11(4) | pp.165~193 | number of Cited : 30
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to identify the association between the learning motivation and learning satisfaction of adult learners and related variables through systhesizing quantitatively the master’s theses, doctoral dissertation and journal papers in korea. The following hypothesis of study are established. How is grand correlation effect size of the association between the learning motivation and learning satisfaction? How is overall correlation effect size of the association for variable; learning motivation(goal orientation, learning orientation and activity orientation) and learning satisfaction(educational outcomes, curriculum, educational content, learning environment). This study was carried out a meta-analysis using the correlation effect size. After reviewing thesis and dissertations were published between 2005 and 2014, The 449 correlation effect size from 38 studies were selected and analyzed the correlation effect size by using CMA 3.0(Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3) The major findings of this study were as follows: First, most correlation effect size showed a positive correlation of the size of the effect size 404, only 43 effect sizes showed a negative correlation. Lifelong Learning Motivation factors showed a 28%(Zr=.274, CI=.258∼.289) increase to the educational satisfaction. Target orientation 24%(Zr=.235, CI:.203∼.267), learning orientation 34%(Zr=.331, CI:.302∼.360) and the activity orientation 25%(Zr=.247, CI:.218∼.276) were found to increase by learning satisfaction. Given motivation of the learner through the study show that a significant impact on the learning satisfaction.