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pISSN : 1738-0057 / eISSN : 2671-8332

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2016, Vol.12, No.1

  • 1.

    The Universalization of Higher Education and Its Systemic Complexity: The Chemical Transformation to Higher Lifelong Learning Complex System

    Han Soonghee | 이은정 | 2016, 12(1) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract PDF
    Currently the focus of Korea’s higher education policy has been converged on reducing the provision of higher education institutions and the acceptance rates in student numbers. From the viewpoint of the researchers, it is misleading in forcasting the needs as well as forumlating the future stages of higher education in the context of global knowledge competition. The notion that colleges and universities in current Korea are oversupplied is correct only if the dimension of youth initial education is concerned, which counts only those who apply colleges right after finishing upper secondary education, but incorrect if it considers the uprising demands of recurrent and continuing education in the knowledge economy. This paper argues, in this context, three key issues: First, the universalization and ‘universal access’ to higher education is an inevitable global trend and unreversable in the stage of knowledge economy and learning societies. Second, the universalization is mainly driven by the demand for higher lifelong learning or higher-level continuing education. With both initial and continuing demands, universities are being restructured to meet the multi-level and multi-dimensional functionalities and emerging complexities of sub-systems that embrace the ‘higher education systems’ and ‘lifelong learning systems’ at the same time. Third, despite the logical streams, higher education system in Korea is still dominated by the young adults in the ideology, and middle-aged learners and continuing education needs are excluded from the territory, rather re-located outside the territories of universities, caged in a provisional systems like cyber universities and Academic Credit Bank System. In conclusion, this study argues that the higher education system in Korea needs to be re-streered to make the notion of ‘universalization’ realized with the balance between initial and continuing needs, where a new concept of ‘higher lifelong learning complex system’ is useful to recapture the newly emerging perspectives beyond a limited scope in this vein.
  • 2.

    The Student Aid System for Lifelong Learning in Higher Education: Cases Studies of UK and Sweden

    Chae, Jae-Eun | 2016, 12(1) | pp.33~57 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the rapid development of knowledge and ICT, lifelong learning becomes a necessity for all regardless of a person’s educational attainment level. Not only high school graduates, but also college graduates are under strong pressure to seek the further study in order to keep their skills and knowledge up to date. In this context, this study aims to provide the Korean government with the implications on the student aid system which promotes lifelong learning in higher education. To realize this goal, it compares the student aid systems for mature students of UK and Sweden because participation rates of lifelong learning in both countries are higher than the average of OECD member countries. The findings of the study show that both UK and Sweden have initiated policies to highlight the role of higher education in promoting lifelong learning and have also made it easy for mature students to study at universities through part-time enrolment system and flexible admission system. Accordingly, higher education is part of the national lifelong learning system in both countries and thus older undergraduates are supported by the student aid system. Whereas the student aid systems of UK and Sweden’s are different in terms of their elements and operating methods, they are in similar in that both of them provide mature students with the student aid to enable them to pursue lifelong learning in higher education. The cases of these two countries imply that the development of lifelong learning in higher education requires the financial aid system as well as the admission system, teaching and learning, and student affairs suitable for mature-students.
  • 3.

    Study on a New Frame of Higher Education Institutions Statistics Engaging with Lifelong Education Provisions

    Park, Sung-ho | Kim, Jinhee | Kim Myungjin | 2016, 12(1) | pp.59~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This Study aims to investigate a new frame of higher education statistics to support lifelong education provisions for adult learners in the changing context of higher education. This study addressed that current higher education statistics and monitoring system should be reshaped with engaging with lifelong education. This study employed literature review, delphi technique method. For this study, we have reviewed a current policy and issues of higher education engaging with lifelong learning to embrace unconventional learners of adult. Also this study has suggested a direction of higher education statistic espousing upcoming agenda of adult learners’ learning needs, widening learning opportunities within the university. Findings revealed that this study suggests the learning monitoring stage of access/opportunity- participant/support- completion for adult learners. And findings suggested that five components of participant rate, participant opportunity, characteristics of learners, learning support, and completion of the study should be newly set off to enhance lifelong education provisons. Furthermore, this study argued that current higher education statistics should be re-constructed to enhance the quality of lifelong education provisions for adult learners and build up a new statistic system. Finally, major finding indicated that existing frame of higher education statistic should be reconstructed by developing new survey item, utilizing each university’s data base in order to establish a new learning support system.
  • 4.

    Trends of Researches on Lifelong Learning Outcomes: Centered on Articles Published in 8 Korean Journals from 2006 to 2015

    HYUN YOUNGSUP | woocheol kim | 김현진 | 2016, 12(1) | pp.85~115 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract PDF
    It was a question frequently asked that ‘what are the outcomes of lifelong learning?’. To answer this question, theoretical models were suggested until now. But we still have some limitations to understand the landscape of the outcomes. This study investigated the research trends about the outcomes of lifelong learning. For this purpose, 182 articles were collected from 8 Korean Journals from 2006 to 2015. Contents and frequency analysis were performed. The findings were as in the followings: First, the frequency of articles about the outcomes were increased. Second, among the outcomes, satisfaction on program, academic achievement, learning transfer, and organizational effectiveness were the outcomes which were most frequently researched. Third, most frequently researched factors which influenced on the outcomes were the characteristics of program and institution, learning value, SDL, learning organization/organizational learning, and informal learning. Forth, the findings showed change of life, activity in community, quality of life, transformation in viewpoint, economic benefits and income as the outcomes of lifelong learning. Based on the findings, conclusion and implications were discussed.
  • 5.

    A Structure Analysis of the Relationship among Adult Learners’ Learning Motivation, Learning Engagement, and Course Loyalty to Mobile Based Online Courses

    Jeong, Hanho | 2016, 12(1) | pp.117~144 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of learning motivation and engagement on adult learners’ loyalty to mobile based on-line courses. To examine the impact, this study investigated impact variables related to adult learners’ loyalty to their online courses to discover an optimum model for the relationship among the variables. In this study, utilitarian motivation, social motivation, and hedonic motivation were adopted as exogenous variables. Personal engagement and social engagement were adopted as moderating variables, and adult learners’ loyalty to their online courses were adopted as a dependent variable. Data was collected from adult learners taking mobile based online courses at lifelong education organizations. 357 students participated and the questionnaires were analyzed using the structural equation modeling method. The findings show that social engagement, personal engagement positively exert significant influence on adult learners’ loyalty to mobile based online courses. This study provides suggestions both for practice and theory regarding the use of mobile based online courses as a part of lifelong learning.
  • 6.

    Stakeholders’ Perception on Distance Education-based Academic Credit Bank System

    김병섭 | Ju Sung Jun | 2016, 12(1) | pp.145~169 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of stakeholders composed of learners, teachers and staffs of distance education institutions conducting Academic Credit Bank System. Using 37 Q-samples and 27 P-samples, We categorized stakeholders into three perception types of ‘type of skeptical system perception’, ‘type of attaching importance to teaching․learning process’, and ‘type of hoping to promote social perception.’ The characteristics of each type are as follows: First, the ‘type of skeptical system perception’ is a type that shows skeptical perception of system operation on the whole regarding ‘The Academic Credit Bank System based on distance education.’ Second, the ‘type of attaching importance to teaching․learning process’ thinks that teacher․instructor’s teaching competence and teaching quality is important and emphasizes the teaching․learning process. Third, the ‘type of hoping to promote social perception’ is a type that pays attention to the possibility of lifelong education regarding ‘The Academic Credit Bank System based on distance education’, and hopes to overcome social prejudice. Finally, mutually agreed perception among types is that learners work out a solution through internet search regarding evaluation area, and a diploma gotten by utilizing ‘The Academic Credit Bank System based on distance education’ is not socially recognized as equivalent.
  • 7.

    The Comparative Analysis for Priority of Lifelong Learning City Policy Project using AHP: Focused on the Case of J Borough

    Lim Kyoung Soo | LEE HEE SU | 이소연 and 1other persons | 2016, 12(1) | pp.171~193 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The lifelong learning city policy project is changing from quantitative growth to qualitative maturity and from top-down support to the substantiality of the project. This study is intended to determine the undertaking system of the lifelong learning city project and propose a business execution model based on priority. The Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) was applied to fulfill the intention of this study. The results are as follows. First, the lifelong learning city policy project has 4 high-priority tasks: the expansion of citizens’ participation, the enhancement of management capacity, the implementation of system improvement, and the improvement of the program, and a total of 18 low-priority tasks. Second, all parties participating in lifelong learning city shall give the highest priority to the enhancement of lifelong learning management capacity among the implementation areas and to the designation and announcement of a lifelong learning city among implementation tasks. Third, continuous consultation and exchange are required, as there are differences between lifelong learning experts and working level administrative officials concerning the importance of tasks.
  • 8.

    A Case Study on Community Learning Process of Residents in Urban Apartment Housing

    LEE YOON JIN | NAM SOOK KIM | Youngwha Kee | 2016, 12(1) | pp.195~221 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate directions to go forward for ongoing community by analyzing features and inquiring community learning process from self-generation community in apartment housing of urban. In order to achieve the object, case study was conducted through chagulteo community of D Apartment in Seoul Jungnang-gu Shinnae-dong. Documents and in-depth interview data were collected. After the data analysis, the story flow was made through the diachronic perspective. It presented by four processes separately, those are ‘Drawing sketches community’, ‘Creating shapes of community’, ‘Blooming flowers of community’ and ‘Building foundation of community’. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, emotional feelings promote community learning in self-generated community of apartment housing in urban. Second, when focused on individual members of community, cohesion of the community will improve, participation of volunteers will be enable sustainable community.
  • 9.

    Clustering of Lifelong Learners by Learning Orientation and Analyzing the Characteristics

    신다은 | Kim Jin Hwa | 2016, 12(1) | pp.223~248 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Learning orientation is defined as complex mixture of lifelong learners’ learning characteristics which are functioned integrally by the multiple elements of learning characteristics related with determining the pedagogical, andragogical, and heutagogical learning principles. The objectives of this study were to cluster the lifelong learners based on learning orientation by the number and size of cluster and analyze the attributes and characteristics of each cluster. The findings were as follows. First, the lifelong learner were clustered as 5 groups with the different size and the entitled as the clustered group of PO, PAO, AO, AHO, and HO. Second, the significance variables related with five clustered groups of lifelong learners include 8 variables such as educational background, occupation, number of the involved program types, number of institution types, number of the participated programs, levels of knowledge management, and levels of lifelong learning practice. Those findings were suggestive of supporting evidence that the pedagogical, andragogical, and heutagogical learning principles in lifelong education is the theoretical continuum perspectives and imply that lifelong learners are divided into new groups according to learning orientation in the field of lifelong education. In conclusion, It will be possible to devise teaching and learning strategies for the clustered groups based on the attributes and characteristics of learning orientation.
  • 10.

    Exploring Learners’ Experience in a Corporate Value e-Learning Program

    HyunKyung Lee | 2016, 12(1) | pp.249~275 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In a lifelong learning society, corporate education and training focusing on short-term, task-based formats is no longer effective. Instead, it is necessary to consider long-term training programs through learners’ internal improvement. The purposes of this study were to explore qualitative effects of a corporate value e-learning program though learners’ experiences. For this, the data was collected from in depth interviews with eight corporate people in South Korea who were working at a company and participated in a corporate value e-learning program. Based on the coding method by Strauss and Corbin (1998), the areas of human capital were analyzed as 7 categories, 17 subcategories, and 28 concepts. According to the result of the study, one of the 7 categories, ‘pride’ was in a cause-and-effect relationship with two other categories, ‘understanding of enterprise spirit’ and ‘understanding of enterprise culture.’ In conclusion it was revealed that the change of participants’ perceptions and attitudes on their corporate values and visions can be attributed as a qualitative effect of the corporate value e-learning program.
  • 11.

    The Impact of University Students’ Openness to Diversity on Creativity: The Mediating Effect of Cooperative Learning Competency and Unlearning Competency

    LEE, HYO SEON | LEE HEE SU | 2016, 12(1) | pp.277~305 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine an impact of university students’ openness to diversity on creativity, cooperative learning competency, and unlearning competency, and the mediating effect of cooperative learning competency and unlearning competency. Therefore, this study set the openness to diversity as a dependant variable and creativity as a independent variable, then set two mediating variables which were cooperative learning competency and unlearning competency. The results of this empirical study are as follows: First, openness to diversity of university students has a positive effect on cooperative learning competency, unlearning competency, and creativity of university students. Second, cooperative learning competency and unlearning competency have positive effect on students’ creativity. This shows that the more students enhance their cooperative learning competency and unlearning competency, the more students develop their creativity. Third, cooperative learning competency and unlearning competency have mediating effect on the relationship between openness to diversity and creativity. This study suggests the following implications to cultivate creative people in universities. First, it is necessary to develop the curricula and programs that help student to understand and embrace the diversity. Secondly, it is required to design the teaching method that can encourage students to develop various learning competencies. University students can build the core competencies to be a globally qualified person under the appropriate educational policy and system. Therefore, universities should prepare and provide proper learning environment and educational systematic support.