The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of applying neurofeedback to university students with underachievement. Considering the results of pre-electroencephalography (EEG), the mode of the brain training system was set. The results of changes in neurophysiological brain waves by neurofeedback training were as follows: First, there were some students whose average cognitive strength of instantaneous memory and response speed were located within the average value. Second, the results of the post-test in concentration were more positive than those of pre-test. Third, according to the result of the brain stress test, the post-test in brain stress showed a more balanced workload than the pre-test. Fourth, most of students had high cerebral activity of left brain before training while the balance activity between left and right brain increased after training. Participants’ GPA showed the increasing trend during consecutive three semesters. It could be concluded that the neurofeedback training was effective to some extent for improving learning capacity of underachieving college students.