The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the variables that affect learning outcomes in the personal and learning factors of elderly learners before and after COVID-19. For this purpose, the results of the ‘Survey on Lifelong Study at the Individual Level’ in 2019 and 2020 of the Korea Educational Development Institute were used. The main findings of this study are summarized as follows. First, compared to 2019, there were differences in individual factors,learning factors, and learning outcomes of elderly learners in 2020. Second, as for the variables that have a significant influence on learning outcomes, there were more learning factors than individual factors in both 2019 and 2020, and it was found that all learning factor variables affect learning outcomes in 2020. Finally, it was found that vocational competency education and familiarity with digital learning media were the variables that showed a big difference among the learning factors affecting the lower domains of learning outcomes in 2020 compared to 2019. Based on these research results, the direction of education for the elderly to improve learning outcomes was suggested.