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2009, Vol.12, No.

  • 1.

    An Essay on Holistic Christian Counseling with regard to Death

    Kang, Yong-Won | 2009, 12() | pp.9~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Death, which is an unavoidable reality, is the central topic in the Christian counseling. It is because that the ministry on death is above all to reveal the cross of Christ and the gospel truth. Christian counselor, equipped with biblical and psychological knowledge on death, must be able to help the bereaved to overcome their agony and hopelessness to experience restoration and hope. This research will discuss why death is an essential subject in Christian counseling, based on the meaning of death in the Scripture. Furthermore, this research deals with general principles of Christian counseling on death. Especially it will discuss and evaluate various theories and practical principles of Christian counseling for the dying and for the bereaved, which are two subjects in death. This researcher emphasizes that Christian counseling in death must be approached holistically, and offers a direction toward which Christian counseling needs to follow with regard to death in ministry based on the concept of human as a holistic being, human as a holistic being-in-relationship, and human as a holistic being-in-time. It is made clear in this paper that Christian counseling with regard to death must be not only a task for Christian counselors, but also for the entire members of a church.
  • 2.

    Effective Counseling on Death & Dying in Christian Counseling: Centering around Biblical & Theological Foundation

    JOSEPH JEON | 2009, 12() | pp.43~68 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to clarify the effective counseling on death & dying in Christian counseling. According to the Genesis of the old testament, death came from human’s transgression. A question on death & dying is a foundational question and ultimate asking for humans’existence. Also, death is painful, threatening, and powerful being. So human being is making resistance to avoid death by a lot of medical treatments or methods. Human being, however, is mortal being. In Christian counseling, a counselor ought to make confrontation with death for a client. A Christian counselor has to check whether a client has belief on the Kingdom of heaven beyond death or not. Also, a Christian counselor’s role is to give desire for the hopeful future: the Kingdom of heaven to a client. Generally, eschatology in systematic theology and/or biblical theology have dealt with discussion on death. Eschatology contains things of future, judgement, reward, the Kingdom of heaven, hell, ect. Christian counseling must deal with that what the Bible says on death & dying. Accordingly, this research handled necessity of research for death & dying, definition and notion of death, origin of death, understanding on death through metaphor in the Bible, and counseling methods on death & dying. In conclusion, the researcher emphasized that a Christian counselor ought more to dealt with confidence on salvation and the Kingdom of God through Christ to a client than to avoid death anxiety or thanatophobia to a client. Also, a Christian counselor does not focus on the isolation, nihility, sadness, and regret of a client in due to death. First of all, a Christian counselor has to get a confidence on salvation and the Kingdom of heaven in order to do counseling effectively. The reason to study death in advance is to live meaning life in this world. To deal with cognition on death biblically is essential of Christian counseling.
  • 3.

    Remarks on Euthanasia in terms of Christian Bio-ethics

    Kang, Kyung Mi | 2009, 12() | pp.69~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Modern medical treatments have prolonged human lives by providing cures for some fatal diseases. They also have increased pain and suffering of patients and their families by providing artificial respirators or other life-sustaining devices to the patients in a coma. Lengthening the life in a vegetative state triggers a debate on what “death with dignity”means. Euthanasia is classified into three types: euthanasia by consent, euthanasia by means, and mercy killing. The active euthanasia is different from the mercy killing in that the former enables the terminally ill to die through lethal injections or other drugs, but the latter focuses on the human dignity of the patients. The Christians, who are against the euthanasia, argue that it is morally unacceptable because it is a type of murder or a type of suicide. In addition, the euthanasia is sinful because human fates are determined by human doctors or legal regulations, not by Almighty God. Others who are for the euthanasia argue that mercy killing is the last resort for the patients in a vegetative state and their families. Without debating pros and cons of the euthanasia, it should be emphasized that euthanasia deals with a matter of life and death and includes human dignity and rights. In a word, with regard to the terminally ill and the patients in the vegetative state, making a decision between life and death does not belong to medical, legal or social considerations, but to God’s creation philosophy and Christian bio-ethics. Committing suicide has sharply increased since the belief in the sanctity of life was forsaken. Thus, it is high time to re-examine Christian perspectives on human life and death in terms of euthanasia.
  • 4.

    Pastoral Counseling for a Dying Person

    Kim Young Keun | 2009, 12() | pp.95~121 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses with Pastoral counseling for a dying person. The counseling of dying patients is commonly based on the general model of the experience of dying that has been proposed by Kübler-Ross and others. They believe that the dying patient usually goes through a series of stages(denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance), although they recognize that an individual may show signs of more than one stage at any time and may move back and forth between stages. Confronted with the news that they are terminally ill, most patients seek to deny its truth. When they do face the grim reality, they often feel great anger and rage. Many then begin a kind of bargaining process, promising reforms in return for recovery. Depression commonly sets in soon after this bargaining fails to work. If patients receive adequate pastoral counseling and care from loved ones, they ultimately accept their approaching death and are able to die peacefully. This paper suggests four jobs of pastoral counseling for a dying person as follows; ① help recovery of spiritual crisis using a appropriate conversational tone, ② talk honestly about the symptoms of a patient’s illness, ③ be supportive according to the psychological stage of a dying person, ④ give sacraments to remember acceptance and love of Jesus Christ.
  • 5.

    Recognition of Limitations and Wisdom

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2009, 12() | pp.122~146 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Death is an event that presents a crisis to human beings. Recognizing death and the variety of coping resources, along with meaning attached to death, can help Christian counselor to perceive strategies for providing assistance in time of grief. In reflecting on the subject of death, the author mentions three approaches of death: technological and cultural influence, existential understanding, and therapeutic method. Christian counselor needs to interpret death from a faith perspective. We has the message of eternal life which is so vital. Christians die with hope. Moreover, the Bible tells us that the prerequisite for attaining wisdom is reflection on our numbered days. We must mediate on our own death in order to be wise. When we apply this practical wisdom to our life, it will benefit not only dying person, but also all our life. We can speculate the meaning of life, open our future, and overcome other kinds of limit in our life. In order to really live, we must give ourselves to death. But when we has done so, we discover that we are not to die, but to live.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Crisis Counselling of Christian for Suicide Prevention in Adolescents

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2009, 12() | pp.147~173 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    According to the Korea National Statistical Office(KNSO), 12,174 people killed themselves in 2007. It means an average of 33.3 people committed suicide in Korea every day. South Korea’s suicide rate is the highest among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD). Suicide is second leading cause of death among adolescence. According to a recent survey by the state-run Korea Youth Counseling Institute, 2,699(58.8 percent) of 4,700 middle and high school students said they had thought of suicide. The poll found that teenagers felt suicidal urges when they experienced conflict with parents and other family members, felt deprived of hope or had trouble with friends. The following response is designed to help Christian counselor offer counsel to adolescence who has admitted having passing thoughts of suicide. The first step is the individual’s particular appraisal of the situation. The second step is achieving contact with the adolescence in crisis. a relationship of trust and empathy is no less important in crisis intervention than in any other form of counseling. The third step is the essentially involve acting strategies. The fourth step is the Follow-up of the Counseling Process. It deepens counselor relationship with them and reaffirms counselor caring. It determines if they are continuing to do what is needed to help with their crisis.
  • 7.

    Christian Counseling for Adolescent Death Education

    Hahn Sook Ja | Miha Park | 2009, 12() | pp.174~200 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the necessity of youth death education and to offer a basic understanding of the Christian counselling to deal with the issues involved. Overseas, death education is geared mostly towards youth and is organized by schools, which provide such courses as part of their regular curriculum. The content of their death education is as follows: first, education on valuable life on the basis of understanding death properly, second, how to overcome the sense of loss caused by death, and third, preventive education against suicide. From the Christian counselling point of view, the purpose of youths’death education must be focused on restoring the relationship with God, separated due to human sin, through Jesus Christ’s salvation. Some of the content that Christian counselling on youths’death education should include are: a self examinatory life that can maintain a right Christian attitude and values when living; a Christian way of understanding death; various information related to the process of death; strengthening the ability to deal with death; knowledge of how to help people with negative attitudes towards death; death anxiety or fear; people who are in grief; and the Christian world view on euthanasia and suicide.
  • 8.

    A Psychology of Grace: Dynamics of Spiritual Growth

    Kim, Soo Youn | 2009, 12() | pp.203~230 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The spiritual growth is outlined in context of personality development in the whole life span. W. Meissner’s view on grace as personality trait and J. Loder’ s double negation as the logic of spirit are reviewed in the framework of E. Erikson’s personality developmental theory. Themes on the spiritual growth are structured in terms of personality developmental crisis, its overcoming processes, pathologies, dynamics of helping grace and its fruits. The map of internal growth in the whole life span might hopefully function as a guide to praying for the Grace by confessing where we are when God asks “where are you?”
  • 9.

    John Calvin’s Understanding of Human: Corrupted Will and Distinguished Reason

    Ha, Jae Sung | 2009, 12() | pp.231~261 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Some people misread John Calvin, a reformer and theologian, as pessimistic just because he regards human as totally depraved. Calvin declares about total corruption of human after the Fall, but he is not always pessimistic toward human cultures or academic accomplishments. People are different from beasts because God continues to give them distinguished reason and wisdom. Remnants of God’s image even after the Fall still dignify human existence. Calvin willingly recognizes the importance of academic properties of his time outside theology such as philosophy, mathematics and law: he actively engages them for his theological works. He also cherishes all kinds of people because of inherent images of God within. He also keeps a consistent and holistic perspective of Christian life on earth with balanced hope of the future.