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2007, Vol.8, No.

  • 1.

    Correlation between Internet Addiction and Stress of Information - Technology Centric Society and Suggestions to Cope with them in terms of Christian Counselling Perspectives

    Kang, Kyung Mi | 2007, 8() | pp.9~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The development of telecommunication technology and internet in 20th century has accelerated the advent of a new era that is dominated by information and technology. Especially, Korea has ranked as one of the world’s IT countries because more than 10 million people, about 72% of the population, can have access to high-speed internet. Internet-centric communities have brought changes into our lives. Some people feel very stressful because they could not get accustomed to these changes, but others are addicted to the internet. Some typical examples of the internet addiction are game addition, chatting addiction, internet gambling addition, and online pornography. These additions have caused physical mal-functions and distorted human relationship with family members, friends, and acquaintances. They can not lead an ordinary lives. They cannot control imaginary desires or impulses. What is worse, the internet serves as a means of cyber crimes, such as suicide, fraud, and stalking. Even Christian families are suffering from the internet addictions, which finally result in faith crisis, family conflict, and family breakdown. Church workers and try to find how to cope with them, but finding appropriate solutions is not easy. Thus, this paper purported to understand these social ills in terms of Christian views and to offer some suggestions that come from Christian counselling perspectives.
  • 2.

    Clergy’s Stress & Burnout

    Kim, Jun Soo | 2007, 8() | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Although a certain amount of stress is common, perhaps inevitable, and some stress is positive, too much stress over a time can result in burnout. Dr Hans Selye defines stress as a our body’s response to any demand made upon it. He divides stress into two types: distress as excessive levels of continued, damaging stress, and eustress as a good, positive kind of stress one feels at times of happiness, fulfillment, or satisfaction. One of the tragic thing about burnout is that the people who tend to be the most dedicated, devoted, committed, responsible, highly motivated, and energetic suffer from burnout. Burnout involves unfulfilled expectations, being worn down and tired out because what one thought would happen hasn’t come. Clergy are under stress for many reasons. First of all, Korean pastors work too hard and too long. They prepare and preach more than ten sermons a week, visit numerous church members, attend various committee meetings and do the administrative works. With so much at stake in their job, it is little wonder that jobs with the greatest stress are those where the workers has the least control over how things operate even though he or she is responsible. Lack of control is another reason why many pastors experience burnout in their ministry. Especially the associate pastors have more stress than senior pastors because they have less control while still having the responsibility. They are like middle management, in that they are squeezed by their congregations and by their church hierarchy as they attempt to follow the Spirit. In order to avoid burnout in ministry, clergy need to solve the priority dilemma by placing their family before the ministry. A plan to reestablish priorities would include setting clear boundaries around his life, building open communication lines with people around him, and learning balance between work and rest.
  • 3.

    Christian Counseling for Stress and coping of Seminarians through the Holistic Liberation-Growth Counseling

    Kim Young Keun | 2007, 8() | pp.59~86 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was to explore the nature of stress experienced by a seminarian and coping styles utilized by them under stress. And this study was to suggest a Christian counseling methodology for solving stress. The major findings of the study included as follows. Firstly, seminarians experienced stress predominantly from such area as church, followed by family and theological study among others. Secondly, coping styles most frequently utilized by seminarians were emotional pacification, the problem solving strategy, social support, and positive interpretation. This study suggested a Christian counseling methodology based on the Holistic Liberation-Growth Counseling of Howard J. Clinebell as the following. 1. A counselor must listen carefully to a client’s story. Persons under stress are looking for an ear that will listen. Careful listening can provide the counselee with an opportunity to examine and heal their inner hurts. 2. Constructive and rational thinking is necessary. Such a constructive and rational thinking can help seminarians grow in the depth and vitality of their spiritual life so that it will empower all aspects of their lives. 3. Social support is necessary to solve the client’stress. When a stressful event occurs on a social basis not an individual basis, its solution can be possible with neighbouring help. It is true that much stess of seminarians originates in churh environment. 4. Counseling program through writing confession could be facilitated. The writing confession of the stressful event would affect positively their solving stress with an increase in emotional catharsis and self-esteem. 5. A participation in group counseling for healing is effective to solve their stress. Sharing in healing group is very helpful to healing and restoration to seminarians’hurts throughout their stressful events. 6. Spiritual direction can provide a client with an insight of thinking, feeling and behaving and a spiritual well being through a restoration of intimacy with God.
  • 4.

    Abortion as a Grief Experience

    Kwon Oh Gueon | 2007, 8() | pp.89~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    People who undergo an unwanted abortion have a broken spirit. The bereaved needs to experience resurrection of the deceased within their souls and spirits through Jesus Christ who is the resurrection and life. From biblical and theological aspects of abortion, the only reference to abortion in the Old Testament is in Ex. 21:22, which refers to a man who accidentally hurts a woman so that he terminates her pregnancy. The implication is that deliberate termination of pregnancy would be unthinkable. The Lord said, “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you for my own”(Jer.1:5). From psychological aspect of abortion, there is the possibility of a guilt response or of psychological depression including somatic distress, guilt feelings, feelings of anger and hostility and change in normal conduct. People who undergo abortion need the (1) release of negative emotions (2) affirmation of the self (3) breaking libidinal ties (4) resurrection of the deceased within the self of the bereaved (5) renewal of relationship (6) rediscovery of meaning on both an emotional and a relational level. If we have painful memories, we can also bring those pains to God in candid, passionate, transformative prayer in lament. Only in God can every soul find the healing, meaning and purpose of his or her being. God is the God of living. “Now he is God not of the dead, but of the living; for to him all of them are alive”(Lk20:38).
  • 5.

    Interpreting Life Story for Christian Counseling

    Kim, Soo Youn | 2007, 8() | pp.101~126 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The identity of christian counseling is discussed in terms of interpreting life story. The life story told by counselee is viewed as the strategic position of transformation. The subjective theories embodied in the counselee’s life story are to be correcred by hermeneutic arch of psychological theories. The arch of psychological interpretation is suggested to provide the tangential point of evangelisation. At the same time the peril of psychological reductionism is referred to be prevented by the theological equipments such as pneumatological anthropology. The reconstruction of life story as one embedded in God’s redemptive story is emphasized as a crucial test for christian counseling. The redemptive life story is characterized by its biblical themes and plots.
  • 6.

    An Approach of Christian Counseling for Main reasons and Solutions to Stress in South Korean Adolescents

    Kim, Tae-Soo | 2007, 8() | pp.127~146 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the main reasons of stress in South Korean adolescents, to introduce three stages of stress, and to explore some effective solutions to the stress. The main method of this study is to choose the content of reference books and to introduce some cases of counseling simultaneously. The major content for this study to deal with consists of four main reasons of stress and the items are as follows. First, too much schoolwork. Secondly, physical disease. Third, family problem between adolescents and their parents. Fourthly, internet addiction of South Korean adolescents in the 21st century. The content of each chapter is as follows. The first chapter deals with the definition and stage of stress. The second chapter consists of four main reasons of stress in Korean adolescents: too much schoolwork, physical disease, family conflict and internet addiction. The third chapter deals with the issue of stress diagnosis. The final chapter makes a presentation some effective solutions to the stress in the center of counselor’s role. In relation to the issue of adolescence growth, Luke 2:52 says as follows: Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men. Growth can accompany crisis and stress but we need to remember this thing as well: adolescents will be able to grow even through various stress.
  • 7.

    Tendency of Christian Counseling in accordance with the Level of Psychology Openness

    ki young Park | 2007, 8() | pp.147~176 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This researcher is to clarify that Christian counseling varies according to counselor’s theological & psychological background. This researcher presumed that openness of psychology is a major factor that represents the tendency of Christian Counseling. Results from this research are as follows: Counselor’s psychological openness is one of the important factors which decides Christian Counseling tendency. Tendency of Christian Counseling in accordance with openness of psychology of Christian Counsellor was classified into 5 types. First, opened type. Christian Counsellor makes best use of reference materials for psychology in counseling, and adopts very open posture to psychology. And they are unconcerned with using the Bible & the theological resources. Second, accepted type. This is a standpoint not to lose an identity of Christian Counseling, whilst admitting psychology. But, They take a little more conservative posture than opened type. Third, separated type. They hold a position to separate the area of expertise, whilst they approve theology and the authority of psychology on equal term. Fourth, filtered type. They use the topics that would not turn out to be the problem connected with Bible after having filtered psychology by means of theology. Evangelical Counselors take this type. Fifth, closed type. They adopt a closed posture toward psychology. They don’’t need psychological assistance any more, because they believe that only the Bible can solves counselee’s problem enough. Taken above research results together, Christian Counsellors should know their own tendency toward theology, and openness of psychology. In Conclusion, The evangelical view of Christian counseling is to use the psychological resources filtered theologically, not reject it unconditionally. Also, when conducting counseling having established counseling skills based on such a type they will be able to provide for efficient helps to clients.
  • 8.

    An Understanding of Theophostic Prayer Ministry for Coping Stresses

    Park,Haeng-Yul | 2007, 8() | pp.177~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis deals with Theophostic Prayer Ministry(TPM) which has been developed by Edward M. Smith since 1996 in the United States of America. TPM is an excellent and effective ministry to renew minds with the help of Holy Spirit by replacing the lie based thinking into truth. As in cognitive therapy, the purpose of TPM is to replace core lies into truth. In cognitive therapy, changing core lies of a counselee is initiated by a counselor. TPM forms a contrast to cognitive therapy that the main role of a counselor is replaced by the Holy Spirit. As a result, dramatic recovery and healing of the counselee happens in TPM. In conclusion, TPM can be helpful for coping stresses by helping cognitive aspect when a person is exposed to a stressful environment.
  • 9.

    A Study of Counseling Ministry as a Model of Church Growth -Focused on the Hanmil Presbyterian Church-

    SooMyungShim | 2007, 8() | pp.199~226 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As the christianity had been introduced into Korea about 120 years ago, Korean churches have grown enormously even if short history. Especially, with economic expansion and urbanism, Korean churches have been grown repeatedly and globally. At this point, we should retrospect and evaluate Korean churches’growth quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Since the aim of churches’growth is to expand the kingdom of God, local churches have to approach differently toward in terms of size and quality-wise in church. Local churches, i.e., for a target of missionary, should become growing continuously when they understand their society and help needs of their people. I propose church growth through counseling ministry as a way of church’s essential ministry. Counseling ministry should be dealt with one of important ministries, such as missionary, service, education, and church’s voluntary work. It also strengthens each family and church become healthy, so to grow churches qualitatively and quantitatively. This article’s aim is to propose showing Hanmil Presbyterian church’s growth as a way of counseling ministry and to expect this counseling ministry as appropriate way of biblical and systematic ministry for the future church growth.
  • 10.

    Personality Theory and Leadership

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2007, 8() | pp.227~252 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It is argued that there is a high correlation between effective Christian leadership and leader’s personality. Leadership depends on not only leaders’some traits and specific behavior, but also their personality structure that seems necessary to engender and sustain effective leadership. First of all, the article argues the need for the maturity of personality provided by relationship with God and others. Relationship with God and following Jesus Christ are significant in shaping the Christian personality. Second, the article highlights the utility of incorporating a developmental perspective on the personality in the study and practice of leadership. The awareness of shadow in a leader’s personal life and its healing have a important influence upon his personality and leadership style. Finally, the resources for change which would help one to grow into mature personality are discussed. It suggests the ways of developing leader’s own character structure and deploying the important aspect of Christian mentoring in the maturing process of a personality and thus changing leadership style.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Christian Counseling and Factors Analysis in adolescent Stress

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2007, 8() | pp.253~277 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose for this study was to determine a scheme on the for christian counseling and factors Analysis according to adolescent stress. The specific objectives of this study were 1) to analyze the difference factors of the christian adolescents stress according to the levels of variable and 2) to analyze the difference on the relievable reaction of the Christian Adolescence according to the evels of variable. 3) A study on the for counselling in christian Adolescents of stress. Data were collected from 420 randomly sampled the high school students in selected 25 church from Seoul and city and district in locality. After data cleaning, 410 questionnaires were used for data analysis. The SPSSWIN 13.0 program was used in analyzing the data, and a series of statistical tests were conducted including frequency, percentile, t-test, ANOVA, correlation analysis. The statistical significance level was .05. The major findings of this study were as follows: The degree of general stress is 2.10. we revealed the fact that the Adolescents are exposed to diverse stressors. The stress caused from studying and the future/advance Problem. The more stress a student feel from his/hes parents. In relation to the stress type of adolescent according to factors analysis, the level of respondents identified with the category was as a “girls’high school and general high school”marked relatively higher point. The stress degree from serving on religious is very low. The area of adolescent counseling is the most active one of various counseling activities in Church. But it is unfortunate that few studies on characteristic adolescent counsel been conducted and this has resulted in a low interest of counseling student and practitioners have taken the area hard difficult. Finally, it suggests some priority projects for method of christian adolescent counseling.
  • 12.

    Relationship of Cognitive Bias to the Image of God among Christian Undergraduates

    Yi Hye-Jin | 2007, 8() | pp.278~299 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive bias of Christian undergraduates in association with their conviction of salvation and the relationship between their cognitive bias and their image of God. The subjects in this study were 185 college students in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, and the instruments used in the study were Revised General Attitude & Belief Scale(RGABS) and a God image assessment inventory. The findings of the study were as follows: A cognitive bias had a statistically significantly negative correlation to belief in the presence of God, morality, a sense of belonging, tolerance, compassion, recognition, influence, belief in divine providence, a sense of control and the image of God. So it was found that the Christian students who had more cognitive prejudice were behind in terms of belief in the presence of God, morality, a sense of belonging, tolerance, compassion, recognition, influence, belief in divine providence, a sense of control and the image of God. The findings of the study suggested that when counseling is provided to Christian undergraduates, it’s effective to check the relationship between their cognitive bias and their image of God in order to correct the cognitive prejudice of those who have the wrong image of God.
  • 13.

    Impact of Christian Faith on Adolescents’Sexuality Perception.

    JOSEPH JEON | Ham Hee Young | 2007, 8() | pp.300~320 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to clarify the impact of Christian faith on adolescents’sexuality perception. When children grow up and enter adolescence, they not only experience physical maturation including voice change but also develop secondary sex characteristics, getting away from a sexual latency period. Adolescence is a time for growth spurts both physically and psychologically. Sexual hormonal changes speed up sexual development in boys and girls and increase their interests in and concerns about sex. Against this backdrop, this study explores desirable attitude and behavior toward sex among adolescents, taking distinctive aspects of the young into account. The study is based on the following three assumptions: first, there would be difference in sexuality perception between Christian and non-Christian youth. Second, there would be difference in sexuality perception among Christian adolescents in accordance with religious background of their family. Third, adolescents would demonstrate different views on premarital sex in accordance with family’s religious background. A survey was conducted on 314 junior high and high school students living in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Two types of tests questioning about Christian beliefs and sexuality perception respectively were utilized to prove the assumptions. The first test on Christian beliefs was first applied to Christian adolescents by Joseph Jeon in 1988 and has been altered for this study. The second test on sexuality perception was used by Kyungsook Lee at Gongju Graduate School of Educational Psychology in 2006 and has been adjusted for the study with careful consideration on reliability of survey results. To analyze 314 answer sheets collected, frequency analysis, t-test, and one way ANOVA were applied, using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) 12.0. The conclusion of the study is as follows: Christian faith does not have significant impact on sexuality perception among the young. In contrast, the influence of the faith of adolescents themselves and their family as well as assur- ance of salvation on their views about premarital sex appears to be statistically significant. Boys and girls who have long been Christians or have assurance of salvation, or whose entire family believes in Christianity disclose negative views toward premarital sex. The study sheds light on the correlation between Christian belief and sexuality perception of adolescents and will lay the groundwork for teaching the youth sound culture and attitude toward sex.
  • 14.

    Stress Management and Christian Counseling

    Hahn Sook Ja | 2007, 8() | pp.321~347 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In biblical approach, stress is stemmed from the sin of human being. And those morally degraded are to suffer from profound feeling of guilt. Furthermore, any hasty efforts to escape from suffering would cause rather serious stress. On the contrary, bible shows how great people overcome their stress by recovering the relationship with God, repenting their sin. It means stress should be cured in the course of recovering the relationship with God as a matter of sin and salvation. Anybody can suffer from stress, and stress itself is unavoidable. In some sense, if it weren’t for stress, there wouldn’t be any vitality of life. Therefore, it’d be desirable for counselors to let their clients know the fact that stress is no matter to get rid of, but a matter to control. For those having negative thoughts on stress as a disaster, Christian counselors can help, through cognitive dispute, to change their thoughts so as to accept the stress positively. Undoubtedly, it’s desirable to face stress directly. However, if not possible for clients to control the stress, the cognitive counseling method is recommended, which helps clients to have self-encouragement, to relaxation training, to have hopeful thoughts, and to redefine the problem. The more one gets social supports, the safer from stress. Therefore, counselors should figure out and encourage each client’s strength or social supports which are helpful in coping with stress. By using adequate self-talk method, Christian counselors can help clients to express their anger caused by stress in a calm and much objective manner. Above all, it’s the most important for counselors to guide their clients understand the meaning of suffering as a trial and view the suffering from a different standpoint. In the meantime clients express their anger, there’s no need to forgive those who harm them or to try to escape from the past. Since God is there when they are in stress, and the suffering they have to endure now is nothing but a dust when compared with the glory they will share with God in the future. And the ability to forgive only belongs to Jesus. For better management of stress, to stay away from excessive desire and to be moderate in everything including thought, feeling, and behavior is needed, together with well-balanced food, regular exercise, relaxation/meditation, and adequate rest. All theses are quite possible by following the life of obedience. The ability to control and release stress is accompanied with the life obeying God fully, promptly, and completely while praying all the time in humble mind