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2005, Vol.5, No.

  • 1.

    Chemyun Culture and Christian Counseling

    Kyu Myeong Whang | 2005, 5() | pp.7~30 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Culture is “man-made part of the environment”and is like the air we breathe. Thus, in counseling, we can not ignore the culture by which counselee or counselor is influenced. One of the Korean culture we should be aware is the ‘chemyun’culture. ‘Chemyun’means honor, dignity or reputation. If you lose face, you can say you have lost your chemyun .In Korean culture, you must have and show dignity because no one wants to lose face or be ashamed, and everyone desires self-respect. The emphasis is more on other people's opinion about you rather than virtue or value in yourself. Because of chemyun, sometimes you have to refrain from eating when you are starving, and you have to eat even when your stomach is full. Sometimes, you cannot put on more clothes even when you are freezing, and you cannot take off your clothes when you are sweating. Besides, you cannot cry or laugh in response to those things happening. In chemyun culture, it is a virtue to refrain from boasting about oneself, but people, deep inside, want to be admired and envied. So, they try to have what others recognize and to do what others approve. Such behaviors reflect their subconscious or even conscious desire to be recognized as superior by others. For example, some people spend so much money that they get into financial difficulties because they are caught up in what others might think of them. That is the fear of man. Fear of man is inversely related to the fear of God. As the fear of God is eroded, the fear of man is intensified in the heart of the human being. A question must be raised, “What is your biggest concern, what people think about you, or what God thinks about you?”If you are pursuing chemyun more than just trying to be courteous, you probably are seeking approval of man and your own glory. Behind the chemyun culture, there can be a self-worship.
  • 2.

    Client’s Language Analysis in Christian Counseling of Korean Cultural Situation

    JOSEPH JEON | 2005, 5() | pp.33~60 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research is to clarify that client’s language analysis in counseling of Korean cultural situation centering around evangelical counseling. The language is the most important or necessary mean for understanding, and diagnosis, and analysis client’s psychological traumas, spiritual situations, problems in counseling. The counseling is not electric therapy, drug therapy, and sports therapy but semantic therapy through language. A counseling is able to restore, heal, change, and improve a client’s traumas, situations, problems, etc. However, it is very difficult for a counselor to analyze client’s inner world through language merely. The reason is that a client has some linguistic filters in a brain: neurological, social, and individual filters. The filter functions constraints in a client’ s mind, even though in front of a counselor. Accordingly, an evangelical counselor ought to know the limitation, and restriction of analysis through a client’ s language. Also, a Biblical counselor have to guide a client to the omniscient God as a real counselor. A client ought to talk to God as a counselor totally without filters and constraints.
  • 3.

    Elderly Counseling as a Older adult services

    Kwang-Hyun Choi | 2005, 5() | pp.61~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The growing population of adults over the age of 65 continues to outstrip our provision of services. The purpose of the study is to analyze the perception of socialworkers at welfare facilities for the Older Adult and other workers regarding the organization, management, and personnel of each senior facilitated to provide basic resources for the improvement and establishment of efficient welfare policies for the Older Adult. Welfare for the aged approach in the field of counseling and gain strength in various field. But there in no official report this applied in elderly counseling. This thesis endeavored to apply welfare for the aged approach to the elderly.
  • 4.

    Korean Culture and Marital Conflict

    Kim, Jun Soo | 2005, 5() | pp.87~107 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The increasing divorce rate and the decreasing birth rate are two main concerns for wellbeing of the Korean society. The divorce rate is one of the highest among OECD countries. The unresolved marital conflict is the number one cause of the divorce. Home is God’s first institution and foundation of the stable society. Healthy home is possible through harmonious marital relationship. This paper deals with the problem of marital conflict among married couples. Among many factors understanding Korean marital conflict, this paper focuses on the collectivistic culture to explain the marital conflict. Confucianism, the major religion of Korea in the Lee Dynasty in the last 500 years, has all the characteristics of the collectivistic culture. The Korean society has experienced rapid shift from the traditional collectivistic culture to the westernized individualistic culture in the last 50 years. The change requires new roles for the husband and wife. When couples fail to adjust to the cultural change, they tend to fail in their relationships. The answer to the marital conflict due to the rapid cultural change is the gospel of Jesus Christ. Having the attitude of Jesus and learning his humility is the primary answer to the marital conflicts. Jesus said that we should consider others better than ourselves(Phil. 2:3). When we consider our spouses better than ourselves and respect them as the better half, many conflicts can be resolved and many marriages can be saved. The message of the Gospel is what many conflicting couples need to hear and to apply in their broken relationships.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Counseling and psychological Adaptation For the Internet Addiction of Adolescents - focusing on Christian Adolescents of America-Korean and Korean -

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2005, 5() | pp.108~136 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose for this study was to determine A scheme on the for counselling and the influences on the psychological Adaptation of Adolescents to Internet Addiction. The specific objectives of this study were 1) to analyze the difference between psychological Adaptation of the Christian Adolescents according to the levels of Internet Addiction and 2) to analyze the influence on the psychological Adaptation of the Christian Adolescence according to the levels of Internet Addiction. 3) A Study on the for counselling in Christian Adolescents of Internet Addiction. Date were collected from 890 randomly sampled Christian Adolescence in selected both Korean-American and Korean in 4 from Seoul and Kyung-gi area, 6 from Virginia State and other State. after date cleaning, 883 questionnaires were used for data analysis. The SPSSWIN 13.0 program was used in analyzing the data, and a series of statistical tests were conducted including frequency, percentile, t-test, ANOVA, correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression, and optimal scaling regression. The statistical significance level was .05. The result certified through this study is as following. 1) The Internet Addiction type by the respondents was classified into that 4.41(Korean-American) and 6.48(Korean) in Internet Addiction group, 14.13 (Korean-American) and 19.77(Korean)in Internet suspicion Addiction group, 81.46 (Korean-American) and 73.72 (Korean)in Normalcy group. 2) In the relation to the psychological Adaptation of Christian Adolescents in according with Internet Addiction, the level of respondents identifified with the category where offensiveness was as ‘Internet Addiction group’, melancholy as ‘’Internet Addiction group, displayed relatively the higher point. 3) The influence of Internet Addiction on the psychological Adaptation of Christian Adolescents offensiveness influenced 15% (Korean-American)and 11%(Korean) melancholy 13% (Korean-American) and 16%(Korean) influenced of the total variation.
  • 6.

    Christian Counseling in the Cross-Cultural Mission Field

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2005, 5() | pp.137~160 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Many missionaries and Christian workers are presently trying to act as helpers and healers to people who have very different cultural backgrounds. Christian counseling, however, fail to give a large enough place to cultural considerations in the mission field particularly. This paper aims to discuss how cross-cultural Christian counseling in the mission field could be made more effective. To approach this discussion, the relationships between mission and Christian counseling are discussed. Finally, conclusions to guide the practice of counseling in the mission field are drawn. The theory and practice for cross-cultural counseling ministry need to be based on an understanding of cultural differences as well as human universals and individual uniqueness. Cross-cultural counseling is cultural activity that requires the open-mindedness and sensitivity of the practitioners to the cultural influence of both their counselees and themselves. Then, we try to apply the skills of Christian counseling to mission field to help the counselees in three ways--preparation counseling, salvation counseling, and healing counseling. Forgiveness for sin and power to change into Christ’s image are the greatest needs of counselees. The gospel message is not complete without a clear statement of the fact and nature of sin and the need of the individual for salvation through Christ. Integrating counseling practice with biblical faith, we endeavor to assist counselees to be better equipped to live Christ-centered lives in service, vocation, and community. These core truths must infuse the cross-cultural Christian counseling process.
  • 7.

    Korea’s Family Culture: Domestic Violence in the Structure of Patriarch and Pastoral Counseling Role

    Kim, Tae-Soo | 2005, 5() | pp.161~178 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    According to a survey(June in 1999 - May in 2000) of domestic violence, 30 percent of married women who were (from) 15 to 64 years old experienced domestic violence within a year. In the survey the rate of spouse’s violence was 7.4%, children’s maltreatment was 24.7% and parents’maltreatment by their sons and daughters was 0.1%. According to the above statistical data, there are various types of domestic violence and weak persons such as woman and child are the victims of domestic violence. Through this thesis the writer dealt with the title of Korea’s family culture: domestic violence in the structure of patriarch and pastoral counseling role. To deal with this issue the writer showed general investigation from various angles. In the second chapter the writer dealt with the following issues: the definition and scope of domestic violence, the reason of domestic violence, the process and result of domestic violence and two case studies of domestic violence. In the third chapter the writer introduced various roles which a pastoral counselor can perform: counselor, healer, teacher, religious leader and so forth. In the part of conclusion the writer emphasized that the best way concerning domestic violence is to prevent it in advance. Because it is the best way for domestic violence not to be used. However, if domestic violence is employed, (pastoral) counselor can counsel the offender and victims of it, heal them mentally as well as physically, and teach them through not merely continuous education but also appropriate programs.
  • 8.

    Christian Counselling and Human Relationships in Korean Culture

    Kang, Kyung Mi | 2005, 5() | pp.179~205 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Human beings are referred to as social animals that pursue their maturity and happiness through countless encounters with other people. The meaningfulness of men’s lives is connected to relationships with others. Men have to keep appropriate relationships with others, nature, and God. Modern culture has, however, deteriorated into extreme egoism and materialism. Immorality and selfishness prevail. The relationships with families, colleagues, and friends are controlled by a profit-and-loss calculation. Korean contemporary culture has shown the same trait. Especially, Korean culture emphasizes collectiveness. An individual always identifies himself or herself as a member of “we.”Family, educational, regional ties require unconditional trust among members. These ties have caused social problems, such as social irrationality and pretension, and unjustice (bribery). What is worse, when Korean honor and shame system has lost its functions, it has compelled Korean people to concern what others think about them, by ignoring what they are. As a result, people get accustomed to hypocrisy, ostentation, and pretentiousness. Basic human relationships become distorted. Modern scholars have employed pscyo-social methodologies to restore deviant relationships. Of various relationships, the relationship with God is essential in that it transcends the limitation of time and space and continues until we enter the Kingdom of God. Therefore, the relationship with God is prior to that with people. The Bible offers principles to treat others: A trustworthy man keeps a secret (Proverbs 11:13); Do not slander one another (James 4;11); Bear with each other and forgive whatever grievance you may have against one another (Colossians 3;13); Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves (Phil 2:3); Live in harmony with one another (Romans 12:16). These verses serve as perfect instructions that have to be applied to Korean contemporary culture to enhance human relationships.
  • 9.

    Korean Confucianism and Cultural Approach of Christian Counseling

    Jae Hee Han | 2005, 5() | pp.206~232 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Counseling is a process of encounter between a counselor and a client. There are cultural differences between a counselor and a client. Current theories of counseling and psychotherapy face to cultural issue. Theories of counseling and psychotherapy represent a variety of worldviews, each with its own values, biases, and assumptions about human behavior. Also, there is an increased need for indigenous models of helping used by healers and traditional figures in non- Western societies. In this research, multicultural counseling is introduced for the Application of Korean Christian counseling. Especially, researcher revealed traditional Korean cultural related to Confucianism that has been giving a great influence in Korean culture. Conclusionally, Christian counseling technics was applied for the Korean culture related to Confucianism.
  • 10.

    A Study on Nurturing(Counselling) Youths in Korean Culture

    Eun-kyoo Lee | 2005, 5() | pp.233~253 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with the theme of culture, which is the foundation in the lives of today’s youths, and compares general cultural concepts and Christian cultural concepts in order to distinguish and instill Christian cultural values in our youths. Moreover, by examining the characteristics of 21st Century culture and the cultural characteristics of Korean society (specifically the culture of Korean youths), this paper points out that anti-Christian values are prevalent in Korean youth culture. By understanding these characteristics, this paper presents a program on how Christian education should nurture and counsel youths.
  • 11.

    Women’s Place in Relation-Cultural Context - Pastoral Counseling for Married Women (Ajumma) from a Multicultural Point of View -

    Kim Mi Kyung | 2005, 5() | pp.254~284 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As modern society fractionalizes, the culture too diversifies. Traditional Korean culture contained a strong community component based on farm life, but today there isn’t any single integrating culture. For many, it is a positive unfolding now that each generation, class and area have their own voice compared to the preceding culture led by the older generation, the higher classes and from the center. However, for others this diversification is considered a serious problem. With so many different cultures among each generation, class and area, there isn’t any universal culture nor any accepted communication between the different cultures. So far, America has developed and practiced most of the various counseling approaches used today. These counseling approaches represented mostly white middle class values; promoting individualism, emphasizing independent problem solving and taking responsibility for their freedom. When people began to criticize that this white class oriented counseling approach could be applied to other nationalities, cross-cultural counseling was developed. This resulted in multicultural counseling taking into consideration different cultures. Though Korea is a small land and does not consist of different races like the United States, it has a strong provincial character and each province tries hard to differentiate itself. Each province has a unique way of thinking and an individual personality. Even within Seoul, the inhabitants differentiate people who live south of the Han river from those living north of it. Since Koreans tend to differentiate themselves and because we lack any accepted communication between cultures, I believe the most victimized group is the so-called the third gender, the Ajummas (literally married women). With their marriage, these women were drowned in this collective culture. Society further denied these women’s self identity by promoting sacrifice and services. As mentioned above, the cultural tendency of a nation has a strong impact on each member of the nation. That’s because to whatever culture the individual belongs influences the diversity of his thoughts and actions. Therefore, in order to help these women, a pastoral counselor has to be aware of which value he has and which role he is playing. At the same time he should explore what kind of influence he is making on the client. Jesus is a good example of pastoral counselor. He himself was aware of the diverse culture in which he lived and he healed and counseled people regardless of their class and provincial affiliation.
  • 12.

    The Study of a Group Art Therapy Program and its Effectiveness to Decrease the Maladaptive Perfectionism of Adolescents

    SooMyungShim | 2005, 5() | pp.285~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Adolescents with high perfectionism tend to feel guilty and humble themselves too much because they are obsessed by the feeling that they cannot reach the goal set by themselves and are unable to satisfy anyone with their behaviors. Also, they consider God as the Being that can never be pleased by them, so the feelings of doubts, disobedience and even hostility against God always overwhelm them, Therefore, in order for them to be recovered to the image of God as originally created, they should receive God’s grace given to them in Jesus Christ. To satisfy these needs, this study was researched to develop a group art therapy program to decrease the perfectionism of adolescents and to test its effectiveness. Also this study was intended to examine whether the developed program can be applied at churches and schools. The targets of the main research were the 40 second-grade middle-school students who were willing to participate in this test. They were selected from the high 30 percentile of perfectionism among the second-graders. The 40 students were divided into two groups, 20 students each. The 20 student group was divided again into two groups, the test group and the control group, 10 students a group. The group art therapy program was carried out after school for 7 months 2 to 3 times per week over 20 sessions, each session lasting 90 to 120 minutes. In order to verify the effectiveness of the program, MPS(Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), was chosen as a quantitative analytical tool and a pre-post repeated dispersion measure was made to compare the average differences of each group. For qualitative analysis, the observation of behavioral and emotional change of the participants and the group process evaluation were carried out each session. The study result could be summarized as below. First, the group art therapy program was effective in decreasing the perfectionism of the adolescents with high perfectionism. Second, the adolescents with high perfectionism showed a positive change in their emotion and behavior during each session. Third, the evaluation and the response of the adolescents with high perfectionism to the group art therapy was very positive. Therefore, this program which was developed as an alternative to lower the perfectionism of the adolescents is expected to be effectively applied at churches and schools.
  • 13.

    Relationship between Adolescence’s Parents Attitude and God Image - in focus of the Christian Adolescence -

    JOSEPH JEON | Bae Eun Joo | 2005, 5() | pp.321~346 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This research is to clarify that significant difference between parents attitude and God image, according to the Christian environment in individual and family. This research classified two kinds of religious affiliation: the period of church attendance, the assurance of salvation in individual and the Christian environment in the family. This researcher established the following three hypothesis. 1. There will be a significant difference between parents attitude and God image, according to the Christian environment in individual. 2. There will be a significant difference between parents attitude and God image, according to the Christian environment in family. 3. There will be a correlation between parents attitude and God image. This researcher observed 173 male and female middle ·high school student. The collected sample statistics were taken by applying the analysis of variance through a statistical package of the social science program 11.0(SPSS 11.0). This researcher used the one-way ANOVA, Pearson Correlation for hypothesis testing. The conclusion of this research were as follows: First, there was a significant differently between parents attitude and God image, according to the Christian environment in individual. Especially, assurance of salvation and the period of church attendance are very beneficial influences to God Image. Second, there was a significant differently between parents attitude and God image, according to the Christian environment in family. Especially, Christian faith of father are very beneficial influences to God Image. Third, there was a correlation between parents attitude and God image. Accordingly, a church ought to guide and counsel a Christian in order to get firmly parents attitude through Christian faith.