Korean | English

pISSN : 1739-0745

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2005, Vol.4, No.

  • 1.

    Confrontation and Gospel in Christian Counseling

    Kyu Myeong Whang | 2005, 4() | pp.8~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Confrontation is an active intervention tool by which the counselor brings a counselee into face-to-face contact with an issue. In Christian counseling, the main issue is about the sinfulness of human heart. The problem is the most human beings don't like to be dealt with their sinful heart. If counselors give up confronting the heart issue, the real change will never come. Modern Christians replaced love in relationships with being nice. We must speak the truth in love. We must confront but we must do it biblically. Biblical confrontation means starting with the counselor's own heart. Counselors must examine if there are thoughts, motives, or attitudes (self-righteousness, anger, bitterness, spirit of condemnation, vengeance) that would get in the way of God intends to do. Christian counselor's job is to hold the mirror of the Word of God in front of counselee so that he can see himself accurately. A mistake counselors often make when they confront sinful hearts and lead them to repentance is to emphasize the law over the gospel. However, it is the grace of the gospel that turns our hearts, because the gospel is God's magnificent promise of forgiveness in Christ. We need both, the grace of justification and the grace of sanctification. Christian counselor must confront counselee with the gospel of Christ. Even for the Christian counselee, the renewal of his relationship with Christ in every aspect of life is essential.
  • 2.

    Confrontation and 'Agape' Counseling: A Skill of General Counseling and a New Paradigm among Various Theories of Christian Counseling

    Kim, Tae-Soo | 2005, 4() | pp.29~67 | number of Cited : 3
    According to a number of studies regarding the issue of confrontation, confrontation is used infrequently, accounting for about 1% to 5% of therapist statements. Also, therapists and clients rated confrontation as moderately helpful but clients had negative reactions to confrontation such as being scared, worse, stuck, confused, or misunderstood. These studies suggest that confrontation can be helpful in point out problems of clients but needs to done carefully and empathically. Today various theories in the field of psychology have been introduced: Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis or Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy. On the other hand, Jay E. Adams who was a Protestant counselor introduced a theory of 'Nouthetic' counseling which was based on the bible as a biblical counseling. In the midst of various theories of psychology and counseling, the writer needed to give a presentation an evangelical theory that could give the life and the ‘agape’ love of Jesus Christ to the client. In this reason, the writer tried to deal with the issue of 'agape' counseling through this thesis. The writer got a hint from Jesus' examples of counseling in the bible and made a new title as a new paradigm of counseling among lots of theories. In the second chapter the writer deals with the issues of confrontation: concept, purpose, response, example, and a biblical case. In the third chapter there is the theory of 'agape' counseling as that of a new biblical counseling. In the fourth chapter the writer tries to deal with the application regarding the theory of confrontation and 'agape' counseling. This 'agape' counseling is the first theory that the writer presented as a new paradigm of Christian counseling, but not the last theory that the writer gave a presentation as a completed theory. Therefore, there is the task for the writer to formulate a system of this 'agape' counseling in the various theories of the 21st century.
  • 3.

    The Use of Counselor's Confrontation Technique in Christian Counseling

    Hahn Sook Ja | 2005, 4() | pp.68~102 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to explore the effective use of the counselor's confrontation technique in Christian counseling. By literature review, this study examines: first, the use of the confrontation technique in counseling and psychotherapy field; second, Jesus' confrontation in the Bible, and the purpose of confrontation in Christian counseling; third, how to apply the confrontation techniques of counseling theories to Christian counseling; fourth, when and how to effectively use the confrontation technique in Christian counseling. The use of the confrontation technique in Christian counseling should focus on helping a client realize, confess, and repent his/her sins so that the relationship of a client to God can recover. Christian counselors should keep in mind that in the process of confronting, the Holy Spirit is always present. The 'dispute' technique of cognitive counseling theory can be applied in helping a client confront his/her irrational beliefs and change to Biblical thoughts. The various techniques of the Gestalt counseling theory can be used for helping a client confront and realize his/her unsolved past feelings and bring about the catharsis of the feelings. But the techniques alone are not sufficient to guide a client to the road of grace. Christian counselors should let clients know that forgiveness only comes from God. The 'exposure' technique of behavioral counseling theory can be used for helping a client confront his/her evasive behaviors and have Biblical thoughts. Before the confrontation techniques of counseling theories are applied to clients, sufficient explanation and education about the techniques of counseling theories should precede their application to clients. When Christian counselor discusses sins with a client, he/she should listen carefully, understand empathically, and accept unconditionally what a client says. Above all, the counselor's empathy is the most important prerequisite before a confrontation. It is not good for a counselor to confront a client's sins too early, too fast, too often, and too directly. Christian counselors should use understandable, easy language, with soft and humble attitudes. After confrontation, Christian counselors should anticipate a client's possible resistances, and let the client express his/her feelings. Jesus had proper relationships with various kinds of people and Jesus' confrontations were carried out gradually. When a Christian counselor confronts a client with the client's sins, he/she can begin from less threatening issues and gradually move to deal with more serious issues.
  • 4.

    Confrontation and False Self

    Kim, Jun Soo | 2005, 4() | pp.103~131 | number of Cited : 3
    Confrontation is a essential part in the counseling process which helps the counselee to face and to own one's problem. However, it is not easy to confront someone who are activating defense mechanism in order to avoid the reality. Understanding one's defense mechanism helps the counselor to find a way to get into the heart of the problem. The false self is the term used to describe layer of defense erected to protect revealing real self. All major schools of therapy speak about the false self. The Jungians call it the persona(the mask). The T.A. people call it the adopted child. It is also called public self contrasted with the private self. The Bible speaks of the Pharisee hypocrite. In Greek hypocrite means an actor, one who is pretending. Jesus rebuked the phony performing self. This thesis tries to explain biblical understanding of the false self which began when Adam sinned at the Garden. After Adam and Eve sinned against God , being covered with the intense shame and guilt and afraid of rejection and punishment, they reacted to defend themselves. Based on their reactions to avoid facing the problem, this writer developed three defense mechanism. 'Fight' is an attacking response to protect oneself and avoid the real issue. 'Please' is an giving in to other's demand response in order to avoid rejection and, as the result, one fails to reveal the real issue. 'Flight' is a moving away from others response to avoid facing and owning personal problem. A key for effective confrontation depends on helping counselee to see their own defense mechanism to avoid the real problem. In other words, giving up one's false self and accepting true self is the heart of the counseling confrontation.
  • 5.

    Empathy and Confrontation in Christian Counseling

    Kim, Soo Youn | 2005, 4() | pp.132~154 | number of Cited : 2
    The uniqueness of christian counseling is discussed in terms of skills and process. The counseling skills such as empathetic mirroring and confrontation are posed as antithesis. It is argued, however, that their common function consists in opening blind eyes or awareness. The balance between them is tuned by the counseling process which develops in the midst of counselee's blindness. The dynamics of spiritual blindness are described in terms of sin's deceitfulness and the defense against God for self-sufficiency and autonomy. The counselor's questions asked from God's perspective and the citing the Bible as God's Words are suggested as powerful mirroring as well as confrontation skills. It functions as a searchlight in exploring the counselee's heart, which contributes to opening eyes. What to see as a result of opening eyes is dealt with as the theme critical for establishing the identity of christian counseling. For further study it is suggested the implication of weighing interpretation against confrontation, and vice versa.
  • 6.

    Understanding of Confrontation and Readiness of Christian Counselor

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2005, 4() | pp.155~177 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this study is to provide basis for a caring confrontation to Christian Counseling. First, this study try to understand several kinds of confrontation: confrontation in the counseling process, confrontation with past, confrontation in Reality Dynamic Counseling, and confrontation in Cognitive counseling. The technique of confrontation is renowned in Adlerian , Gestalt, existential, cognitive and R.E.B.T. therapies, but all therapies sometimes use confrontation. Confrontation involves making a counselee face his weaknesses and inconsistency. Although confrontational techniques are sometimes controversial because they are intrusive, therapists who use confrontation justify it by claiming that it can effect changes in behavior. Specially, confrontation in Christian Counseling is important because Christian Counselors want to help counselee find biblical solutions. They encourage change for God’s glory primarily but also for the counselee’s own benefit. Christian counselors speak the truth, but speak it in love (Eph. 4:15, 29). Second, this study try to find what readiness of Christian Counselor is. As Christian counselors give counsel to counselee from the Scripture and do not confront counselee with their own ideas or the ideas of others. For that reason, counselor has to discern that which may be found in the Bible. Our standard is truth and our judge is Scripture. Good discernment and moral accountability should be practiced among Christian counselors.
  • 7.

    Some elements and applications of Confrontation in Christian Counselling

    Kang, Kyung Mi | 2005, 4() | pp.178~203 | number of Cited : 3
    Modern men have suffered from the sense of confusion, estrangement, or futility that have resulted from rapid social, scientific development. In addition, they have drifted aimlessly, lost the sense of security, led unproductive lives, and tried to escape from the reality by being intoxicated with sensual pleasures. The erroneous thought and conduct of modern men come from the spiritual disharmony. Traditional psychological or medical treatments have not been helpful for such people. At this point, theology and psychology become incorporative to find a proper solution. Religion has offered the psychological counselling as a preventive tool and been a good source to encourage the people who are distressed by trauma and existential problems. In other words, Christian counseling has served as a tool to transform a person by reminding him or her God's love and lessening anxieties. According to B. Narramore(1981), the basic solutions to psychological conflicts is available only in Christ, since the Bible gives absolute moral, ethical norms. When the Spirit works, they can have greater impact. Thus, a Christian counselor encourages a counselee to confront the Word of God, their sinfulness and weakness, and realities of their lives. When the counselee have deeper understanding about themselves, they can restore the distorted relationship with people. This article suggests that the counselling that forces the counselee to accept the counsellor's directions has to be replaced by the method of confrontation that allows the counselee to confront their sins, conscience, pain, and crises and then to build up themselves with the Word of God, Since the article does not focus on a specific theme and deals with individual proposals, some doubt can be raised on the connectedness between confrontation and specific examples. Thus, if the method of confrontation is applied to counseling cases, it would be helpful for further studies.
  • 8.

    Effective Termination in Christian Counseling

    JOSEPH JEON | 2005, 4() | pp.204~225 | number of Cited : 1
    This research is to clarify on the effective termination in Christian counseling. Termination technique is important in Christian counseling. One is able to evaluate whole counseling process by termination. Accordingly, good termination in counseling is going to be successful counseling. The researcher dealt with meaning, concept, situation, timing, types of termination, dangerous points of termination, and technique of termination including prayer for termination in this paper. One of the best termination method is to consult together counselor and counselee.
  • 9.

    The Effective Verification of Inner Healing Program through Writing Confession of Inner Hurts in Group Counseling.

    Kim Young Keun | 2005, 4() | pp.226~262 | number of Cited : 1
    This study was intended to define inner healing counseling and to develop inner healing program through writing confession of inner hurts, and to examine the effects of the healing program. Confession can be defined as an act of revealing private information about oneself to others. It has effects on the confessor, on the receiver, and on the relationship. So confession is known as an effective counseling skill in group healing ministry. But Christians should be careful in disclosing their own hidden secrets in local church even though self-disclosure can bring up positive healing effects. So it is more desirable for them to use either writing confession or speaking confession about their facing situation, since disclosed secrets through speaking confession can make much harm to such a confessor. In the first chapter this study deals with the expansion and problem of inner healing counseling ministry in Korea. In the second chapter there are definition of inner healing counseling, and the relationship between inner healing counseling and writing confession. In the third chapter this study deals with a development of inner healing program through writing confession. In the fourth chapter this study deals with the effective verification of the healing program. In conclusion, this inner healing program made good results in emotion catharsis and increasing of positive thinking, and restoring self-esteem,
  • 10.

    A Study of Prospective Alternative Plan for Decreasing Divorce Rate in Christianity Perspective

    SooMyungShim | 2005, 4() | pp.263~289 | number of Cited : 0
    Due to rapid transformation of Korean society in late 20th century, Korean families were facing crisis of its value and its structure. One of the clear evidences of that crisis was raising divorce rate. We could see its harmful effect more easily in Korean society. The study focused not only on the research and analysis for actual condition but also on the possible alternatives to decrease divorce rate based on Christianity point of view. Summarizing the prospective alternatives was as below. First, 'Preparatory Wedding School' which was designed for marrying couples should be established as obligatory training in Christianity organizations. Second, the education for women should be strengthened because the divorce request became more frequent by women. Third, the education for men, which was based on 'predominance of men over women', should be convert into contemporary value. Fourth, various training and consultation programs should be provided for persons who were in the divorce procedures. Fifth, the programs for married couple of middle aged were to initiate for preventing 'twilight divorce' which was increased sharply for last few years. Sixth, 'Pre-wedding Education' should be set up and premarital promises be performed in church. Lastly, by cooperating with counseling organizations, various supports and programs should be provided for married couples. This study is believed to have some meanings, in that, there has not been many studies on divorces and possible alternatives to decrease divorce rate in Christianity. And we hope to have further studies, efforts and multilateral alternative plans to minimize the divorce. To do that, we should develop the systemized methods in cooperation with social welfare, and academic organizations.
  • 11.

    Counseling about anger that is one of causes of Domestic abuse

    Yun Suk-Ju | 2005, 4() | pp.290~309 | number of Cited : 0
    Domestic abuse is a problem not just of family but of society. The reason is that it reflects violence of society and inherits to next generation by teaching violence to children. Domestic abuse includes every activity that affects physical, psychological, sexual, or financial damage by a stronger person acting on a weaker person domestically. Moreover, domestic abuse is hard to discover, and its solution for a family is impossible without support from overall local society. Prevention against it is important on that point, and its countermeasure has to be planned throughout long periods. Also, a big project is needed to change into a society that does not tolerate violence. One of main causes of domestic abuse is anger. It is being angry habitually, and some people burst out their anger to other family members or people close to them like a habit without being patient on emotional or physical pain. Also, anger is coming from rage, which is one of basic emotions human has. Anger itself is not a problem, but its consequence is serious if it is not controlled well. Reasons of anger are based on grudge, resentment, and merciless mind. In addition, ill will, being mad, discontent, defamation, jealousy, impatience, criticism, revenge, hatred, incitement, envy, backbiting, and ridiculing are causes of anger. To express anger slowly, one must admit that s/he is angry straightforwardly without hiding it. Also, once emotion of anger starts, one should listen to own mind to control thoughts that makes anger and distinguish why s/he gets angry. In addition, one should not interfere everything, and admit to receive problems that may arise while having relationship with people. Moreover, one should train control and patience with peace of mind and keep that peaceful state of mind. Finally, frequency of anger will be reduced if s/he deal with it well while training control, reducing stress, leaving from start point of anger, having knowledge of the Bible, being healthy, exercising with proper rest, and having good meals.
  • 12.

    Short-term counseling in Pastoral Counseling

    ki young Park | 2005, 4() | pp.310~336 | number of Cited : 0
    This research is to clarify that David G. Benner's strategic pastoral counseling can be an effective model for short-term pastoral counseling. The study contains the process, element, and limitation of short-term counseling. Its body consists of short-term counseling, and short-term pastoral counseling. Today, many pastors are tied up with pastoral ministry except for counseling although the necessity of pastoral counseling has been on the increase in church. Sometimes, many of them give up counseling with their believers because of their busy schedule or lack of their counseling talent. However, church leaders should be interested in short-term pastoral counseling for a more effective pastoral ministry. In conclusion, pastors should change their consciousness for an effective pastoral counseling in church and more research on short-term pastoral counseling should also be performed in a continuous manner.