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2013, Vol.20, No.

  • 1.

    Heinz Kohut's Understanding of Personality and Christian Counseling

    Kim, Jun | 2013, 20() | pp.9~35 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the relatedness and limitations of Heinz Kohut's Self Psychology, an influential psychoanalytical theory, and its understanding of human nature in relation to Christian Counseling. The way to understand human personality tends to decide theories and practices of counseling. Christian counseling ought to uses Christian concepts of person, but often borrows the concepts of psychological theories on human personality as well. Yet, there is inevitable tension between Christianity and Psychology in using both views for Christian counseling, and this study is an attempt to interpret and assess Kohut's understanding on person in the light of Christian counseling. Specifically, this study first points out that biblical understanding of person is based on the notion that person is created in the image of God, which implies that people are relational being and sinners as well. Then it claims that Kohut's theory confirms this implication and describes people's limitedness as sinners by noting Kohut's contributions to explain the meaning of self, development of self, and self centeredness of self in the light of relational dimensions. However, the study claims that Kohut's emphasis on self is not in accordance with Christian understanding. The study argues that Donald Capps' use of self psychology in interpreting the Bible could be harmful to Christianity. Finally, this article concludes by suggesting a qualitative case study that examines relationship between Christian counseling and self psychology in future.
  • 2.

    The Effect of a Group Educational Counselling Program on Narcissistic Personality Tendency of the Seminarians

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2013, 20() | pp.37~61 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to measure the effect of a group educational counselling program(GECP) on narcissistic personality tendency of the Seminarians. This study confirmed the results as follows. First, as a result of homogeneity test between the experimental group and the control group, p=.792 did not show significant difference statistically in scores. Second, as a result of analysis of the pre-post differences of sublimity and exaggerated self-consciousness between the control group and the experimental group, the average scores pre(M=7.25)-post(M=6.33) of the experimental group are relatively showed a significant difference compared to the average scores pre(M=7.21)-post(M=7.29) of the control group. And self-capability and estimation susceptibility pre(8.52)-post(7.65) of the experimental group also showed relatively larger than the average scores pre(M=8.49)-post(M=8.46) of the control group. While a significant level of sublimity and exaggerated self-consciousness and self-capability and estimation susceptibility of the control group were meaningless, a significant level of sublimity and exaggerated self-consciousness p<.01 and self-capability and estimation susceptibility p<.001 showed statistically significant in the experimental group. In the above results, GECP has been proven to be effective for the control of the Seminarians' narcissistic personality tendency.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Understanding of Rejection Sensitivity and the Biblical Remedy

    Kim, Jun Soo | 2013, 20() | pp.65~93 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    To help explain maladaptive reactions to rejection, Downey & Feldman proposed a specific cognitive-affective disposition called rejection sensitivity. At the core of this disposition is the anxious expectation of being rejected by people who are important to the self, an expectation developed through exposure to serve and prolonged rejection. Those who are high in rejection sensitivity show a heightened tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. John Bowlby's attachment theory helps to understand a cause of rejection sensitivity. John Bowlby devoted extensive research to the concept of attachment viewing that early experiences in childhood, specially strong emotional bonds to particular individual, have an important influence on development and behavior later in life. Nevertheless the psychological research helps to understand the rejection sensitivity, this paper emphasizes the fact that It is the Bible that really reveals the true cause of it. To find the genesis of rejection, we go back to the beginning, to Genesis, and see that the roots of rejection harken back to the root of humanity, the first man Adam's rebellious sin against God. However, God, through the cross of the Jesus Christ, granted our salvation and acceptance. The Gospel has the remedy against the fear and anxiety of rejection and, in order that happen, the positional sanctification needs to be emphasized. Knowing who we are in Christ, our positional sanctification, is the biblical key to getting over from the high rejection sensitivity.
  • 4.

    Effects of God Image and Shame on Psychological Functioning

    Kim Hwacha | 2013, 20() | pp.94~124 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the relationships among God image, shame, and psychological adjustment experienced among Caucasian and Korean Christian college students. Toward this aim, it was hypothesized that levels of shame may be higher in Korean students than in Caucasian students; however, shame may have less negative effects on the psychological functioning of Koreans compared to that of Caucasians. This study employed a Structural Equation Modeling(SEM) to test hypotheses. Data were collected from October through December in 2008 with Caucasian(138) and Korean(133) college students from private Christian universities in Southern California and South Korea as well as several Korean churches in South Korea. For both samples, the God image as measured by the God Image Scales(GIS) had a direct effect on shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 Short Version(TOSCA-3) and the Korean Shame Scales(KSS) as well as psychological distress as measured by the Symptom Check List-90(SCL-90). Shame also had a direct effect on psychological distress. The direct effect of shame on psychological distress was stronger for the Caucasians than the Koreans for the KSS Disgrace; however, the direct effect of shame on psychological distress was not significantly different across cultures for the TOSCA shame-proneness. Consequently, Shame was found to mediate between God image and psychological functioning for both samples.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Career Counseling of Christian University Students on the Basis of Shared Praxis

    park, jin-hee | 2013, 20() | pp.125~152 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Having a career upon college graduation is absolutely necessary task for the purpose of personal growth and the enjoyment of fulfilled life. Christian career counseling to help Christian university students to prepare for, adjust in and maintain healthy career is not general career counseling, but a holistic process on the ground of Christian worldview and sense of calling based on the Scripture. The purpose of this study is to anchor essential values of young adults’ career counseling during the period of identity formation on Christian worldview, Christian view of humanity, and biblical view on vocation, so that one can execute one’s career counseling from the practical standpoint of faith to help Christian young adults to adjust in their society as healthy members. Christian career counseling based on Shared Praxis is to proceed the young adults’ task in career as action-critical reflection-new action. The meaning of holistic being of Christians created according to the image of God, and the essential meaning of vocation based on the sense of calling are considered by Christian perspective from the integrated point of view. In order to develop career counseling model for Christian university students who want to design and prepare for their task in career, Christian career counseling modules on the Shared Praxis model, it suggests introductory step, recognition step, transformation step, and application step. Each modules are designed for apply to restructure in the practical field of Christian faith.
  • 6.

    Impact of Spirituality on Self-Directed Learning for the Adolescent

    ByunYoungIn | 2013, 20() | pp.154~186 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    After the relationship between youth spirituality and self-directed learning was analyzed, the following findings were given: As a result of investigating the spirituality of the students, the boys found more meaning and purposes in life than the girls, and the high school students were ahead of the middle school students in terms of transcendence, compassion, awareness, meaning and purpose of life and inner resources. When their self-directed learning was assessed, the boys excelled the girls in inner control, and the high school students were more curious and better at inner control than the middle school students. As a result of analyzing the impact of spirituality on self-directed learning, both of the boys and girls were under the positive influence of their meaning and purposes of life. Besides, the boys were additionally affected by connectedness and intrinsic value, and the girls were additionally affected by compassion. More findings from the adolescent's gender, rather than higher grade level is higher spirituality, spirituality showed a distinct life of meaning and purpose, higher awareness level of adolescents' self-directed learning skills to increase.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Group Art Therapy on Cognitive and Perceptual Ability of Chronic Schizophrenia Patients : Focusing on a Change by LMT(Landscape Montage Technique)

    Yang Hee Won | Kim Mi Kyung | 2013, 20() | pp.187~218 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine which effects the art therapy has on a change in their cognitive and perceptual ability as for schizophrenia patients. The aim was to see a change in cognitive function and perceptual ability through pre-post qualitative analysis and to verify effectiveness of art therapy by carrying out LMT(Landscape Montage Technique) targeting schizophrenia patients. The subjects in this study were 12 chronic schizophrenia patient who had been hospitalized in a mental hospital in the city of Y for three years or more. The group art therapy held once a week, 90 minutes session for 25 times. The findings are as follows. First, as a result of carrying out post-test of LMT in group art therapy, the cognitive art therapy program could be considered to have effect on cognitive and perceptual ability by having influence upon schizophrenia patients' language expression ability. Second, as a result of carrying out post-test of LMT in group art therapy, the cognitive art therapy program could be considered to have positive effect on cognitive and perceptual ability by having influence upon schizophrenia patients' reality testing. Third, as a result of carrying out post-test of LMT in group art therapy, it could be considered to have positive effect on social cognitive and perceptual ability by having influence upon schizophrenia patients' interpersonal relations and social-skill ability. There is significance in a sense that a Christian counselor or therapist can have sole opportunity available for guiding those people to God while understanding clients deeply and curing disease through medium of art therapy.
  • 8.

    A Study on Application Family Script to Pastoral Counseling -Based on a Comparing with Bowen’s Family Therapy Theory and a Life Script of TA-

    Lee Young-Ha | Kwang-Hyun Choi | 2013, 20() | pp.219~245 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    A family is the first kind of relationship we get into as we are born. People sketch their thoughts about the world through their relationships with their family as a child. Then this drawing leads into the world and builds up to be an important part in relationships with other people. Life’s sketch is similar to TA’s Life script. The Life script is a life plan that develops through the influence of one’s parents. Life script is important enough to affect us when we make decisions in important situations. Especially children who have experienced hard relationships repeat what they experienced without knowing their family’s Multigeneration-transmission process. Likewise, family relationships have recurred patterns that get passed down for generations. A family’s problems and conflicts don’t end at one generation but get passed down to the next. One of the family therapists who has found interest in these ‘recurring patterns’ is M. Bowen. The family emotion system that appears in Bowen’s theory is a scenario of a ‘Script’ of a present family’s relationships. This study that see this behaviour patterns in family emotion systems would call this the ‘Family script’. And we would study on application Family script to Pastoral counseling
  • 9.

    Structural Relationship among Mother's Faith, Self-Esteem, Matrimonial Adjustment, Bringing Attitude and their Child's Emotional Isolation and School Maladjustment of Multicultural Family in Christian & Non-Christian

    JOSEPH JEON | 2013, 20() | pp.246~279 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research is to clarify the structural relationships of mothers' faith, their self-esteem, matrimonial adjustment, bringing attitude, and their child's emotional isolation. Also, this research emphasizes the school maladjustment of multi-cultural family between Christian and non-Christian. A group of 700 elementary school students and their mothers of multi-cultural family was selected from South Korea. To analyze the data, SPSS 19 was used to find t-test and multiple regression analysis, and AMOS was used for path analysis among variables. The result of this research is as follows: 1) there is no significant effect between mothers' self-esteem, matrimonial adjustment, bringing attitude of multi-cultural family, and their child's emotional isolation. 2) there is no significant effect between mothers' Christian faith, their child's emotional isolation, and school maladjustment. 3) there is no significant effect between mothers' self-esteem, matrimonial adjustment, bringing attitude and their child's emotional isolation. 4) there is a statistical significant difference between mothers' self-esteem, matrimonial adjustment, bringing attitude of multi-cultural family, and their child's school maladjustment. 5) there is a partial significant difference between a mother's self-esteem, matrimonial adjustment, bringing attitude, and their child's emotional isolation caused by meditation variances. In other words, mothers' negative bringing attitude have a negative influence on their child's emotional isolation, and school maladjustment.