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2013, Vol.21, No.

  • 1.

    Christian Counseling as a Synthetic & Integrative Discipline: A Structural Approach

    Kim, Yong Tae | 2013, 21() | pp.9~32 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article contains the effort to find out the nature of Christian counseling as a discipline. The author employed the methodology of literature review for the study. The author reviewed literatures in two different areas. One is Christian counseling scholars' studies which are the efforts of integrating psychology with theology or Christianity. The other is general counseling scholar's studies which are the efforts to define the structure of counseling as a discipline. The followings are the results of the research. First, scholars have defined the Christian counseling as a discipline of dialectical relationship between psychology and Christianity. Secondly, counseling has been defined as a discipline with synthetical nature founded by various disciplines. Thirdly, Christian counseling is a synthetical and integrative discipline beyond integration of psychology with Christianity. Fourthly, the theory of transcendental counseling is an example to prove Christian counseling as a synthetical and integrative model. Followings are some suggestions for Christian counselors to develop Christian counseling more coherently as a discipline. 1) Christian counselors have to develop the theoretical framework based on evangelical faith and world-view. 2) Christian counselors have to clarify the biblical perspective on human nature. 3) Christian counselors have to integrate theory and practice, so called 'clinical integration.'
  • 2.

    A Study on Integrative Holistic Healing Models - Centered on the Relatedness of the Kingdom of God -

    Sunghwan Kim | 2013, 21() | pp.35~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The central aim of this study focuses on proposing an integrative holistic healing model, related to the Kingdom of God, for the purpose of guarantying the identity and efficiency of the Christian holistic healing. Recently, although various types of holistic healing ministries have been peformed among many parishioners in the Korean Church, we can not deny there have been a lot of negative effects and victims, which may be due to irrelevant integration of theology and psychology in holistic healing approaches. According to theological examination of anthropology, we notice that a human being should be considered as a whole person, whose spiritual, psychological, physical, socio-cultural, intellectual, emotional, volitional dimensions are so organically intermingled that they cannot be separated in substantial level. In the light of theological understanding of whole person and the Kingdom of God, which can be used as major theological frameworks of holistic healing in the Christian Counseling, several holistic healing models are explored. Finally, an integrative holistic healing model is established and proposed, in which a whole person is considered as a eschatological being under the recreational work of God. Within this model, the separation of various dimensions of a whole person is allowed only in conceptual and functional level, while the work of the kingdom of God is emphasized.
  • 3.

    The Relationship between the Christian Religious Orientation and Attitudes toward Death

    ByunYoungIn | 2013, 21() | pp.61~91 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Death itself is fair to everyone, but a dying state, all about the fear of death, so unlikely to death, there is a need to study the attitudes. This study of the Christian religious orientation and attitudes toward death by age, gender attitudes and was to study the relationship. Five factors of death attitude were investigated in this study: death avoidance, fear for death process, fear for afterlife, neutral acceptance and approach acceptance. And two types of religious life were selected: intrinsic and extrinsic types. To this end, a survey of 331 people adults conducted research results are as follows. First, men have a tendency of women is higher than extrinsic, women, the higher the age, the higher extrinsic orientation. Second, the fear for death process and the fear for afterlife levels increased with increasing age. Third, The higher the intrinsic propensity showed a decreasing relationship fear for afterlife, fear for death process. Conversely, the increase of extrinsic orientation relationship that these fears were increased. Therefore, the Christians and the life of faith is not satisfied with that, intrinsic religious orientation will need to have.
  • 4.

    The Influences of Types of Conflict Management and Life Satisfaction of Retired Pastors on the Conflict Reduction

    Jung Kook Seo | Kim Mi Kyung | 2013, 21() | pp.92~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate variables as to how a type of conflict management and life satisfaction of retired pastors influence on the reduction of conflict. The subject were 84 retired pastors and scale of conflict management type, life satisfaction scale, and conflict that was used. Study results are as follows. First, the result of analysis on socio-demographic characteristics(age, academic background, and type of retirement) of retired pastors, there was no significant effect. But there was significant effect on interpersonal conflict as a sub-variable of conflict. However, there was significant effect on self-esteem as a sub-variable of life satisfaction represented with higher average score from senior pastors than regular retired pastors. Second, the regression analysis on how a type of conflict management of retired pastors and life satisfaction influenced on the conflict, kindness-integration conflict management and life satisfaction variables among four independent variables showed 34% of explanation. Third, according to the result how life satisfaction of retired pastors influenced on the conflict, only religious life variable among all six independent variables showed 29% of explanation. Fourth, factors which gave negative influences on conflict reduction were identified to be life satisfaction and conflict management. Based on the above study results, this study has a meaning to reveal that the conflict management type affecting the conflict reduction of retired pastors are kindness-integration type and that the life satisfaction is religious life and at the same time, to provide the basic data for conflict reduction of retired pastors in Korean churches.
  • 5.

    Practical Theology, Pastoral Ministry, and Pastoral Counseling for Korean-American Marriage: Cultural, Pastoral, and Clinical Applications with Bowen’s Family System Theory

    Chul Woo Son | 2013, 21() | pp.121~155 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In reality, Koreans are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. Recent Korean immigrants constitute the vast majority of the Korean American population. As a result, interracial marriages between Korean and Americans have increased, and have become a momentous issue in the Korean community. These couples face a harsh reality and have a difficult time adjusting to the differences in cultural norms and values. The entire paper is unified by frequent reference to the story of a Korean-American couple who has been married for twenty five years which forms the central clinical case for exploration. I believe that this case will provide a good example of a typical interracial couple’s marital problems that center in cultural differences, language barriers, and different family backgrounds. In addition, this paper will evaluate the case of a Korean-American couple utilizing Bowen’s approach to systems therapy. I want to critique its contribution as well as some perceived deficiencies in applying this framework to the context of Korean-American couples. If pastors and pastoral counselors can help interracial couples to accept, respect, and understand the partner’s cultural backgrounds, interracial marriage provides golden opportunities to understand both their own values and beliefs and learn from other’s values and cultures.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Christian Counseling Method for the Restoration of God-image of Codependents

    Eun Sook Ahn | 2013, 21() | pp.156~189 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore a Christian counseling method for the recovery of God-image of codependents. Its contents are; Firstly, this study examines the entity of codependency from biblical perspective with psychological understanding. Secondly, this study understands God-image of codependents which hinders relationships with God, parents, self, and others from biblical view and the perspective of object relations theory. Thirdly, this study suggests a Christian counseling method for the restoration of God-image. The results of this study are: Firstly, the core issue of codependents is the loss of their self-identity and dependent relationships. Its entity is sin and idol worship. Secondly, God-image has been formed by relationship with parents, which gives influence to self image formation. Thirdly, God-image of codependents results in gap between faith and life, which stumbles spiritual maturity. Fourthly, God-image has a value as a diagnostic tool of Christian counseling. Fifthly, a Christian counseling method for the restoration of God-image of codependents is the restoration of self image, parents’ image, and God-image, which comes from the recovery of relationships with God as the ultimate important others. It means the restoration of forgiving and loving relationships among God, self and parents in His love and forgiveness, which is spiritual maturity in Jesus Christ.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Calling and Ego-Resilience of Christian Youth Workers on Burnout

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2013, 21() | pp.190~221 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to recognize and better understand the effects of Christian youth worker's calling and ego-resilience on burnout. The subjects in this study were the selected workers who were in charge of youth workers in Church. A survey was conducted, and the answer sheets from 200 respondents were analyzed. This study confirmed the results as follows. First, The results revealed that Christian youth worker's calling and ego-resilience showed significant negative correlations with burnout. Christian youth worker's calling had a negative effect on burnout. When the youth workers had higher levels of calling, the degree of its sub-factors and total score of burnout were lower. Second, Christian youth worker's ego-resilience had a negative effect on burnout. When the youth workers had higher levels of ego-resilience, the degree of its sub-factors and total score of burnout were lower. The youth worker's ego-resilience had a greater influence than did ego-resilience on burnout. These results can help to solve and prevent the problems of burnout amongst youth workers by better understanding the psychological variables which have an effect on them.
  • 8.

    A Case Study on Intergenerational Transmission of Insecure Attachment from a Mother to her Child : Based on Bowen's Family Counseling Theory

    LEE DAH MI | 2013, 21() | pp.222~254 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There is a clear connection among the pattern of attachment, the intergenerational transmission of attachment and Bowen's family counseling. In multigenerational family counseling it has been seen through history that the emotional process of a family passess from one generation to next and unsolved or tangled problems of the previous generation can easily cause similar problems to the following generation. Therefore this study tries to see firstly how the pattern of insecure attachment of a mother will influence her children. And secondly how the intergenerational transmission of attachment of the client' family take place and thirdly, what changes can be detected after applying the Bowen's family counseling to the mother with an insecure attachment pattern to her child. The subject of this study is a male adolescent attending middle school. This client had problems with his mother due to his frequent conflicts with his peers, tardiness, absence, and running away from home incidents. The results of this study are as following: First, the mother's insecure attachment pattern did not influence positively on mother-child relationship where as it caused her child's problem behaviors indirectly. The mother's depression and anxiety hindered her sensitivity toward the child as a mother. Second, the family attachment pattern of the client showed that client, his mother, and his grandmother all have the insecure attachment. Third, after applying Bowen's family therapy to the client and his mother who has the insecure attachment pattern, it is showed that there were changes in family function and system and improvement of mother-child relationship along with the client's problem behaviors and school adaptation ability.
  • 9.

    Christian counseling on 'self-talk' as a psychotherapy method -centering around William D. Backus' TRUTH therapy-

    JOSEPH JEON | 2013, 21() | pp.255~291 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to clarify the Christian counseling on 'self-talk' as a psychotherapy method: centering around William D. Backus' TRUTH therapy theory. This researcher set forth a premise that wrong/negative self-talk is to due to psychological disorders and to to induce spiritual problems. A common feature of most of all psycho-neurosis and psychosis is wrong/negative self-talk. Evil practices of self-talk is due to mental depression, anxiety, phobia and other a lot of physical phenomena. Accordingly, in order to maintain one's psychological and spiritual health, one ought to stop and/or dispute wrong/negative self-talk. First of all, a counselee ought to refuse the wrong/negative self-talk volitionally. Especially, by repetition the positive/Biblical self-talk is to infiltrate into the core of unconsciousness. This paper is based on the Backus' TRUTH therapy theory. Which is of the best Therapeutic solution method of wrong/negative self-talk. There are four stages in order to solve wrong/negative self-talk. First stage is to exteriorize the inner self-talk. Second stage is to set restructure of internal self-talk. Third stage is to dispute and tell one's self the truth. Also, the last one is psychological habituation through repetition.
  • 10.

    Depression Recovery Processes of Christian Middle Age Women through Biblical Counseling - Grounded theory approach-

    Young Ok Ji | Kim Mi Kyung | 2013, 21() | pp.292~321 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore a substance theory appropriate for middle-aged christian depressed women by explaining how the participants recovered from their depressions and to verify the treatment phases of depression and the types of the recovery processes. For this purpose the grounded theory approach as one of qualitative research was used. The subjects of this study were eight middle-aged christian women who were about early-40s to mid-50s. And the data was based on 8 counseling cases which were progressed by one biblical counselor. After researching, 155 concepts, 39 sub-categories and 15 categories were derived from this study in the open coding. The recovery process had shown 6 stages. Core category out of selective coding was ‘the progress of restoring life by trusting God’. There were three types of depression recovery. ‘Independent maturation of faith type’, ’Faith community’s maturation type’, ‘Dependent on Shamanistic faith type.’ In addition, this study included the analysis of its contextual model. Based on the results of the above studies, this paper was to resolve the christian middle-aged women’s problem who suffered from depression. And this study tried to provide the theoretical foundation of biblical counseling by determining the types and stages.
  • 11.

    The Effect of Parent-Adolescent Affective Bonding(Bu-Ja-Yu-Chin-Sung-Cheong) on self-representation and Image of God(God Representation)of Christian Adolescents

    choi seoung jin | 2013, 21() | pp.322~351 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this the study is to examine what effects is exerted on self representation and God's image by parent-adolescent affective bonding(bu-ja-yu-chin-sung-cheong) as perceived by Christian adolescents. To achieve such purposes of the study, recognition on parent-adolescent affective bonding of Christian adolescents, self representation along with God image were analyzed to investigate the differences and their influence on God's image and self representation. The research was performed for 856 both male and female Christian adolescents (from 1st grade of junior high to 3rd grade of high schools). The results are as follows:First, according to the verification results of hypotheses for the influence of parent-adolescent affective bonding on self representation, it was found that "sense of unity" and "dedication" as variables related to parent-adolescent affective bonding have statistically significant correlation with "sociability", "benevolence" and "competence" as variables related to self representation. Second, according to the verification results of hypotheses for the influence of parent-adolescent affective bonding on God image, it was found that "sense of unity" and "dedication" as variables related to parent-adolescent affective bonding have statistically significant correlation with "sense of belonging", "sense of approval" and "sense of control" as variables related to God image. Through the study results discussed above, it was verified that the parent-adolescent affective bonding has an effect on the practical aspects of healthy self-representation of the Christian adolescents as well as positive image of God.
  • 12.

    What Brings Forgiveness: Reflections on Three Cases

    Gu-Hwa Hong Yi | 2013, 21() | pp.352~372 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Forgiveness is a religious coping method that primarily benefits the injured person through transformation of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors toward the offender. The offense can be caused by self, others, God, or situation. Forgiveness is a process that leads to lessening the feelings of unforgiveness and the increase of positive regard for the offender. My clinical experiences along with research findings suggest some elements that facilitate forgiveness in therapy. As for therapists, forgiveness issues tend to be effectively dealt with by a therapist who is open to assess and work with a client’s religious belief systems. Also, when clients have built trusting relationships with their therapists through enough number of sessions and exclusively talk about forgiveness in therapy, forgiveness issues are effectively dealt with in therapy. Using effective forgiveness interventions in therapy is also important to bring forgiveness, which in turn yields improved clinical outcomes. Core elements in effective forgiveness interventions include defining the forgiveness, recalling the hurt, building empathy, acknowledging own offenses, committing forgiveness, and overcoming unforgiveness. When a therapist employs effective interventions with sensitivity to each client’s situation, forgiveness therapy can help clients improve their clinical symptoms as well as grow and mature in the midst of their sufferings.