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2014, Vol.22, No.1

  • 1.

    Comparison of Korean and American Ethical Standards in Counseling

    Kim Hwacha | 2014, 22(1) | pp.9~50 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Many of Korean counseling associations borrowed their ethical standards from either the United States of America or Germany. So did Korean Christian counseling associations. For this reason, Christian counseling associations in Korea have not been able to identify their own Christian ethical principles and standards in counseling appropriate to their cultures. As professional Christian counseling has been developed in Korea, the number of Christian counselors hear also increases. It is evident that they need biblically-oriented ethical Christian counseling principles and standards in order to deal with various ethical dilemmas in the field. This study aimed to review and compare ethical principles and standards between Korean versus the USA as well as Christian versus non-Christian perspectives. For this purpose, several American and Korean ethical principles and standards were compared. American ethics are from American Psychological Association, American Counseling Association, Christian Association for Psychological Studies, and American Association of Christian Counselors. Korean ethical principles and standards are from Korean Psychological Association, Korean Counseling Psychology Association, Korean Christian Counseling and Psychotherapy Association, and Korean Pastoral Counseling Association. In comparison with ethical standards in the USA, which are very specific and congruent with legal regulations, those in Korea do not appear to be concrete. In addition, Korean laws and regulations for counselors have not been established well. Biblical and ethical principles were reviewed from several sources. The suggested ethical principles include, but not limited to, God's words, God's authority, Jesus Christ as a modeling figure, work of the Holy Spirit, connection with church and community, sanctification, Christian leadership, commitment, social responsibility, and so forth. Christian ethical principles need to be comprehensive enough to embrace secular ethical principles suggested by professional associations. For ethical counseling, therapists need to make an ethical decision at any situation. Several ethical decision-making models were reviewed in order to help Christian counselors develop rational thought process including referencing ethical standards and legal regulations, identify alternative options, evaluate options, consult with others, and reflect outcomes. In addition, ethical characters are necessary for one to be an ethical Christian counselor. It is integral that Christian therapists consider their motivation, integrity, commitment, maturity, and so forth. Moral characters are critically important to Christian counselors which is congruent to biblical teaching. Moral characters are demonstrated by Jesus Christ and continuously emphasized throughout the Bible. Among various ethical issues, the most frequent ones were discussed according to ethical standards. In terms of competence, counselors and psychologists needs to assure their ability to provide psychological services based on their education, training, supervision, and license. It is recommended to maintain their competence through continuing education. It is very important for Christian counselors to keep their competence because they are called to their profession by God. Two critical issues in a therapeutic relationship were reviewed and discussed according to their ethical standards. First, ethical and unethical dual relationships were discussed. Considering cultural differences between Korean and the USA, it can be viewed slightly differently. However, the benefit of clients and objectivity of therapist are considered utmost in dealing with dual relationship issues. Second, sexual relationship between therapist and client was reviewed according to its ethical standards and legal responsibility. Signs of dangerous relationships were reviewed and suggestions were made on how to increase awareness of personal issues and prevent these issues. Lastly, confidentiality and its limits were reviewed with related ethical standards.
  • 2.

    Application of Biblical Counseling in Discipleship Ministry: a Qualitative Case Study

    Myeong Ok Kang | 2014, 22(1) | pp.53~78 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine what benefits participants in discipleship training receive when experiencing biblical counseling redundant. Specifically, by asking the following research question, “What change did the participants discipleship training experience after receiving biblical counseling?” this study investigates how the participants experience growth and change in biblical counseling. To achieve this goal, the study first reviews precedent literature related to the topics such as discipleship, discipleship training, and biblical counseling, and explains theoretical background to examine a local church’s discipleship ministry and biblical counseling. The literature review found similarity between discipleship training and biblical counseling in their purpose and approach. Among many literature, David Watson’s book “Discipleship” has been a classic that explains the meaning of discipleship. For him, the essence of discipleship is to imitate Jesus and follow his steps in every aspect of one's life. “Discipleship training” usually refers to a specific ministry of local congregation to train its members in the areas of Bible knowledge, its application, and practices in everyday Christian life. Among various Christian counseling approaches, biblical counseling model resembles the goals and visions of discipleship and discipleship training. But a distinctiveness of biblical counseling can be found in its focus on concrete change in deeper levels in the areas of counseling related issues. Among various traditions of qualitative research methods, the study employed case study method for it investigates complex bounded system like a local congregation. To examine the effectiveness of biblical counseling in the process of a discipleship training, the study first selected a local congregation well known for its discipleship training ministry, and provided four participants in discipleship training process with individual biblical counseling and two ground counseling sessions which lasted for six months. Main data were transcripts from counseling and discipleship training sessions and they were coded through content analysis. The result of the data analysis reveals that the participants were having various issues such as marital relationship problems, depressed feelings, and internet overuse. Among them, the problem of internet overuse was notably shared. Thus, internet overuse problem was mainly addressed in counseling sessions. Data analysis reveals that the participants realized seriousness of the problem, importance of faith for addressing internet problem, and importance of local church through biblical counseling. Initially, the participants assumed that they were using internet a little more than ordinary use and that the use of the internet was necessary for life. However, through counseling intervention that helped closely monitor and analyze daily use of the internet, they realized the seriousness of their problem. Once they could see the reality in their problems, they could find other related issues. For instance, participants could connect the internet overuse with their marital and other related problems. By indulging in internet use, they avoided to face their relational problems and tried to fill the emptiness. The participants also could see their problems in the light of faith and the Bible. More concretely, they could see their struggles as spiritual battle. Finally, the biblical counseling intervention led them to acknowledge and appreciate the positive roles of faith community as a vital resource for spiritual recovery process. Based on this result, the study suggests six ways to apply biblical counseling in discipleship ministry in local church: materializing, actualizing, training, utilizing, recruiting, and expanding. That is to say, discipleship training ministry needs to have materials to provide information and specific content of biblical counseling. Further, it needs to implement the content of biblical counseling as a part of discipleship training program so that discipleship training ministry can touch every aspect of a believer’s life. To do this, educational program such as “counseling school” as well as professional counseling should have collaborative relationship that enhances growth and change.
  • 3.

    Relationship Between Emotion and Morality in Christian Counseling

    Eun Jin Kwoag | 2014, 22(1) | pp.79~109 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    One of the most important objectives of Christian counseling is the promotion of changes. Counseling is constructive, infusing the counselees with encouragement to adopt the Bible-oriented behavior and attitude while providing guidance. In other words, Christian counseling stimulates the changes and provides motivation to change the behavior and attitude. Motivation provides stimulation to make the ideas translated into actions, sets the direction for behavior, and enables the selection, and furthermore, infuses the internal power vital for sustaining specific behavior. Emotion is the signal that allows people to perceive and recognize such motivation. It is the signal system of God, using the internal instinctive senses. Emotion will be the signal assigning the motivation towards moral behavior, if the ground for maintaining the morality and sustaining the moral behavior is underpinned by the ability of humanity to achieve internal change and select sustainable behavioral changes based on motivation. Morality is the norm applicable to the real world where the humanity exists, and requires the discernment and judgment of situation. The perception of reality, which means understating and recognizing the real world, is based on the bedrock of self-awareness. The self-awareness is buttressed by the perceptual ability, and the perception is affected by momentary sensory reaction in the emotional realm. The emotional sensitivity perceived through the body stimulates the perceptual ability, thereby affecting the circumstantial judgment, and ultimately works as discernment. The discernment belongs to the realm of wisdom and gives rise to the motivation for proper judgment. Such circulation implies that the emotional development and moral development are interrelated while the ethical issues are related to emotion. The emotion is necessarily involved in morality, given that the emotion is associated with the importance of morality judgment and moral judgment entailing from moral behavior. That is because one needs to be sensitive to the relationship between one's own or others' emotion and possible behaviors when discerning and determining the situation from moral perspective. Emotion facilitates proper moral self-awareness and influences moral epistemology. In this process, the emotion partially forms the subject matter of moral epistemology. Thus, if the emotional reaction is disregarded or overlooked, the important decisive perspective will be missed and the consequential confusion in judgment would lead to the distortion that would result in the perception of situation from the externally prevailing or unreasonable viewpoint. The emotional holiness and morality which are manifested in the Bible represent the fruits of Gold's integrity and belong to the realm of absolute order. God's integrity has been considered based on His holiness and morality. His emotion also manifests itself as upright, righteous and moral because God is upright, righteous, and moral. In addition, the emotion is good and appropriate because it essentially belongs to God, and it has been made clear that the emotion was given as part of humanity. The biblical emotion is the source of power that leads people towards God's integrity and assigns motivation towards the holy emotion, and therefore requires morality and holiness. It implies that the healthy and restored emotion, which is based on biblical creation, makes humanity moral and holy, thus becoming the wholesome existenceThe holiness and morality of emotion from the standpoint of Christian counseling embody the absolute order witnessed in the Bible, and represent the domain at the center of the relationship with God. The influence of emotion, which affects the moral inference and judgment, manifests itself in conjunction with the interrelated cyclical backgrounds. The ultimate good and morality are related to emotional perception and reaction.
  • 4.

    A Study on a Person as ‘Homo Chronus’ and the Strategy of Effective Time Management

    Kim, Tae-Soo | 2014, 22(1) | pp.110~136 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this academic paper is to investigate not only a person as ‘Homo Chronus’, but also the effective strategy of time management. The method of studying this paper is to deal with reference books and the researcher presented five-step programs so as to train those who find the strategy of effective time management. The originality of this academic paper is to introduce a new concept regarding the following question: What kind of being is human? A new academic answer to this question is ‘Homo Chronus’ which the researcher made as a new concept and terminology. The concept ‘Homo Chronus’ means that each person can manage time, utilize time and create time as an intellectual being made in the image of God. The scope of this academic paper consists of not merely explaining the theories concerning time, but also presenting from the first step of the programs to the fifth. The contribution of this academic paper is as follows: First, the researcher dealt deeply with the issue of time. Secondly, Ephesians 5:15-16 in the New Testament are presented in order to emphasize time management. These verses are related to the issue of time. Third, five-step programs are introduced so that many people may utilize for the strategy of effective time management. We can think of time as a resource. A resource is something that lies ready for use. Also, time is a tool that can be drawn upon to help one carry out results. But time is not like other resources, because one cannot buy it, sell it, rent it, borrow it, lend it, store it, steal it, multiply it, or manufacture it. All people can do with time is to spend it. Time is not only free but also equitable. Everybody receives exactly the same amount of time each day. For effective time management, Merrill E. Douglass asserted twenty steps to successful time management as follows: First, clarify your objectives. Second, focus on objectives, not on activities. Third, set at least one major objective each day and achieve it. Fourth, record a time log periodically to analyze how you use your time and keep bad time habits out of your life. Fifth, analyze everything you do in terms of your objectives. Sixth, eliminate at least one time waster from your life each week. Seventh, plan your time. Write out a plan for each week. Eighth, make a to-do list every day. Ninth, schedule your time every day to make sure you accomplish the most important things first. Tenth, make sure that the first hour of your workday is productive. Eleventh, set time limits for every task you undertake. Twelfth, take the time to do it right the first time. Thirteenth, eliminate recurring crises from your life. Fourteenth, institute a quiet hour in your day. Fifteenth, develop the habit of finishing what you start. Sixteenth, conquer procrastination. Seventeenth, make better time management a daily habit. Eighteenth, never spend time on less important things when you could be spending it on more important things. Nineteenth, take time for yourself. Twentieth, develop a personal philosophy of time. If one wants to effectively utilize time, he or she needs to decide the priority of a task, deal with procrastination, and learn to anticipate deadlines. Laura Vanderkam introduced eight steps for the process of time creation as follows: First, log your time. Second, create your “list of 100 dreams. Third, identify your core competencies. Fourth, start with a blank slate. Fifth, fill in your 168 hours with blocks of core-competency time. Sixth, ignore, minimize, or outsource everything else. Seventh, fill bits of time with bits of joy. Eighth, tune up as necessary.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Christian Group Counselling on Adolescents with PTSD

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2014, 22(1) | pp.137~165 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of Christian Group Counseling on adolescents with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For this purpose, the researcher analyzed differences observed in participants that partook in Christian Group Counselling Program (CGCP) and those who did not who were divided into two different groups, one experimental and the other, control group. The participants consisted of 24 students in grade 11 and 12 with high PDS-K (Korean PTSD measure) scores who currently attend churches located in Seoul and Kyung-Gi area. They were divided into an experimental group and a control group in order to apply CGCP and test and analyze its effects. The verification measures used for this study was Cronbach’s α, and the reliability and validity of the validation scale were proved to be relatively high. The study applied quasi experimental design and the CGCP was applied to the students in the experimental group once a week for 90 minutes, 13 times in total, from November 16, 2013 to February 18, 2014. For data sampling, preliminary examination, pre-, and post- tests based on a questionnaire were conducted to see if there is any change observed. The primary data were analyzed through a statistical package program PASW (SPSSWIN 20.0). In order to verify the frequency, average, and hypothesis, frequency, percentage, and t-test were applied, and to verify the hypothesis, statistical significant level was set at 95%. Based on the testimonies of the observer as well as parents counselling, individual case studies were conducted for those in the experimental group with a high average difference in the pre- and post- tests. Findings of the study are as follows: First, the result of homogeneity test between the experimental group and the control group came to be p=.402. This shows that there is no significant difference statistically in scores. Second, as a result of analysis of the pre- and post- test differences between the control group and the experimental group, the average of pre(M=2.78)-post(M=2.64) of the experimental group is proved to be relatively higher than the average of pre(M=2.79)-post(M=2.78) of the control group. While the significance level of the control group is proved to be meaningless, the significance level of the experimental group is proved to be p <.01, showing statistical significance. CGCP’s effect on adolescents with PTSD is proved to be positive. This implies that there is much potentiality in CGCP for the restoration and healing of the adolescents with PTSD.
  • 6.

    The Wisdom of Pastoral Counselor from Henri Nouwen

    Oh, Taekyun | 2014, 22(1) | pp.166~195 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article deals with Henry Nouwen’s contribution to pastoral care and healing ministry. While pastors view their involvement in faith communities in which they live and work as guiding people toward a life of wholeness and integrity, they realized that they are not well-prepared enough or equipped as pastoral counselors. This paper investigates how pastors can get some helpful wisdom and knowledge from Henry Nouwen. As a Catholic theologian, Henry Nouwen has gained much popularity and respect in Christian circles. Nouwen combined a strong devotion to God with a comforting yet distinctly intellectual style that strikes a strong and sympathetic cord. Many pastors, professors, and lay people are attracted to his deep thinking and insightful healing approach for those who live in post-modern society. This paper explores Henri Nouwen's four representative books among more than fifty published books, 'Wounded healer', 'Reaching out', 'Bread for the journey', and 'Adam' to discover the lessons and insights for helping professionals, especially pastoral counselors. Born in Nijkerk, Holland, Nouwen felt called to the priesthood at a very young age due to his family environment. After ordination as a diocesan priest he studied psychology at the Catholic University of Nijmegen. And then he moved to the United States to study at the Menninger Clinic, in which he equipped himself as professional counselor. He went on to teach at the University of Notre Dame, and the Divinity Schools of Yale and Harvard. For several months during his sabbatical years, Nouwen lived and worked with the Trappist monks in the Abbey of the Genesee, and he had experienced genuine intimacy with God. After realizing his calling from God, he joined L’Arche in France, the first of over 100 communities founded by Jean Vanier where people with developmental disabilities live with assistants. A year later Nouwen came to make his home at L’Arche Daybreak near Toronto, Canada. The above mentioned literatures provide the necessary and essential insights for pastoral counseling in faith community. He describes what he calls the "nuclear man", characterized by historical dislocation, fragmented ideology and the search for immortality. This concept comes close to the common concept of the individualistic, post-modern, social constructionist man. He describes 'tomorrow's generation' as inward, fatherless and convulsive. From that, he derives 'tomorrow's leader', 'minister' or 'healer' as an articulator of inner events (through articulating his own experiences, one can understand and help others recognize the work of God in themselves), a man of compassion (as a base of his authority) and a contemplative man - a man of deep prayer. Weaving keen cultural analysis with his psychological and religious insights, Nouwen has come up with a balanced and creative theology of service that begins with the realization of fundamental wounds in human nature. Emphasizing that which is in humanity common to both minister and believer, this wound can serve as a source of strength and healing when counseling others. It is his contention that ministers are called to recognize the sufferings of their time in their own hearts and make that recognition the starting point of their service. For Nouwen, ministers must be willing to go beyond their professional role and leave themselves open as fellow human beings with the same wounds and suffering -- in the image of Christ. In other words, we heal from our own wounds. For Nouwen, the purpose of pastoral counseling is to deal with guilty feeling, oppression, liberation from wounds and desire that human beings possess. After coming to a concise understanding of the characteristics of a his view of human being, Christian healer, and pastoral counselor, this article suggests two wisdom for the pastoral counselors: spiritually well-equipped pastoral counselor, and concrete understanding of human being.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Music in Development of Child Personality and Artistic Expression

    Chang Sun Lee | Kim Mi Kyung | 2014, 22(1) | pp.196~220 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to identify how different types of background music (silence, children’s songs, classical music and gospel hymns) influence children's personality development and painting expressions. The subjects included 80 children, no older than 5 years, who go to childcare centers operated by christian institutions in Seoul. They were assigned to four different groups of 20 each: the silence group, the children’s song group, classical music group and the gospel group. The study topics were as follows: 1) how different types of background music affect the personality development (i.e., basic habits, self-identity, sense of community, sociality, physical development); 2) how different music types affect the painting expressions on the representation, exploration and art levels; and 3) if personality attributes are represented in paintings that are different by music types. The study was conducted in the order of preliminary research, subject selection, pre-test, experiment, post-test, and result analysis. The result is as follows: first, in the examination of how different music types influence children’s personality development, the gospel group scored higher in the post-test of basic habit development than in the pre-test, showing a statistically significant difference. Second, the post-test of self-identity development of the gospel group also scored higher than the pre-test and thus showed a statistically significant difference. Third, the children’s song and gospel groups delivered a meaningful difference in the development of the sense of community, while the other two groups showed no significant difference. Fourth, no significant difference was found with regard to the physical development in all groups. Fifth, the children’s song and the gospel groups scored higher in sociality development than the silence or the classical music groups. Sixth, in the examination of how different music types influence children’s painting expression, none of the groups showed a significantly different result in the test of the representation level. Seventh, the classical music and the gospel groups showed a statistically meaningful difference in the test of the exploration level, with the average score of tenth test higher than the first one. This indicates that classical music and gospel have effects on the exploration level of children’s painting expressions. Eighth, with regard to the art level of the painting expressions, there was no significant difference between the silence, the children’s song and the gospel groups. Only the classical music group showed a significant difference, with the average score of tenth test higher than the first one. This shows that the classical music influenced the art level of children’s painting expressions with a statistical significance. Ninth, with respect to the personality attributes identified in the painting expression made different by music types, 6, 6 and 11 personality attributes were found in the children’s song, the classical music and the gospel groups respectively. This study confirmed that different music types influence children’s personality development and painting expressions. Gospel affected the development of children’s basic habits, self-identity and the sense of community and sociality, while children’s songs influenced their sociality and sense of community. With regard to the painting expressions, gospel influenced the exploration level while classical music influenced the exploration and art levels. Such result shows that gospel has positive effects on personality development of children.
  • 8.

    Christian Counseling on Adolescent Pornograph Use

    JOSEPH JEON | 2014, 22(1) | pp.221~255 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to clarify Christian counseling on adolescent pornographic use. Human being is born with one's own gender, male or female. It is natural for human being to show interests in opposite gender. Accordingly, liberal theological viewpoints emphasize that adolescent pornograph use is through which one becomes an adult. So, the adolescent pornograph use is understood as a means of eliminating one's sexual desire. However, one should not consider pornograph insignificantly. There have been many discussions about this issue for the last two decades. But these discussions have not come to an end, and there are many different opinions. From a conservative perspective, pornography is the basic cause of sexual immorality, transgression, social evil practices and many crimes. They emphasize that pornography has to be strongly prohibited. But liberals insist that pornography has an effect of psychological catharsis including exhalation of sexual aggression. Those who become exposed to pornography in their adolescent years will consider that sexual pleasure is happiness of their lives. It seems like this sexual problem is adults in common. Repetition of pornograph use in adolescence will cause a wrong sexual awareness and abnormal sexual conducts. The pornograph use will cause not only invite a barrier to Christian faith development but also communicate various spiritual evil practices. An evangelical Christian counselor ought to adolescent pornograph use will cause non-biblical conduct and transgression. Pornography includes video tapes, images, DVDs, mp3 sounds, pictures, etc. However, in digital era, most adolescents become exposed to pornography through smart phone or internet. The development of the mass media leads to more aceess to pornography. Recently, a development of three-dimensional image brings a press for the improvement in pornography quality. The 3D image gives the peripheral and strong stimulus. The producer of pornography will get an exorbitant economic profits through the 3D images. Lastly, the influence of pornography is going to increase everywhere. When a male and a female adolescent contact pornography at the same time, the male adolescent tends to induce more sexual impulse and desires than the female adolescent. This research deals with definition and notion of pornography, actual condition and evil practices of pornography, biblical understanding on pornography and methods of Christian counseling on pornography. The researcher believes the pornographic use degrades women, and enhances male's tendency to dominate over women. Also, other problems of the pornographic use make adolescent genital and to have pleasure centered thinking, abnormal sexual conducts, mimicry of pornography, sexual addiction, aggression, and spiritual evils. It is hard to pray truthfully, especially in the exposed in pornography from spiritual evil practices. Some adolescents who are exposed to pornography have doubts about their spirituality. One is unable to find the evincible instruction on pornography in the Bible. There is no 'pornography' in the Bible at all. However, there are many passages on obscene sin such as Genesis 9:22-23, Exodus 28:42, Psalm 119:37, and more. Pornography exposure is continued to an addiction immediately. In order to be freed from pornograph use, first, one needs to acknowledge and confess one's sin. Second step is to repent and seek forgiveness. Third step is to recognize the importance of having an intimate relationship with God. Evangelical Christian counselors ought to emphasize the importance of having an intimate relation with God. It is important to have an intimate relationship with God in order to conquer the pornograph.
  • 9.

    Biblical Counseling Illumination of Integrated Models of Christian Counseling

    Hyung Joon Jun | 2014, 22(1) | pp.256~289 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    There are a number of schools in the modern Christianity counseling field which criticize or complement one another through mutual debates. The most fierce debate subject is about how to approach psychology. In fact, there are various opinions about how to approach psychology among scholars of Christian counseling. Some of them support counseling based on psychology while others support counseling based on the Bible principles. An integrated model that integrates Christianity and psychology has emerged only recently. The term “Integration” in this field was firstly coined by Fritz Kunkel. After him, the integration between Christianity and psychology has been confused with many difficulties. Some scholars have preferred a theoretical approach whereas others have preferred a practical approach. Some scholars have paid attention to how to integrate them whereas others have paid more attention to what to integrate. Therefore, it is not easy to define the direction of the integration in short since the approach and opinions of the integration vary. The integration of Christianity and psychology is as important to human lives as the integration of theory and application, faith and practice, and politics and economy. This study aimed to re-highlight and evaluate the integration model of the Christianity counseling from the viewpoint of the biblical counseling. To achieve this goal, history, concepts, and opinions of the integration en the Christianity counseling were discussed first in this study. Moreover, the integration models of various scholars were reviewed. The integration model of the Christianity counseling was re-highlighted from the biblical counseling point of view. This paper is organized mainly with three parts. The first part is about various opinions of the integration. The second part is about the integration models. The third part is to re-highlight the integration model with biblical counseling viewpoints. Through this paper, opinions and models of the integration were understood and the integration of the Christianity counseling was re-highlighted and evaluated from the biblical counseling viewpoints. The findings are as follows. First, the truth of the Bible, which contains the precise Words of God, should not be altered due to the integration. Second, the authority of the Bible should not be treated like psychology. Third, psychological knowledge and information that conflict with the biblical view of the world are not acceptable. Fourth, psychology and counseling should be re-illuminated through a biblical lens. Fifth, psychological theories and information can be used as long as they do not contradict biblical teachings.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Christian Counselling for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Min Young Choi | Eunnie-R. Rhee | 2014, 22(1) | pp.290~322 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to help the obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) clients obtain the true freedom which the Gospel can give and set them free from a distressful yoke of obsessions and compulsions and to present a Christian coping plan to Christian counselors who will meet OCD clients by providing the Christian understanding of OCD and the possibility of Christian therapeutic application of OCD. This study consists of five dimensions: a review of research literatures concernig OCD, a general overview and description of OCD, a summary of symptoms of religious OCD, introduction of a primary OCD treatment approach, and one case study in which one of the researchers treated an OCD client in a Christian manner. Previous research is divided mostly into four parts. They are about OCD etiology, OCD comorbidity, OCD treatment approach and religious OCD. First, the definate etiology of OCD remains unknown yet. Some researchers study the etiology of OCD in neurobiological aspect and other researchers in psychological aspect. Concerning the comorbidity, OCD is reported to be comorbid with personality disorders including borderline personality disorders, avoidant personality disorders and histrionic personality disorders. Next, OCD treatment approach is divided into two areas. One is medications which play an important role in the treatment of OCD. The other OCD treatment is exposure-response prevention(ERP) which is psychological intervention which is best-tested. Lastly, research on religious OCD is done. Research examines primarily the relationship between OCD and religious faith and scrupulosity in OCD clients. In second dimension, we present the general concept of OCD. OCD is defined in DSM-5 as obsessional thoughts and/or compulsive actions. “Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced as intrusive and unwanted, whereas compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly”(DSM-5). An international group of researchers proposed six domains of cognition relevant to current cognitive-behavioral formulations of OCD. They are inflated responsibility, overimportance of intrusive thoughts, overimportance of controlling one’s thoughts, overestimation of threat, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism. OCD symptoms related to religion include intrusive blasphemous thoughts, obscenities related to religious figures, and thoughts about joining the devil and going to hell. Compulsions include repetitive prayer as a route to cope, seeking reassurance from others and treating religious symbols with excessive care. As therapeutic techniques, we introduce ERP, the central treatment of Behavioral Therapy. ERP includes exposure exercises and response prevention. Exposure exercises involves real-life or imaginal contact with anxiety evoking stimuli. Response prevention encourages OCD clients to block or delay compulsive rituals after performing exposure exercises. Some cognitive strategies of Cognitive Therapy are mentioned very briefly as well. Finally we add one case study, in which an OCD client is treated by applying ERP and Cogntive Therapy in a Christian way. He is taught that what he thinks is uncontrollable and intrusive, and he can’t do anything about it. He learns to refer responsibility of his thoughts to God. Instead of praying for forgiveness, he prays to know and experience God Himself.