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2014, Vol.22, No.2

  • 1.

    Understanding of Grief caused by Loss

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2014, 22(2) | pp.9~40 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the resources derived from the general approach and Christian approach to grief and loss caused by death. In the general approach, clinical studies analysed the mourner's grieving process and suggested the tasks of mourning for restoration within the context of Western social cultural trend typified by the death-denying. According to the Christian approach, Christian counselors emphasized the distinctive faith resources such as hope and the means of grace, the practical tools such as the liturgy, the Scriptures, and prayer, and the necessity to perceive the reality of loss and express emotions. Furthermore, this article concretizes three aspects in some insightful contents of the preceding research data, which can be available to apply for Christian care practices. Based on this understanding, the caregiver would help survivors to grieve appropriately their loss and take them through the grief work. First, emphasizing the necessity to perceive the several faces of grieving reactions and the importance of emotional expression. The appropriate understanding of the dynamics of grief can be the good first step to help the person who had experienced the loss. Second, suggesting the significance of releasing what's happened and accept the reality as it is. Third, grasping not only the meaning of the hardships through the grieving process, but also the Lord who is an object of great reverence and give the grieving person the real meaning of loss.
  • 2.

    False Self, True Self, and Self-Denial: The Contribution of Object-Relations Theory to Christian Self-Denial

    Kyubo Kim | 2014, 22(2) | pp.43~79 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The act of self-denial in the Christianity seems to be in conflict with the idea of self-fulfillment. True self-denial however leads to self-fulfillment in God. Within the framework of true and false self based on Donald W. Winnicott's theory and Christian theology, this paper addresses the reality that while self-denial by the false self results in distorted practices of denial, the practice of self-denial motivated by the true self rather achieves self-fulfillment. In self-denial by the false self, people feel empty, though it may help them to adapt to a religious environment. The defensive reaction of the false self has a tendency to reveal itself with compliant, aggressive, and evasive self-denial. However, the true self in the practice of self-denial can fulfill the roles that God empowers to the self, find spiritual satisfaction, and feel real in the restored relationships with God and others. Given that pastoral environments provide "good-enough mothering" and "responsible fatherly care" for a psychologically and spiritually safe place to reveal the true self, an individual can face his/her reality of false self-denial and engage in true self-denial. The true self then can practice mortification of sin and self-giving love through surrendering to God within community, and eventually accomplish self-fulfillment, which completes the purpose of God and glorifies God.
  • 3.

    The Relationship between Spiritual Well-being, Internet Addiction and Comorbidity in High School Student

    Kim, Su Hyun | Kang, Yeon Jeong | 2014, 22(2) | pp.80~125 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research is concerned to correlation between high school student’s spiritual wellbeing and internet addiction or comorbidity. Using questionnaire method, the study is based on 212 student’s answers in Christian high school. The results are as follows. First, there is a meaningful difference in spiritual wellbeing, Internet addiction, and comorbidity according to the general attribute. The students who go the church have been better spiritual wellbeing level and who don’t go to church have been higher internet addition and comorbidity. When the period of attending church is longer, their spiritual wellbeing level was higher. But the period is short their level of withdrawal symptoms of addition and comorbidity was higher. If the students have the conviction of salvation in Christianity, their spiritual wellbeing level was higher and withdrawal symptoms was lower. Second, between the Spiritual wellbeing and Internet addition or comorbidity there was meaningful connection. In relations of wellbeing and Internet addition, there was meaningful negative correlation and between the Internet addition and the comorbidity has meaningful static correlation. As the result of this research, spiritual wellbeing, internet addition or comorbidity has meaningful difference according to student’s spiritual activity. Moreover, the higher spiritual wellbeing leads lower Internet addition and comorbidity. For spiritual wellbeing causes negative correlation between Internet addiction and comorbidity. This research has significant meaning in understanding correlation between spiritual wellbeing and internet addition or comorbidity. And discovering necessity that a society need to concern high school student’s spiritual wellbeing to protect internet addition disorder and comorbidity.
  • 4.

    Effects of Group Art Therapy on School Adjustment of Maladaptive Behavior Children

    KIM EUN HYE | Jung, Seon Hwa | 2014, 22(2) | pp.126~152 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of group art therapy on the school adjustability of maladjusted children. The subjects in this study were nine selected children who were in their first, second and third grades in an elementary school located in an urban community, Gyeonggi Province. The selected children participated in after-school programs. The level of their maladjusted behavior and school adjustment was tested, and the KSD test was conducted to make a qualitative analysis of their school adjustment with teachers and peers. As a result, there was a significant decrease in the maladjusted behavior of the maladjusted children to whom a group art therapy was provided. In the pretest, they scored low in peer relationship, class participation and self-control that were the subfactors of school adjustment, but they showed a significant rise of scores in school adjustment after they engaged in the group art therapy activities. In the KSD test, there were negative descriptions in their pretest drawings, which showed that they were alone without mingling with their friends, fought with them or pointed a gun or knife at them. In the posttest drawings, however, they worked out with their peers or described themselves and friends in various ways. Some explained their drawings in detail, and the lines that they drew looked softer. Thus, the children who had showed maladjusted behavior underwent positive changes in peer relationship, way of looking at school life and emotional psychology.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Spiritual well-being and Life Events Stress in Middle-aged Christian Women - centering around Mediating Effect of Depression and Self-esteem -

    Kim, Heesun | JOSEPH JEON | 2014, 22(2) | pp.153~183 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This research was to clarify the effects of spiritual well-being and life events stress in middle-aged Christian women centering around mediating effect of depression and self esteem. This research was conducted with 307 middle aged Christian women living in Kyonggi Province area. The results of this study were as follows; firstly, there were statistically significant difference between life events stress and spiritual well-being of middle aged Christian women. It is also found that among mental depression, spiritual well-being, life events stress and self-esteem have mediating effect. Further more, duration of Christian life had no effect on life events stress. However, there were negative correlation between self-esteem and spiritual well-being. The study was limited to the Christian middled-aged as subject of study and not all the middle-aged women were covered in the research. However, this was to draw solutions in light of Christian consultation. As a result, spiritual well-being can control the effects of life events stress on mental depression, then, spiritual well-being can help to cope with the life events stress when it is increased. Therefore, the study sought for way of Christian consultation through cognitive behavioral therapy. It is crucial to correct distorted thoughts to relieve life events stress, to overcome depression, and uplift self-esteem. This leads to have stable family with the help of healthy Christian life and spiritual well-bing.
  • 6.

    Mediating Effect of Spiritual Well-Being in the Relation between Gratitude and Depression

    bakmiha | 2014, 22(2) | pp.184~212 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to verify the mediating effect of the lower variables of spiritual well-being of religious well-being and existential well-being in the relation between gratitude and depression of Christians. The subjects of study were 339 Christians above age 20 and gratitude scale, spiritual well-being scale and depression scale were conducted. Using SPSS WIN 18.0, correlation analysis and the mediation regression analysis presented by Baron & Kenny (1986) were conducted. The Conclusions drawn from the analyses are as follows. First, gratitude was positively correlated with spiritual well-being and negatively correlated with depression, while showing that spiritual well-being was negatively correlated with depression. Second, it was found that the lower variables of spiritual well-being of religious well-being and existential well-being had a partial mediating effect in the relation between gratitude and depression. Namely, gratitude had direct effects on depression but it had indirect effects through the mediation of the lower variables of spiritual well-being of religious well-being and existential well-being. Such result implies that the role of gratitude is important in decreasing Christians’ depression and there is a need to increase spiritual well-being. Accordingly, this study providing information on a new resource of gratitude and spiritual well-being in decreasing the depression of Christians. Finally, implications and limitations of the study, directions for future research were considered.
  • 7.

    The Effect of Happiness Enhancement Group Counseling on the Happiness, Depression and Anxiety of Christian Adolescents

    Oh, Yoon Sun | 2014, 22(2) | pp.213~246 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of Happiness Enhancement Group Counseling(HEGC) on the Happiness, Depression and Anxiety of Christian Adolescents. Findings of the study were as follows: First, the result of homogeneity test between the experimental and the control group came to be happiness(ρ=.224), depression(ρ=.152) and anxiety(ρ=.221). This result showed that there were no statistically significant differences in happiness, depression, and anxiety scores. Second, as a result of data analysis from the pre- and post- test, there were some significant differences in the mean scores between the control group and the experimental group, the average the mean scores of happiness(pre M=23.110-post M=28.200), depression(pre M=40.762-post M=35.801) and anxiety((pre M=25.825 -post M=20.231) of the experimental group is proved to be relatively higher than the average of happiness(pre M=24.100 -post M=23.910), depression(pre M=38.632-post M=37.921) and anxiety((pre M=27.321 –post M=28.121) of the control group. While the significance level of the control group is proved to be meaningless, the significance level of the experimental group is proved to be p<.01, showing statistically significant differences. These findings imply that there is much potentiality in the HEGC for the restoration and healing Christian Adolescents with Happiness, Depression and Anxiety.
  • 8.

    Application of Solution-Focused Therapy through Kerygmatic Language

    chang, myoungsoo | 2014, 22(2) | pp.247~274 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    People use language to make relationships and influence the lives of others. Language represents human character. It has deep relevance with the interpersonal relations and their development. Human language also has the power to stimulate conflicts and create scars. Language enables individuals and organizations to perform their roles in society. In many cases, the psychological problems of people are caused by language so that the effective use of language would have a huge influence on the health and the well-being of individuals and families alike. This purpose of this study is to contribute to the holistic growth of a client by properly leveraging language kerygmatically and relating it to solving-focused therapy. On the premise that a whole growth of the individual would be completed by not only maintaining psychological health but also a spiritual meeting with Jesus Christ, this study focuses on using the counselling kerygmatic language to solve the client’s problems. Although there are various approaches to solve problems and mature, the solving-focused therapy is a remarkable way of Christian counselling that has the potential to develop the evangelical language and also use concise language. It is the task of a counselor to develop therapeutic language, facilitating the starting point of counseling ministry. This study hopes to be that starting point, making the holistic growth of a client through the counseling approach of kerygmatic language.
  • 9.

    Alternatives to Suicide for Use in Pastoral Counseling

    Hyung Joon Jun | 2014, 22(2) | pp.275~300 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to establish alternatives to suicide for use in pastoral counseling. To that end, this study seeks to answer the following research questions. First, what kind of content on suicide does the Bible contain? Second, how has suicide been understood throughout the history of Christianity? Third, what is the pastoral theological understanding of suicide? Fourth, what is the relationship between suicide and depression? Five, what alternatives to suicide does pastoral counseling offer?First, the Bible records seven suicides, including that by Judas. Second, in the history of Christianity, suicide has been strongly rejected. Third, suicide occurs when a person loses hope for the future. Fourth, suicide occurs as a result of depression, indicating a deep relationship between the two. Finally, pastoral counseling offers the following eight suggestions for preventing suicide. 1. It is necessary to have a biblically based understanding of and preventive counseling for suicide. 2. Christian universities should strengthen practical theology and pastoral counseling education. 3. Families of those who commit suicide need pastoral care and counseling. 4. Churches should take more interest in the ministry work of recovery 5. Visits should be used as opportunities for pastoral counseling. 6. Christian belief in the afterlife should be emphasized to give hope for the future. 7. Encourage those in desperate situations try to write hopeful stories. 8. In pastoral counseling, the Bible should be used as a tool for the renewing of the mind so that people can live changed lives.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Mid-life Christian Couples Communication Styles on the Marital Conflicts - Focused on the Mediating Effects of the Ego-resilience and the Sexual Intimacy -

    Jung, Soon Rye | 2014, 22(2) | pp.301~339 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to analyze and verify the effect of mid-life Christian couples’ counter-functional communication styles on the marital conflicts, focusing on the mediating effects of the ego-resilience and the sexual intimacy. First, the research analyzes the relevance of communication’s subordinate variation factor to marital conflicts, ego-resilience, and sexual intimacy of mid-life Christian couples and its effect. Second, it analyzes if ego-resilience and sexual intimacy have mediating effects upon communication styles and marital conflicts. The subjects of this research are mid-life Christian couples. The number of data collected was 690 in total and structural equation modeling(SEM) was used to analyze the data. Test result in this research is summarized as follows. First, it was verified that direct influence of communication style, ego-resilience, and sexual intimacy on marital conflicts of mid-life Christian couples exists. Second, mediating effects of ego-resilience and sexual intimacy upon the relationship of mid-life Christian couples’ communication styles and marital conflicts are verified. But appeasement type, one of communication styles, has little influence on marital conflicts and ego-resilience. Also, appeasement type does not have meaningful influence on mediating effect. The result of this research will help solving the marital conflicts through investigating the factors which influence on mid-life Christian couples’ marital conflicts.
  • 11.

    The Role Of Suffering In Spiritual Growth From a Perspective Of John Of The Croess: Its Psychological Implications In Contemporary Context

    Inhyo Cho | 2014, 22(2) | pp.340~370 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There is no doubt that there are many kinds of sufferings which can beset us in this life. In the Medieval time, St. John experienced severe physical, mental, and spiritual suffering. His life was a dark night, but he considered it as a journey to God. He tried to live a holy life and have communion with God, and then to help others more effectively. For him, God uses trials and suffering to bring people to greater purification. Thus, the soul experiences extreme pain because of its impurity. However, he did not believe that God imposes suffering on us. Rather, God wants to stand with us to encourage and empower us in our suffering to grow and to rely on Him more. According to St. John, union with God is not something that we can achieve but something that already exists. The mystical experience, union with God, happens in a way that is hidden and beyond our conscious control. Thus, it is important how Christian sufferers understand their suffering within a theological framework and find meaning in their suffering. Even in our time, St. John's views on suffering and spirituality also can be applied to psychology, pastoral ministry, and spiritual direction. His writings have provided much insight for pastoral caregivers and counselors. St. John's transcendent experience of love and healing offers not judgment but hope in the midst of suffering and influenced the formation of his compassion and love for other Christians who suffer.
  • 12.

    Research on Spirituality, Religiosity and Mental Health of Christian Adolescent and Implications for Christian Counseling

    Choi, Soo Young | Kim, Jun | 2014, 22(2) | pp.371~409 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research examined the effect of spirituality and religiosity on general mental health of Christian adolescent. A sample of 333 junior-high and high school students of Sunday school was examined using General Health Questionnaire-12, Spiritual Well-Being Scale by Paloutzian and Ellison, and Religious Orientation Inventory by Allport and Ross. Significant difference existed among household finance groups in terms of mental distress scores, with poor household finance group more mentally distressed than affluent household finance group. Significant correlations were found between spiritual well-being and religiosity. Students with high religious well-being tend to have high intrinsic religious orientation and low extrinsic religious orientation. Significant correlations were found between spiritual well-being and mental health, and religiosity and mental health. Students with high spiritual well-being and high intrinsic religious orientation tend to have good mental health; students with high extrinsic religious orientation tend to have poor mental health. A significant causal relationship was found from spiritual well-being and religiosity to mental health. Mental health was positively affected by religious well-being and intrinsic religious orientation, whereas it was negatively affected by extrinsic religious orientation. No significant causal relationship was found from existential well-being to mental health. These results showed a mutual relationship between spiritual well-being and religiosity on mental health. This study suggested a holistic approach to mental health and provided implications for Christian counseling by means of therapeutic and preventative measures.