Korean | English

pISSN : 1739-0745

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2015, Vol.23, No.1

  • 1.

    A Review of Pastoral Counseling for Hwa-byung -Focused on Psychiatric Exploring-

    Sunghwan Kim | 2015, 23(1) | pp.11~45 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to seek some pastoral strategic healing directions for Hwa-byung, an internationally recognized term as a culture bound syndrome related to anger, by exploring its psychiatric and clinical characteristics, in a view of pastoral counseling. We can clarify the clinical identity of Hwa-byung clearer through comparison of similar psychiatric illnesses, IED(Intermittent Explosive Disorder) and PTED(Post-Traumatic Embitterment Disorder). Korean family structure, social, economic, personal and cultural factors related to the causes of Hwa-byung. Han, which is described as a unique and universal indigenous form of lamentation, is an another important cause of Hwa-byung. Han and Hwa-byung seem to be on the same extend line as the active volcano and the dormant volcano are. The psychiatric healing approaches for Christian Hwa-byung patients tend to result in a poorer clinical prognosis. The pastoral counselor should be devoted in the empathetic listening process towards Christian Hwa-byung patients' life narratives relaying on the work of Holy Spirit. The pastoral counselor should encourage them to experience God's companionate-forgiving love of the cross. Enlarging their the capacity of biblical self-love and compassionate love towards perpetrators may be adopted as healing strategies of pastoral counseling for them. The wholistic reconciliation between Christian Hwa-byung patients and God could be considered as an another core healing factor.
  • 2.

    Christian Counseling and Psychiatry: Some Suggestions for Christian Counselors on the Use of Psychiatric Medications

    Kim, Jun | 2015, 23(1) | pp.47~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Clients in counseling often consider taking psychiatric medication due to their severe conditions, and thus expect their counselors to provide some opinions regarding taking medication. This situation is not foreign to Christian counselors because Christians also experiencing suffering and pain, which likely cause them to turn to a medication option. This situation indicates that Christian counselors need to be ready to help their clients. The purpose of this study is to provide some suggestions regarding Christian counseling approach to psychiatric medication. To achieve this purpose, the article first provides a brief summary on the complexity of brain and how the psychiatric drugs work, which show the ambiguity of psychiatry in relation to its diagnosis and drug treatments. By providing some Christian positions on medication, the article tries to offer a balanced approach: accepting benefit of medication but being cautious on drug dependence. Following this approach, the article provides four suggestions: understanding strength of counseling, timely referral to a psychiatrist after initial meeting or before ending counseling, and Christian message on suffering. The article concludes by providing some practical suggestions for Christian counselors; they need to attend educational seminars on medication and supervision meetings directed by a psychiatrist or an expert.
  • 3.

    Possibility of Psychological Bible Interpretation for Healing Sermon for by Church Community and Its Prospects: Focusing on Object Relations Theory

    Kim Mi Kyung | 2015, 23(1) | pp.75~101 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In the meantime, Korean churches have grown and developed but are facing multifaceted and fierce criticism outside the churches about Christianity maximized in recent years. Thus, churches are requested to recover the church’s original identity laid aside as a secondary issue by Developmentism until now from inside and outside. Therefore, as part to recover the true nature of churches, pastoral care should be given through healing sermon. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the directions and possibility of healing sermons in several ways in the context of the object relations theory. The object relations theory, a way of modern psychoanalysis, is capable of shedding a light on a relation between humans and the God, and furthermore shares the perspectives and contexts with the Christianity regarding the human pathology. It is necessary that churches provide consolation, encouragement and an opportunity to refuel life to the congregation and heal selves through a sermon as a transitional object. Sermons, based upon the Bible, need to deal with more realistic problems that can gain the sympathy from the congregation living hard lives in the modern times. In other words, an understanding of their lives and psychological status is required for the healing through sermons. This study proposed the important theological possibility that can bring therapeutic effects around the elements that can reflectively accept in psychological insight of Kohut’s self psychology and various object relations theories.
  • 4.

    A Study on Healing of Adult-child Parent for Parental Role-fulfillment

    Kim Young-Hee Shim | 2015, 23(1) | pp.103~135 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Korea has been getting through drastic social change and value system change, as she accomplished industrialization during a very short time span. Now, Korea is suffering from the minimalized function and role of family as side effects of quick industrial development and economic wealth achieved. An "adult-child" parent who grew up from a dysfunctional family, is not ready and hard to accept her/his role as a parent, because of unsolved problems and unidentified emotions from the dysfunction of the family of origin. As a result, first of all, an adult-child parent needs to get some understanding, insights, and healing on her/his life problems as she/he looks over the past pain stricken life. Then, she/he is required to establish a proper identity of parent. For this, the meaning and dynamics of dysfunctional family and adult-child were examined. Inefficient parenting styles of adult-child parent as hindering ways of establishing their children's self-identity were depicted. Adult-child parent is needed voluntary self-motivation to exert their creativity to accomplish their parental role-fulfillment. Therefore, practical methods of healing of adult-child, such as art, game, psychodrama, bibliotherapy, and storytelling were suggested. And the ideals of family and parent were presented. The establishment of social networks of parent education and counseling system was suggested for the synergy effect of social care systems for the adult-child parent from dysfunctional family.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of NVC(Nonviolent Communication) and Christian Counseling Application

    Kim, Jun Soo | 2015, 23(1) | pp.137~163 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article focuses on understanding Nonviolent Communication and evaluating it from the Christian perspective. NVC, invented by Dr. Rosenberg, emphasizes communicating based on what is being observed, felt, needed, and wanted, rather than on diagnosing and judging and discovering the depth of our own compassion. NVC’s philosophy is based on Carl Roger’s person-centered therapy and fully manifests the humanistic spirit. The core assertion of Rogers is that there is but one motivation for all humanity : the tendency toward self-actualization. However, there are many inadequacies in person-centered therapy for it ever to serve as the foundation for a throughly Christian approach to personal healing. The self assumes a position of supreme importance in person-centered therapy. It can lead to inflated notion of self and eventually to worship one’s self. The NVC’s emphasize of peace making ministry and communicate with others with compassion can contribute to the Christian counseling ministry. Jesus Christ called us to be a peacemaker and he, himself, has lived the life of peacemaking ministry. And the Scripture said that Jesus was full of compassion and served his people out of compassion. As a Christian counselor, we have the ministry of peacemaking and serve others with compassion understanding deeper desires of the heart.
  • 6.

    Effects of Christian & Non-Christian and Life Attitudes of Military Soldier on Adjustments to Military Service

    ki young Park | 2015, 23(1) | pp.165~189 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study lies not only in analyzing how Christian & Non-Christian and life attitudes of military soldier would influence the soldier’s adjustments to their military service but also in presenting how to give the soldier Christian consultations depending on effects of the two variables. Findings of the analyses are summarized as follows. First, Christian military soldier and non-christian soldier come up with significant differences in I am not okay life attitudes and You are okay life attitudes respectively. Second, the study did not notice that the Christian & non-Christian has a significant effect on the adjustments to military service. Third, of these Christian religious activity-related variables, the more confident the Christian military soldier feel about doctrines and the greater their subjective Christian devotion is, the more easily the military soldier adapt themselves to military service. Fourth, the study confirmed that the Christian military soldier with higher levels of You are okay and I am okay life attitudes succeed more easily in their adjustments to military service. In conclusion, In order to support Christian military soldier in having positive attitudes towards their lives, Christian counselors should work not only on a religious approach to invite the soldier to positive strokes but also on this other approach to help the soldier have positive life attitudes.
  • 7.

    Christian Counseling approach to Loneliness of MMORPG Addicts

    shim jung yeon | 2015, 23(1) | pp.191~232 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to research loneliness of MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game)addicts and suggest applications to Christian counseling. In order to achieve this research goal, there are three approaches to use. First, this study seeks various motivations and psychological elements of MMORPG addicts to join and be addicted to the game. Second, loneliness found as a core element is researched according to general and Christian approaches. Third, Christian counseling was considered based on the previous understandings of loneliness. The results of this study were as follows: According to the general approach, loneliness is complex emotion caused by social and psychological elements and reflective solitude has been used as a useful coping strategy. In the Christian approach, loneliness is caused by separation with God, other people, self and idolatry. Loneliness of various biblical writers was transformed to solitude with an encounter with God. Based on these understanding, three application were found. First, existential loneliness of MMORPG addicts could be recovered by an encounter with God. Second, interpersonal cognitive distortions of addicts inducing loneliness should be changed. Third, the process of reflective solitude is needed in order to accept loneliness and transform from loneliness to solitude. According to this applications, Christian cognitive therapy with reflective journaling is suggested for MMORPG addicts' recovery of loneliness.
  • 8.

    Puritan Resources for Biblical Pastoral Care

    Ahn, Kyung Seung | 2015, 23(1) | pp.233~258 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Pastoral care has the old and rich historical resources. Although there are some societal and cultural differences, it will be useful research work for today to search for the content and tools of pastoral care until now in the Christian history. The resolution reached in the study will be the necessary resources for the pastoral care and counseling of our time. To find the historical resources, first, this paper focuses on the pastoral care in Puritan times after summing up the precedent study on Christian care in history. Its work mainly chronicles the historical shift in pastoral care from a focus on Christian approaches to a focus on psychological approaches. And we find the fact that biblical counseling has passed on traditional pastoral care and some Christian counseling has looked for Christian care resources from the history. The Puritans’ care has a unique feature that help people with concrete ways of applying the word of God emphasizing on Christian care resources. Second, this paper gives a general overview of the Puritans’ theological position and the critical issues in pastoral care. The public application of the Bible was accomplished through preaching and its private application was done through counseling. They also had interests in various field for spiritual and mental healing such as sin, repent, hope, imagination and meditation.
  • 9.

    Mediating Effect of Positive Illusions in the Relation between Intrinsic Religious Orientation and Career Preparation Behavior

    Jung Min Sun | bakmiha | 2015, 23(1) | pp.259~286 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to verify the mediating effect of positive illusions in the relationship between Christian university students' intrinsic religious orientation and their career preparation behavior. 172 Christian university students were sampled, and their intrinsic religious orientation, their positive illusion, and their career preparation behavior were measured. Use SPSS WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. As a result, Christian university students' intrinsic religious orientation and their positive illusions, and their positive illusions and their career preparation behavior had a positive correlation, but their intrinsic religious orientation and their career preparation behavior had no correlation. Second, the positive illusion mediating structural model in the relationship between Christian university students' intrinsic religious orientation and their career preparation behavior was fit for the data, and all paths except the path from their intrinsic religious orientation to their career preparation behavior were statistically significant. Third, the positive illusion's mediating effect in the relationship between the intrinsic religious orientation and the career preparation behavior was found to be a complete mediator. This suggests that Christian university students' career behavior promoted their career preparation behavior through their positive illusions rather than directly influenced their intrinsic religious orientation; thus, the role that Christian university students' positive illusions played in promoting their career preparation behavior, and its implications in counseling were discussed. Lastly, this research's significance and limitations, and follow-up research direction were discussed.
  • 10.

    Association between Young Adult Christians’ Religiosity and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Min Young Choi | Kyung-Wha Hong | 2015, 23(1) | pp.287~314 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research has its goal on finding out the relationship between young adult christians' religiosity and their obsessive-compulsive symptoms by comparing the average differences of obsessive beliefs, OCD symptoms, and their scrupulosity. A total of 282 young adults participated in the study. The 282 participants were devided into non-Christians and Christians. We further divided the Christians into 3 subgroups according to their self-reported levels of religious faith and activities. ANOVA was used to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the 4 groups in their obsessive beliefs, OCD symptoms, and scrupulosity. The result revealed the following: Compared to other groups, the ‘low religious’ group showed meaningful differences in ‘importance of thinking’ with the low religious group exhibiting higher average scores. With regards to OCD symptoms, 'highly religious’ group showed meaningful differences in ‘obsessing’ compared to other groups, with highly religious groups exhibiting higher average scores. Third, there were meaningful differences between the Christians and non-Christians in their averages of scrupulosity: specifically in 'fear of sin,' 'fear of God,' and the total score of PIOS . The results of this study show that young adult Christians did not differ from non-Christians except in 'importance of thinking’, 'obsessing' and 'scrupulosity.' Based on these results, it can be inferred that religion is not directly related obsessive beliefs or OCD symptoms even when these symptoms are related to religious content.
  • 11.

    Pastor’s Depression and Burnout: Efficiency from a ‘Holy’ Self-Exploitation

    Ha, Jae Sung | 2015, 23(1) | pp.315~341 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article lies both in a critical observation of pastors’ burnout and depression and in the presentation of pastoral theological prescription. Dr. Han Byung-Chul, Korean author and cultural theorist in Germany, depicts burnout, depression, and ADHD as representative symptoms of today’s society in his sensational book, Fatigue Society (Die Müdigkeitsgesellschaft in German). According to him, different from the previous modern era, those symptoms do not come out of negativity of immunology but out of an excess of positivity, which brings about volunatry self-exploitation. People exploit themselves by using voluntary energy with an ambition of efficiency in this postmodern times. This fits the experience of Korean pastors who carry overburdens for church growth; burnout, depression, and even demarcation are the results of the self-exploitation. Han’s fluent philosophical schema appropriately explain their symptoms in this perspective. It is hard for most pastors to say no to their parishioners, let alone finding a break from their ministry. The overuse of their persona, a theatrical self, needs a time-out. Han’s analysis, on the other hand, misses a significant clinical aspect; oppression still lives in personal and social relationships, and contributes to severe depression. That is why they need a sabbatical for recovery from the violence of both self-exploitation inside and oppression outside.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Mediating Effects of Social Support and Ego-Resilience in the Relations between Spiritual Maturity and Career Future - Focusing on Christian University Students -

    In-Sook Hwang | Oh, Yoon Sun | 2015, 23(1) | pp.343~372 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyze and verify the effects of christian university students’ spiritual maturity on career future for the purpose of investigating the career development process of christian university students, focusing on the serial multiple mediating effects of social support and ego-resilience. In order achieve this purpose, the data were collected through a questionnaire survey and the subjects of this research are 526 christian university students. Collected data verified a hypothesis through normality test, frequency analysis, correlation analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structure equation. The results of the study were as follows. First, it is found that spiritual maturity had direct positive effects on social support. ego-resilience, and career future. Second, it is revealed that spiritual maturity had influence on career future, which was partially mediated by social support. Third, it is found that spiritual maturity exercised influence on career future, which was partially mediated by ego-resilience. Lastly, spiritual maturity wielded influence on career future, which was sequentially mediated by social support and ego-resilience. Based on the finding of the study, it suggests that integrated career guidance for the promotion of social support and ego-resilience should be conducted in order to improve career future levels of christian university students.