The Scandinavian Society of Korea was established in 1999 with the aim of stimulating research on Scandinavian studies, sharing research results and facilitating social interactions and cooperation among researchers in Scandinavian studies. The Scandinavian Society of Korea also publishes the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal (Journal of the Scandinavian Society of Korea, JSSK) twice a year (June and December).
The Swedish elderly care services have been marketized since 1990s, and the marketization has been facilitated by the decentralization of welfare administration. The Marketization of elderly care services has been pursued, based on broad consensus among main political parties and interest groups, without severe political conflicts. The representative theories explaining the market-oriented reforms of the welfare state in advanced capitalist economies are based on the premise that market-oriented reforms would cause severe political confrontations. So they are inadequate for explaining the reform processes of the Swedish elderly care services. This paper suggests the elements to be included in the analytical framework which can explain the market-oriented reforms based on consensus. Based on the framework, this paper points out the main factors which made possible the market-oriented reforms based on consensus: the long time horizon of the Swedish Social Democratic Party with very long period of reign, which made it possible to pursue reform policies which may cause political cost in the short run; that the government investigation committees as policy discussion platform functioned as institution facilitating consensus building among main political actors; that the Swedish Social Democratic Party was pressed hard to seek new policy alternatives by the depression in 1970s and high inflation in late 1980s; that strong welfare pluralism coalition was built in early 1990s as the political forces opposing the marketization of elderly care disappeared; that the municipalities providing elderly care services had to pursue reforms for cost saving, faced with very bad financial conditions.
This study explores a learnfare mechanism to link practical education to labor market in Denmark, focusing on transformation of the Flexicurity Model with three components of flexible labor market, social security and Active Labor Market Policy (ALMP). Since 1990s, the basic axis of ‘the golden triangle’ has shifted from connecting social security and the labor market to linking ALMP and the labor market, a new critical factor being practical education. This manuscript attempts to examine the nature and the process of the ALMP and the educational systems to strengthen it.
In Danish vocational education and training system (VET), one can witness remarkable, workable cooperation between labor market and educational system, with its programs pragmatically responding to local demand of innovation and development. Key components of the VET can be hands-on training with local flavor and active participation of stakeholders. The VET’s work-based education such as internship or on-the-job training amounts up to 50∼75% of the entire programs. Social partners in the programs, including trade unions, employers, and local authorities, have officially and/or informally been engaged in planning, implementing and auditing the training programs. Notably, the approach in general education emphasizing entrepreneurship for primary and secondary schoolers inspires their potential for future jobs.
Additionally, the paradigm of ‘Responsible University’ contributes to innovation and development of regional labor market.
The Danish experiences can provide lessons to Korea, which despite a high level of education struggles to vitalize labor market in sustainable terms. Long overdue, a methodical design for practice-oriented education system merits consideration in order to embrace real world demand from both market and localities.
This study explores the human rights system of women film workers in Sweden. Since the Metoo movement in 2017, it has had a huge impact on Sweden and Korea. However, while Sweden has led to institutionalization based on laws and policy related to women’s rights, Korea has not. So, the Swedish case needs to be analyzed. For the framework of research, the theoretical background was power resource theory and gender mainstreaming.
Power resources theory can explain the inequal relationship between woman and man. The gender mainstreaming is a strategy and key paradigm affecting the women’s human rights system. Since 2014 the world’s first feminist government has established in Sweden, as gender mainstreaming strategy be carried out in all levels in all areas more actively. It also provided an opportunity for Metoo to bring the Swedish women’s organization back together and become a force. Especially in the film industry, actresses played a leading role in the Swedish women’s political empowerment. Sweden’s film industry produces films with women’s perspectives through the Bechdel Test, Gender disaggregated statistic and gender responsible budget with the power of gender mainstreaming, and many women are leading the film industry. However, despite the gender mainstreaming strategy in Korea, it has yet not to be applied in the film industry. Therefore, Korea needs to strengthen women’s human rights learning from Swedish Case.