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2019, Vol., No.24

  • 1.

    Research Trend of Swedishness: A Literature Review

    Lee, Sung-Jun | 2019, (24) | pp.1~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to collect and analyze the previous literature of ‘Swedishness’ or ‘Swedish national character’ published by Swedish intellectuals and academics during the early 1800s to the present to eventually suggest some interesting future research directions. Reviewing the literature, the following three groups of literature emerged, namely the literature based on 1) nationalism, 2) social science and 3) critical science. The literature from the nationalistic perspective as well as from the social science often cited 1) radical individualism, 2) the love of nature and 3) practicality, objectivity and rationality as the national traits or characteristics of Swedes. On the other hand, the literature from the critical science perspective put a greater emphasis on revealing the hidden ideologies or agenda behind “Swedishness” discourses. Based on the discussions, this study suggests four different future research directions.
  • 2.

    Analysis on the Rise of the Sweden Democrats In Respect of Immigration and Integration in Sweden

    Ha Soojeong | 2019, (24) | pp.37~66 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study covers the relation between the rise of the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD), a nationalist conservative populist party, and the country's population change. Sweden had an economic boom after World War II and the government had an active immigration policy to meet the demand of labour market and population decline ever since. After the 70s, there was a transition from labour immigration to more of an immigration based on refugee. Though most right-wing populist parties in Europe adopting anti-immigration policy gained popularity, Sweden Democrats remained on the fringe of the Swedish politics despite the county's long history of immigration. The Sweden Democrats crossed the 4% threshold necessary for parliamentary representation for the first time in 2010 and became the third-largest party in 2018 after two decades since its foundation in 1988 changing Swedish political landscape. The study scrutinizes the drive behind the rise of the Sweden Democrats by referencing the immigration and integration policies over time in addition to the party's reframing strategy as an "only opposition party" in Sweden.
  • 3.

    Swedish Word Order from a Syntactic Perspective

    Park, Hyeon-Sook | 2019, (24) | pp.67~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main function of the Swedish word order is to mark syntactic relations, e.g. sentence elements and sentence types. Variations in word order are therefore limited and relatively fixed compared to other languages. The main purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish word order which is often found to be one of the most difficulties among Swedish learners and the focus of the paper is the syntactic function of the word order. Swedish basic word order is the subject(S)-verb(V)-object(O) and the order is used to distinguish sentence elements, particularly subjects and objects. The word order is also used to distinguish sentence types. In yes/no questions and commands, the verb comes first in the sentence, whereas in statements and Wh-questions, the verb comes second in the sentence. Swedish word order also plays an important role in distinguishing between main clauses and subordinate clauses. When a sentence starts with a sentence element other than the subject, the main clause becomes an inverted sentence in the order of ‘the verb(V)-the subject(S)’, but the subordinate clause always takes the form in the normal order of the subject(S)-verb(V). Besides, sentence adverbials are placed after verbs in main clauses, but before verbs in subordinate clauses. Swedish word order is closely related to the so-called place-holder (or subject-verb) constraint which means that all clauses must contain a subject and a verb. In Swedish, it is not possible to leave out the subject and the verb because they are used to distinguish sentence elements and sentence types.
  • 4.

    Comparative Study of Two Film Adaptations of Män som hatar kvinnor, a Swedish Novel

    Hong, Jai-Ung | 2019, (24) | pp.93~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Millennium series written by Stieg Larsson have become one of the world’s best selling detective series. Unfortunately, the writer died abruptly in the middle of writing the whole series which were planned to be 10 stories leaving the series incomplete. With the high popularity of the stories, Män som hatar kvinnor, the first book was adapted to ba Swedish movie by Niels Arden Oplev in 2009. Two years after, in 2011 David Andrew Leo Fincher, an US film director made the same novel into a film. In 2012, these two film were accidentally screened in Korea with only tow weeks of time gap, giving the Korean audience an opportunity to enjoy the two different adaptations from the same book and to experience interesting comparisons of characteristics and expressions. The two films produced in Sweden and in the US respectively are different in many perspectives, including production size, gender description, visual contents, cultural depiction and so on. In this study, differences in the two adaptations of Män som hatar kvinnor, were explored by looking into decisive leads in the crime novels. An comparative analysis with the view of Semiotics was also explored on the raping scene, which plays the crucial motive through out the whole series.
  • 5.

    A Case Study on the Homeless Homelessness of Finland

    Lim, Jeonggi | 2019, (24) | pp.127~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study looked at the homeless system in Finland. Finland's homeless support system is based on the Housing First model. The model is to provide housing to homeless people first, and then provide health and psychology social services based on community needs. The Finnish government began active intervention in the late 1980s, recognizing that the increase in homelessness in Finnish society since the 1970s and its cause was a housing problem. The Finnish government chose a residential priority model after the 1990s with the aim of eradicating homeless people for more than 30 years, and began to provide homeless people with independent housing space in cooperation with local governments and civic groups. Now, the number of homeless people in Finland has dropped considerably. The following are some implications of Finland's homeless support system for Korea. While Korea's welfare support system for homeless people is oriented toward the Finnish ideology and principle of priority in housing, we believe that in reality more support policies are needed for existing services. This research could now be the starting point for theoretical discussions on the Korean homeless model by introducing an advanced model of Finland's residential priority for Korea's homeless support system, which seeks to start social discussions and take on a new form of delivery system.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Changes of Swedish Nuclear Power Policy: Application of Advocacy Coalition Framework

    Shin, Dong-Myeon | 2019, (24) | pp.159~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    From the mid-1970s to the present, Swedish nuclear power policy has changed through the interaction between nuclear power support coalition(NSC) and nuclear power opposition coalition(NOC). Since the phase-out of nuclear power was decided through a referendum in 1980, nuclear power policy has been triggered by a change of governing coalition, public opinion on nuclear power plants, and the international convention on climate change under the condition that electricity mix and power industry structure serve as long-term opportunity structure. The power mix, where nuclear power accounts for a relatively high share of power generation (34% in 2015) and the largest shareholder of the state-owned power company (Vattenfall AB), is a long-term opportunity structure that makes it difficult to phase out nuclear power plants. However, the biggest influence on Sweden’s nuclear power policy changes is political party politics and coalition shifts. In Swedish politics, where the formation of coalition governments became more common due to proportional representation, the Conservative coalition government has formed the NSC and promoted the controlled replacement of nuclear power plants by replacing the old reactor with a new one. On the other hand, the Red Green coalition government, led by the Social Democratic Party, has formed the NOC to promote the phase-out of nuclear power. Changes in public opinion related to nuclear power have affected the nuclear policy of political parties participating in the NSC and NOC. In addition, although the International Convention on climate change is consistent with the NOC, in terms of reducing fossil fuels and expanding renewable energy in power generation, it has also acted as an opportunity to reinforce the NSC. This is because the NSC does not oppose the expansion of renewable energy and argues that nuclear power is an economic way to reduce fossil fuel use and mitigate climate change. More than 40 years after the decision to phase out the nuclear plant, Sweden continues to produce nuclear power by allowing the replacement of reactors instead of permanently shutting down nuclear power plants after their end of service life. In order to solve the trilemma - power supply stability, sustainability, competitiveness - faced in the energy conversion process to reduce the use of fossil fuels, the government should consider the current state of power mix and plan the power mix from a technical and practical point of view, and strive to increase social acceptability.
  • 7.

    A Comparative Study on Multicultural Policies in Sweden and China

    Lee, Hye-Young | 2019, (24) | pp.197~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare Sweden with China in Multicultural policies. While China and Sweden have different political and social systems, multicultural nature is similar. The both of them have Integration. So My resarch quesiton is what do Swedish and Chinese integration policies have in common?. In conclusion, employment policy and bilingual Education System were the main factors in the integration policy. Supporting minority and their family member to the Mother tongue and immigrant language, it is possible to keep their cultural identity and help their child build with positive identities. Employment is Lour right. It encourages immigrants or Minority to actively participate in mainstream society. Therefore, the implications are as follows. In Korea, the nature of immigrant policy is assimilation so immigrant has many restrictions on actively participating in Korean society while keep their own culture. Mother tongue is important to communicate with their family and keep positive self-concept. In Korea, immigrant especially children who can`t not speak mother tongue, have experienced a serious language problem and some of them lost communication their mother. So it impact on family relationship negatively. In Korea, Immigrant employment policy is not protected their labour right.
  • 8.

    A Study on Archetype in Hedda Gabler by Henrik Johan Ibsen

    Song, Sunho | 2019, (24) | pp.235~266 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the trait of character appearing in Hedda Gabler(1890) by Henrik Johan Ibsen. Since its release, the controversy over the main character Hedda has been in constant dispute. Various discussions have been taking place in that regard, which disproves the fact that Hedda's character in the play is so multi-character. In order to identify the character of Hedda, this paper applied the concepts of ‘persona’, ‘anima’ and ‘shadow’ as suggested by Carl Gustav Jung in the Archetype theory. This analysis is a discussion based on the fact that Ibsen’s autobiographical experience and psychology were projected in various ways, especially in his later works. As is well known, Rosmer and Solness, the characters of the play that were released before and after Hedda Gabler, are close to Ibsen's own self-portrait. On the premise of this, the main body of this paper revealed how Ibsen molded his ‘persona’, ‘anima’ and ‘shadow’ into the character of Hedda. As a result, it was concluded that Hedda's multiple personalities were expressed as duplicate images of these three Archetypes present inside Ibsen. The results of this study are suggestive in that they open up the possibility of interpreting Ibsen's plays. In other words, in the relationship between Ibsen, who pursued self-purification through his plays, which projected himself, we can find something similar to the universal function of mythology.
  • 9.

    Sweden’s ECEC Staff Policy and Status

    YouMe Han | Kong, Byung Ho | 2019, (24) | pp.267~294 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to introduce the types and roles of ECEC staff members and the pre-service and in-service training in Sweden. Interviews with the officials of Ministry of Education, the National Agency of Education, and the local government, the directors, preschool teachers, and assistant teachers of ECEC, and the professors were conducted in addition to the literature analysis. The main findings of the study are as follows. First, the Swedish ECEC institution worked in a democratic way (eg, a work team) while each of its principals, preschool teachers, assistant teachers and substitute teachers had their own roles. Second, the pre-serviec training program changed dramatically from the integrated teacher training in 2001 to the specialized preschool teacher degree program. Third, ECEC staff are provided with a variety of professional and career development opportunities. This study can contribute to the improvement of ECEC quality by providing implications for the integration of kindergarten teachers and childcare teachers, which is considered the biggest challenge of integration of education and care in early childhood in Korea.